Turnover and Excretion of Streptococcal Surface Components

  • Gerald D. Shockman
  • Robert Kessler
  • James B. Corentt
  • Myron Mychajlonka
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 107)


The dynamic nature of bacterial cell surface components is a major factor in their relationship to the immune system. The processes of bacterial growth and division require expansion of cell surface area while maintaining the protective properties of the wall in order to contain internal osmotic pressures of as much as 20 atmospheres (1). Furthermore, the bacterial wall must protect its protoplast from adverse, or at least non-supportive, conditions that bacterial cells may meet in the intermittently changing environments in vivo in which they can survive, and sometimes grow. Obviously, these physiological parameters vary with bacterial species and probably contribute to the type of microbial flora found in the various ecological niches of the body, including the oral cavity. In addition, the ability of streptococci to continue to synthesize and excrete biologically active substances when they are exposed to environments that do not support balanced growth has implications particularly relevant to the “feast or famine” type of environment present in the oral cavity. Currently, little information is available on the kinds and amounts of extracellular products produced in vivo. Although conditions found in vivo cannot be exactly duplicated, the effects of some of the potentially important variables on surface components and extracellular products can be individually studied in the test tube.


Minimal Inhibitory Concentration Surface Component Lipoteichoic Acid Adjuvant Activity Muramyl Dipeptide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Higgins, M. L. and Shockman, G. D., CRC Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 1: 29, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Knox, K. W. and Wicken, A. J., Bacteriol. Revs. 37: 215, 1973.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wicken, A. J. and Knox, K. W., Science 187: 1161, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wicken, A.J. and Knox, K. W., in Microbiology-1977 (Edited by Schlessinger, D.), p. 360, Am. Soc. Microbiol. Washington, D.C., 1977.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ghuysen, J.-M., in Cell Surface Reviews, (Edited by Poste, G. and Nicholson, G. L.) Vol. 4, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krause, R. M., Z. Immun. Forsch. 149: 136, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Galanos, C., Z. Immun. Forsch. 149: 214, 1975.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adam, A., Devys, M., Souvannavong, V., Lefrancier, P., Choay, J. and Lederer, E., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 72: 339, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krause, R. M. and McCarty, M., J. Exp. Med. 115: 49, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Munoz, E., Ghuysen, J.-M. and Heymann, H., Biochemistry 6: 3659, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wittner, M. K. and Hayashi, J. A., J. Bacteriol. 89: 398, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shockman, G. D., Kolb, J. J. and Toennies, G., J. Biol. Chem. 230: 961, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rosan, B., Infect. Immun. 13: 1144, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bleiweis, A. S., Taylor, M. C., Deepak, J., Brown, T. A. and Wetherell, J. R., Jr., J. Dent. Res. 55:A103, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Iacono, V. J., Taubman, M. A., Smith, D. J., Garant, P. R. and Pollock, J. J., in Immunological Aspects of Dental Caries (Edited by Bowen, W. H., Genco, R. J. and O’Brien, T. C.), p. 75, Information Retrieval, Inc. Washington, D.C.., 1976.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Straus, D. C., Mattingly, S. J. and Milligan, T. W., Infect. Immun. 17: 148, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Markham, J. L., Knox, K. W., Wicken, A. J. and Hewtt, M. J., Infect. Immun. 12: 378, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Joseph, R. and Shockman, G. D., Infect. Immun. 12: 333, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kessler, R. and Shockman, G. D., Abstr. Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol., p. 211, 1977.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Daneo-Moore, L. and Shockman, G. D., in Cell Surface Reviews (Edited by Poste, G. and Nicholson, G. L.), Vol. 4, p. 597, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boothby, D., Daneo-Moore, L., Higgins, M. L., Coyette, J. and Shockman, G. D., J. Biol. Chem. 248: 2161, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mychajlonka, M. and Shockman, G. D., Abstr. Ann. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol., p. 137, 1976.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mattingly, S. J., Daneo-Moore, L. and Shockman, G. D., Infect. Immun. 16: 967, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tomasz, A., Albino, A., Zanati, E., Nature 227: 138, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pollock, J. J., Iacono, V. J., Bicker, H. G., MacKay, B. J., Katona, L. I., Taichman, L. B. and Thomas, E., in Microbial Aspects of Dental Caries (Edited by Stiles, H. M., Loesche, W. J. and O’Brien, T. C.), p. 325, Information Retrieval, Inc. Washington, D.C., 1976.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shockman, G. D., Thompson, J. S. and Conover, M. J., in Microbial Protoplasts, Spherophasts and L-Forms (Edited by Guze, L. B.), p. 248, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland, 1968.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cleveland, R. F., Holtje, J.-V., Wicken, A. J., Tomasz, A., Daneo-Moore, L. and Shockman, G. D., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 67: 1128, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cleveland, R. F., Wicken, A. J., Daneo-Moore, L. and Shockman, G. D., J. Bacteriol. 126: 192, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cleveland, R. F., Daneo-Moore, L., Wicken, A. J. and Shockman, G. D., J. Bacteriol. 127: 1582, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Owen, P., Kessler, R. E., Nachbar, M. S. and Oppenheim, J., Analyt. Biochem. 80: 446, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald D. Shockman
    • 1
  • Robert Kessler
    • 1
  • James B. Corentt
    • 1
  • Myron Mychajlonka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyTemple University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations