Glossary of Abbreviations and Definitions of Nutritional Terms

  • Mendel Friedman
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 105)


Publications in food science, and animal and human nutrition use many abbreviations and technical terms that are sometimes not defined. This compilation, which emphasizes protein nutriture, is intended to explain all that may be used in this book and in published papers that I have read. The glossary of nutritional terms is an expanded and revised version of earlier lists by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 1963), Kofranyi (1972), and Friedman (1975), so I hope it may be more widely useful. References to the definitions are given as available, although these do not necessarily show their origin. A few botanical identifications are offered for various food plants that may be unfamiliar to some readers. Corrections and suggestions are invited.


Essential Amino Acid Protein Quality Protein Efficiency Ratio Urinary Nitrogen Lysinuric Protein Intolerance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albanese, A.A. (1959). Protein and amino acid requirements of children. In “Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition”, A.A. Albanese, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 419–470.Google Scholar
  2. Allison, J.B. (1955). Biological evaluation of proteins. Physiol. Rev., 35, 664–700.Google Scholar
  3. Allison, M. and Borzucki, R. (1978). Cellulase methods for the efficient digestion of grasses and brassicas. J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 29, 293–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almquist, H.J., Stokstad, E.L.R. and Halbrook, E.R. (1935). Supplementary values of animal protein concentrates in chick rations. J. Nutr. 10, 193–211.Google Scholar
  5. Anderfelt, L. (1962). Nutrition researdi and food production. In “Mild–Moderate Forms of Protein–Calorie Malnutrition”, G. Blix, Ed., Bastad, Sweden, pp. 9–31.Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong, D.G. and Annison, E.F. (1973). Amino acid requirements and amino acid supply in sheep. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 32, 107–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnould, R. (1971). La supplementation des proteins par des acides amines. Communication du Centre de Recherches Zootechniques de l’Universite de Louvain, nr. 14, Lovenjoel, Belgique, pp. 1–43.Google Scholar
  8. Arroyave, G. (1962). Biochemical signs of mild–moderate forms of protein–calorie malnutrition. In “Mild–Moderate Forms of Protein–Calorie Malnutrition”, G. Blix, Ed., Bastad, Sweden, pp. 32–46.Google Scholar
  9. Arroyave, G. (1975). Amino acid requirements and age. In “Protein–Calorie Malnutrition”, R.E. Olson, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  10. Ashley, D.V.M. and Anderson, G.H. (1975a). Food intake regulation in the weanling rat: effects of the most limiting essential amino acid of gluten, casein, and zein on the self–selection of protein and energy. J. Nutr., 105, 1405–1411.Google Scholar
  11. Ashley, D.V.M. and Anderson, G.H. (1975b). Correlation between the plasma tryptophan to neutral amino acid ratio and protein intake in self–selecting weanling rat. J. Nutr., 105, 1412–1421.Google Scholar
  12. Asplund, J.M. (1975). The determination and significance of biological values of proteins for ruminants. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 1, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 37–49.Google Scholar
  13. Aycock, J.E. and Kirksey (1976). Influence of different levels of dietary pyridoxine on certain parameters of developing and mature brains in rats. J. Nutr., 106, 680–688 (1976).Google Scholar
  14. Barry, T.N. (1976). Evaluation of formaldehyde—treated lucerne hay for protecting protein from ruminal degradation, and for increasing nitrogen retention, wool growth, live–weight gain and voluntary intake when fed to young sheep. J. Agric. Sci., Camb., 86, 379–392.Google Scholar
  15. Beaton, G. H. (1975). Protein: energy ratios—guidelines in the assessment of protein nutritional quality. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds:”, Part 2, Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 619–634.Google Scholar
  16. Beisel, W.R. (1977). Resume of the discussion concerning the nutritional consequences of infection. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30, 1294–1300.Google Scholar
  17. Benevenga, N.J. and Cieslak, D.G. (1978). Some thoughts on amino acid supplementation of proteins in relation to improvement of protein nutriture. This volume.Google Scholar
  18. Bender, A.E. and Doell, B.H. (1957). Biological evaluation of proteins: a new aspect. Brit. J. Nutr., 11, 140–148.Google Scholar
  19. Bergen, W.G. (1978). Postruminal digestion and absorption of nitrogenous components. Fed. Proc., 37, 1223–1227.Google Scholar
  20. Bergman, E.N. and Heitmann, R.N. (1978). Metabolism of amino acids by the gut, liver, kidneys, and peripheral tissues. Fed. Proc., 37, 1228–1232.Google Scholar
  21. Bhatia, C.R. and Rabson, R. (1976). Bioenergetic considerations in cereal breeding for protein improvement. Science, 194, 1418–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bickoff, E.M., Booth, A.N., DeFremery, D., Edwards, R.H., Knuckles, B.E., Miller, R.E., Saunders, R.M. and Kohler; G.O. (1975). Nutritional evaluation of alfalfa leaf protein concentrate. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 2, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 319–340.Google Scholar
  23. Bistrian, B.R., Winterer, J., Blackburn, G.L. and Scrimshaw, N.S. (1977). Failure of yellow fever immunization to produce a catabolic response in individuals fully adapted to a protein—sparing modified fast. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 30, 1518–1522.Google Scholar
  24. Bock, H.D. (1975). Zur Proteinqualitatsbeurteilung von Nahrungsund Futtermittlen. Die Nahrung, 19, 875–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bodwell, C.E. (1975). Biochemical parameters as indices of protein nutritional value. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds” Part 1, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 261–310.Google Scholar
  26. Bodwell, C.E. (1977). Application of animal data to human protein nutrition: a review. Cereal Chem., 54, 958–983.Google Scholar
  27. Bressani, R., Elias, L.G. and Gomez Brenes, R.A.G. (1972). Improvement of protein quality by amino acid and protein supplementation. In “Protein and Amino Acid Functions”, E.A. Bigwood, Ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford, England, pp. 475–540.Google Scholar
  28. Britton, R. (1978). Removal of the growth inhibotor(s) from acid and pressure hydrolyzed sawdust. J. Ate. Fd. Chem., 26, 761–763.Google Scholar
  29. Broderick, G.A. (1978). In vitro procedures for estimating rates of ruminal degradation and proportions of proteins escaping the rumen undegraded. J. Nutr., 108, 181–190.Google Scholar
  30. Brunckhorst, K., Lein, K.A. and Schon, W.J. (1974). Determination of lysine content and selection of the Character of Hiproly after back–crosses in barley. I. Testing and development of methods of analysis. Z. Pflanzenzuchtung 73, 269–283 (German).Google Scholar
  31. Buamah, T.F. and Singsen, E.P. (1975). Studies on the protein efficiency ratio method for the evaluation of poultry feed supplements. Modifications associated with choice of dietary protein level assay. J. Nutri., 105, 688–700.Google Scholar
  32. Calloway, D.H. (1975). Nitrogen balance of men with marginal intakes of protein and energy. J. Nutri., 105, 914–923.Google Scholar
  33. Campbell, J.A. and Chapman, D.G. (1959). Evaluation of protein in foods–criteria for describing protein value. J. Canad, Diet. Ass., 21, 51–60.Google Scholar
  34. Campbell, M.E., Whiteley, K.J. and Gillespie, J.M. (1975). Influence of nutrition on the crimping rate of wool and the type and proportion of constituent proteins. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 28, 389–397.Google Scholar
  35. Canolty, M.L. and Koong, L.J. (1976). Utilization of energy for maintenance and for fat and lean gains by mice selected for rapid postweaning growth rate. J. Nutr., 106, 1202–1208.Google Scholar
  36. Carlisle, E.M. (1976). In vivo requirements for silicon in articular cartilage and connective tissue formation in the chick. J. Nutr., 106, 478–484.Google Scholar
  37. Carpenter, K.J. (1960). The estimation of the available lysine in animal protein foods. Biochem. J., 77, 604–610.Google Scholar
  38. Carpenter, K.J. and Booth, V.H. (1973). Damage to lysine in food processing: Its measurement and its significance. Nutr. Abst. and Rev., 43, 424–451.Google Scholar
  39. Carroll, K.K. (1978). The role of dietary protein in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Lipids, 13, 360–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Case, G.L. and Benevenga, N.J. (1976). Evidence for S—adenosylmethionine independent catabolism of methionine in the rat. J. Nutr., 106, 1721–1736.Google Scholar
  41. Cavins, J.F., and Friedman, M. (1967). New amino acids derived from reactions of s –amino groups in proteins with a, 0–unsaturated compounds. Biochemistry, 6, 3766–3770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chavez, J.F. and Pellet, P.L. (1976). Protein quality of some representative Latin American diets by rat bioassay. J. Nutr., 106, 792–801.Google Scholar
  43. Chavan, J.K. and Duggan, S.K. (1978). Synergistic effect of different pulses on the protein quality of rice. J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 29, 230–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Chawala, R.K., Hersh, T., Lambe, Jr., D.W., Wadsworth, A.D. and Rudman, D. (1976). Effect of antibiotics on growth of the immature rat. J. Nutr., 106, 1737–1746.Google Scholar
  45. Chi, M.S. and Speers, G.M. (1976). Effects of dietary protein and lysine levels on plasma amino acids, nitrogen retention and egg production in laying hens. J. Nutr., 106, 1192–1201.Google Scholar
  46. Ciacco, C.F. and D’Appolonia, B.L. (1978). Baking studies with cassava and yam flour. I. Biochemical composition of cassava and yam flour. Cereal Chem., 55, 402–411.Google Scholar
  47. Clark, H.E., Brewer, M.F. and Bailey, L.B. (1978). Effect of nitrogen retention by adults of different proportions of indispensable amino acids in isonitrogenous cereal—based diets. This volume.Google Scholar
  48. Clark, J.H., Spires, H.R. and Davis, C.L. (1978). Uptake and metabolism of nitrogenous components by the lactating mammary gland. Fed. Proc., 37, 1233–1238.Google Scholar
  49. Closa, S.J., Meredith, C. Rio, M.E., Gargatagli, R. and O’Donnell, A. (1977). Protein and energy requirements in infants recovering from malnutrition. Nutr. Repts. Int., 16, 557–563.Google Scholar
  50. Concon, J.M. (1975). Chemical estimation of critical amino acids in cereal grains and other products. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 1, M. Friedman Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 311–379.Google Scholar
  51. Costa, P.M.A., Jensen, A.H., Harmon, B.G. and Norton, H.W. (1976). The effects of roasting and roasting temperatures on the nutritive value of corn for swine. J. Anim. Sci.., 42, 365–374.Google Scholar
  52. Da Silveira, A.J., Teles, F.F.F., and Stull, J.W. (1978). A rapid technique for total nonstructural carbohydrate determination of plant tissue. J. Per. Fd. Chem., 770–772.Google Scholar
  53. Dreyer, J.J. (1976). Biological assessment of protein quality. Optimal essential: non–essential amino acid ratios for maintenance of certain states of nitrogen balance in young rats. SA Medical J., 50, 1521–1528.Google Scholar
  54. Dvorak, Z. (1975). Comparison of the methods for the evaluation of the nutritional value of proteins. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych (Polish), 167, 199–215. Article in English.Google Scholar
  55. Edozien, J.C., Khan, M.A.R. and Waslien, C.I. (1976). Human protein deficiency: results of a Nigerian village study. J. Nutr., 106, 312–328.Google Scholar
  56. Eggum, B.O. (1978). Protein quality of induced high lysine mutants in barley. This volume.Google Scholar
  57. Eggum, B.O., Petersen, V.E., Madsen, A. and Mortensen, H.P. (1971). Nitrogen efficiency ratio (NER) determined in experiments with rats, chickens and pigs. Yearbook Kongelige Veterinaer–og Landbhojskle, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 177–190.Google Scholar
  58. FAO (1973). “Energy and Protein Requirements”, FAO Nutrition Meeting Report Series No. 52; WHO Technical ReportGoogle Scholar
  59. Series No. 522, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 118p.Google Scholar
  60. FAO (1974). Handbook of Human Nutritional Requirements, FAO Nutritional Studies No. 28; WIO Monograph Series No. 61, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 70 p.Google Scholar
  61. FAO (1976). Food and Nutritional Strategies in National Development, FPO Nutrition Meetings Report Series No. 56; WHO Technical Report Series No. 584, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 64 p.Google Scholar
  62. Fenderson, C.L. and Bergen, W.G. (1975). An assessment of essential amino acid requirements of growing steers. J. Anim. Sci., 41, 1759–1766.Google Scholar
  63. Ferguson, K.A. (1975). The protection of dietary proteins and amino acids against microbial fermentation in the rumen. In “Digestion and Metabolism in the Ruminant”, I.W. McDonald and A.C.I. Warner, Eds., University New England Press, Armidale, Australia, pp. 448–463.Google Scholar
  64. Finley, J.W. and Friedman, M. (1973). Chemical methods for available lysine. Cereal Chem., 50, 101–105.Google Scholar
  65. Finot, P.A., Bujard, E., Mottu, F. and Mauron, J. (1977). Availability of the true Schiff’s bases of lysine. Chemical evaluation of the Schiff’s bases between lysine and lactose in milk. In “Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences”, M. Friedman, Ed., Plenum,New York, pp. 343–365.Google Scholar
  66. Fisher, S., Hendricks, D.G. and Mahoney, A.W. (1978). Nutritional assessment of senior rural Utahns by biochemical and physical measurements. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 31, 667–672.Google Scholar
  67. Fitzhugh, H.A. (1976). Sheep and goats as food and fiber resources–current and future. In “The Role of Sheep and Goats in Agricultural Development”, Winrock International Center, Morrilton, Arkansas. pp. 35–41.Google Scholar
  68. Ford, J.E. (1972). A microbiological method for assessing the nutritional value of proteins. 2. The measurement of available methionine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, histidine, tryptophan, and valine. Brit. J. Nutr., 16, 409–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Friedman, M. (1977a). Crosslinking amino acids––sterochemistry and nomenclature. In “Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences”, M. Friedman, Ed., Plenum, New York, pp. 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Friedman, M. (1977b). Effects of lysine modification on chemical, physical, nutritive, and functional properties of proteins. In “Food Proteins”, edited by J.R. Whitaker and S.R. Tannenbaum. Avi, Westport, Connecticut, pp 446–483.Google Scholar
  71. Friedman, M., Ed., (1975). “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Marcel Dekker, New York, Part 1, p. 597; Part 2, pp. 635–636.Google Scholar
  72. Friedman, M. (1967). Solvent effects in reactions of amino groups in amino acids, peptides, and proteins with q,,ß–unsaturated compounds. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 89, 4709–4713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Friedman, M. and Broderick, G.A. (1977). Protected proteins in ruminal nutrition. In vitro evaluation of casein derivatives. In “Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences”, M. Friedman, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 545–558.Google Scholar
  74. Friedman, M., and Finley, J.W. (1975a). Reactions of proteins with ethyl vinyl sulfone. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res., 7, 481–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Friedman, M., and Finley, J.W. (1975b). Vinyl cmmpounds as reagents for available lysine. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds,” Part 1, M. Friedman, ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 503–520.Google Scholar
  76. Friedman, M. and Orracah—Tetteh, R. (1978). Hair as an index of protein malnutrition. This volume.Google Scholar
  77. Friedman, M. and Wall, J.S. (1966). Additive linear free energy relationships in reaction kinetics of amino groups with a,ß—unsaturated compounds. J. Org. Chem. 31, 2888–2894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fuchs, R.J., Clarence, M.S., Theis, F., and Lancaster, M.C. (1978). A nomogram to predict lean body mass in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 31, 673–678.Google Scholar
  79. Gaby, A.R. and Chawala, R.K. (1976). Efficiency of phenylpyruvic acid and phenyllactic acids as substitutes for phenylalanine in the diet of the growing rat. J. Nutr., 106, 158–168.Google Scholar
  80. Garling, D.L. and Wislon, R.P. (1976). Optimum dietary protein to energy ratio for channel catfish fingerlings, Ictalurus punctatus. J. Nutr., 106, 1368–1375.Google Scholar
  81. Garrett, W.N., Yang, Y.T., Dunkley, W.L. and Smith, L.M. (1976). Energy utilization, feedlot performance and fatty acid composition of beef steers fed protein encapsulated tallow or vegetable oils. J. Anim. Sci., 42, 1522–1533.Google Scholar
  82. Garza, C., Scrimshaw, N.S. and Young, V.R. (1977). Human protein requirements: a long–term metabolic nitrogen balance study in young men to evaluate the 1973 FAO/WHO safe level of egg protein intake. J. Nutr., 107, 335–352.Google Scholar
  83. Garza, C., Scrimshaw, N.S. and Young, V.R. (1978). Human protein requirements: interrelationships between energy intake and nitrogen balance in young men consuming the 1973 FAQ/WHO safe level of egg protein with added non–essential amino acids. J. Nutr., 108, 90–96.Google Scholar
  84. Gjoen, A.U. and Njaa, L.R. (1977). Methionine sulphoxide as a source of sulphur—containing amino acids for the young rat. Br. J. Nutr. 37, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gutcho, M.H. (1977). “Textured Protein Products”, NDyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, New Jersey. p. 15.Google Scholar
  86. Hackler, L.R. (1977). Methods for measuring protein quality: a review of bioassay procedures. Cereal Chem., 54, 984–995.Google Scholar
  87. Hansen, N.G. (1975). Comparison of chemical methods of protein evaluation with biological value determined on rats.Z. Tierphysiol. Futtermittelkunde, 35, 302–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hansen, N.G. and Eggum, B.O. (1973). The biological value of proteins estimated from amino acid analyses. Acta Agric. Scand., 23, 247–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Happich, M.L., Swift, C.E. and Naghski, J. (1975). Equations for Predicting PER from amino acid analysis–A review and current scope of application. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds, Part 1, Assay Methods–Biological, Biochemical and Chemical,” M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York pp. 125–135.Google Scholar
  90. Harper, A.E. (1974). Basic concepts. In “Improvement of Protein Nutriture”, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1–22.Google Scholar
  91. Hegsted, D.M. (1974). Assessment of protein quality. In “Improvement of Protein Nutriture”, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp. 64–88.Google Scholar
  92. Hegsted, D.M. (1976). Balance studies, J. Nutr., 106, 307–311.Google Scholar
  93. Hegsted, D.M. and Juliano, B.O. (1974). Difficulties in assessing the nutritional quality of rice protein. J. Nutr., 104, 772–781.Google Scholar
  94. Heidelbaugh, N.D. Huber, C.S., Bednarczyk, J.F., Smith, M.J., Rambaut, P.C. and Wheeler, H.O. (1975). Comparison of three methods for calculating protein content of foods. J. Ate. Fd. Chem., 23, 611–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Heiman, V., Carver, J.S. and Cook, J.W. (1939). A method for determining the gross value of protein concentrates. Poultry Science, 18, 464–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Higgons, R.A. (1959). Nutritional needs of the aged. In “Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition”, A.A. Albenese, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 507–552.Google Scholar
  97. Holmes, E.G. (1962). Human adult protein requirements. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 3, 197–215.Google Scholar
  98. Hötzel, D. (1958). Zur Problematik der Ermittelung der Eiweisswertigkeit. Z. Tierphsyiol. Tiernahrung and Futtermittelkunde, 13, 193–200 (German).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hurrell, R.F. and Carpenter, K.J. (1977). Nutritional significance of cross–link formation during food processing. In “Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences”, M. Friedman, Ed., Plenum, New York, pp. 225–238.Google Scholar
  100. Hurt, H.D., Forsythe, R.H. and Krieger, C.H. (1975). Factors which influence the biological evaluation of protein quality by the protein efficiency ratio method. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 1, M. Friedman Ed., Marcel Dekker,New York pp. 87–112.Google Scholar
  101. Itokawa, Y., Inoue, K., Sasagawa, S. and Fujiwara, M. (1973). Effect of S–methylcysteine sulfoxide, S–allylcysteine sulfoxide and related sulfur–containing amino acids on lipid metabolism of experimental hypocholesteremic rats.J. Nutr., 103, 88–92.Google Scholar
  102. Jacquot, R. and Peret, J. (1972). Protein efficiency ratio and related methods. In “Protein and Amino Acid Functions”, E.J. Bigwood, Ed., Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 317–346.Google Scholar
  103. Jansen, G.R. and Verbum, D.T. (1977). Amino acid fortification of wheat diets fed at varying levels of energy intake to rats. J. Nutr., 107, 289–299.Google Scholar
  104. Kaba, H. and Pellett, P.L. (1975). Prediction of true limiting amino acids using available protein scoring systems. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 4, 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kabadi, U.M. Eisenstein, A.B. and Strack, I. (1976). Decreased plasma insulin but normal glucagon in rats fed low protein diets. J. Nutr., 106, 1247–1253.Google Scholar
  106. Kamat, V.B., Graham, G.E. and Davis, M.A. (1978). Vegetable protein lipid interactions. Cereal Chem., 55, 295–307.Google Scholar
  107. Kies, C. and Fox, H.M. (1971). Comparison of the protein nutritional value of TVP, methionine enriched TVP and beef at two levels of intake for human adults. J. Fd. Sci., 36, 841–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kies, C. and Fox, H.M. (1978). Urea as –a dietary supplement for humans. This volume.Google Scholar
  109. Kies, C., Fox, H.M., Mattem, P.J., Johnson, V.A. and Schmidt, J.W. (1978). Comparative protein quality as measured by human and small animal bioassays of three lines of winter wheat.This volume.Google Scholar
  110. Knipfel, J.E. (1977). Protein interrelationships in roughages as affecting ruminant dietary protein efficiency. In “Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences”, M. Friedman, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 559–578.Google Scholar
  111. Knipfel, J.E., Botting, H.G. and McLaughlan, J.M. (1975). Nutritional quality of several proteins as affected by heating in the presence of carbohydrates. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 2, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 375–391.Google Scholar
  112. Kofranyi, E. (1972). Protein and amino acid requirements. A. Nitrogen balance in adults. In “Protein and Amino Acid Functions”, E.J. Bigwood, Ed., Pergamon, Oxford, England, pp. 1–39.Google Scholar
  113. Kofranyi, E. (1973). Evaluation of traditional hypotheses on the biological value of proteins. Nutr. Repts. Int., 7, 45–50.Google Scholar
  114. Labuza, T.P., Warren, R.M. and Warmbier, H.C. (1977). The physical aspects with respect to water and non–enzymatic browning. In “Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences”, M. Friedman, Ed., Plenum, New York, pp. 379–418.Google Scholar
  115. Laditan, A.A.O. and Reeds, P.J. (1976). A study of the age of onset, diet and the importance of infection in the pattern of severe protein—energy malnutrition in Ibadan, Nigeria. Brit. J. Nutr., 36, 411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lalasidis, G., Boström, S. and Sjöberg, L.B. (1978). Low molecular weight enzymatic fish protein hydrolysates: chemical composition and nutritive value. J. Ag. Fd. Chem., 26, 751–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Landers, R.E. (1975). Relationship between protein efficiency ratio of foods and relative nutritive value measured by Tetrahymena pyriformis W bioassay technique. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 1, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 185–202.Google Scholar
  118. Lautzenheiser, M. and Pellet, P.L. (1977). Prediction of human nitrogen balance from ford intake data. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 30, 1382–1389.Google Scholar
  119. Liener, I.E. (1975). Effect of anti–nutritional factors on the quality and utilization of legume proteins. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 2, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 523–550.Google Scholar
  120. Long, C.L., Schiller, W.R., Blakemore, W.S., Geiger, J.W., O’Dell, M. and Henderson, K. (1977). Muscle protein catabolism in the septic patient as measured by 3—methylhistidine excretion. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 30, 1349–1352.Google Scholar
  121. Longenecker, J.B. and Hause, N.L. (1961). Relationship between plasma amino acids and composition of the ingested protein.II. A shortened procedure to determine plasma amino acid (PAA) ratios. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 9, 356–362.Google Scholar
  122. Lyman, C.M., Chang, W.Ÿ. and Couch, J.R. (1953). Evaluation of protein quality in cottonseed meals by chick growth and by a chemical index method. J. Nutr., 49, 679–690.Google Scholar
  123. Maclean, W. C., Jr., Palcko, R.P. and Graham, G.G. (1976). Plasma free amino acids of Children consuming a diet with uneven distribution of protein relative to energy. J. Nutr., 106, 241–248.Google Scholar
  124. Markakis, P. (1975). The nutritive value of potato protein. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 2,M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 471–487.Google Scholar
  125. Martinez, W.H. and Hopkins, D.T. (1975). Cottonseed protein products: variation in protein quality with product and process. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 2,M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 355–374.Google Scholar
  126. Mata, L.J., Kranal, R.A., Urrutia, J. and Garcia, B. (1977). Effect of infection on food intake and the nutritional state: perspectives as viewed from the village. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 30, 1215–1227.Google Scholar
  127. McLaughlan, J.M. (1978). The problem of curvature in slope assays for protein quality. This volume.Google Scholar
  128. McLaughlan, M.J. and Campbell, J.A. (1969). Methodology of protein evaluation. In “Mammalian Protein Metabolism”,H.N. Munro, Ed., Academic Press, New York, Vol. III, pp. 391–422.Google Scholar
  129. Merril, O.L. and Watt, B.K. (1955). Handbook No. 74, ARS, USDA, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  130. Millard, M.M. and Friedman, M. (1976). X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy of BSA and ethyl vinyl sulfone modified BSA. Biochem. Biophys. Commun. 70, 451–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Miller, D.S. and Bender, A.E. (1955). The determination of the net utilization of proteins by a shortened method. Brit.J. Nutr., 9, 382–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Miller, D.S. and Naismith, D.J. (1958). A correlation between sulfur content and net dietary–protein value. Nature, 182, 1786–1787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Miller, D.S. and Payne, P.R. (1962). Weight maintenance and food intake, J. Nutr., 78, 255–262.Google Scholar
  134. Miller, E.L. (1973). Evaluation of foods as sources of nitrogen and amino acids. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 32, 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Miller, S.A. (1969). Protein metabolism during growth and development. In “Mammalian Protein Metabolism”, H.N. Munro, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 183–233.Google Scholar
  136. Mitchell, H.H. (1922). The net protein value of feed and food materials. Am. Soc. Animal Production, 55–58.Google Scholar
  137. Mitchell, H.H. (1923). A method for determining the biological value of protein. J. Biol. Chem., 58, 873–903.Google Scholar
  138. Munro, H.N. (1978). Nutritional consequences of excess amino acid intake. This volume.Google Scholar
  139. NAS (1963). “Evaluation of Protein Quality”. National Academy of Sciences National Research Council Publication 1100, Washington, D.C., pp. 61–68.Google Scholar
  140. Navarrete, D.A., Loureiro de Daqui, V.A., Eliaz, L.G., Lachance, P.A. and Bressani, R. (1977). The nutritive value of egg protein as determined by the nitrogen blance index (NBI). Nutr. Repts. Int., 16, 695–703.Google Scholar
  141. Nicolosi, R.J., Herrera, M.G., el Lozy, M. and Hayes, K.C. (1976). Effect of dietary fat on hepatic metabolism of C –oleic acid and very low density lipoprotein triglyceride in the gerbil. J. Nutr., 106, 1279–1285.Google Scholar
  142. Nitsan, Z. and Nir, I. (1977). A canparative study of the nutritional and physiological significance of raw and heated soya bean in ducks and goslings. Br. J. Nutr., 37, 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Offer, N.W., Evans, R.A. and Axforti, R.F.E. (1976). A compara— tive study of non–protein nitrogen supplements for sheep.J. Agric. Sci., 87, 567–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Okumura, J. and Tasaki, I. (1973). Digestibility, biological value and ‘available’ lysine content of some prote in concentrates for poultry. Japan Poultry Sci., 10, 37–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Oldfield, J.E. (1977). Cattle and chemistry. Chemtech, 290–294.Google Scholar
  146. Osborne, Th. B. and Mendel, L.B. (1917). The use of soy bean as a food. J. Biol. Chem., 32, 369–386.Google Scholar
  147. Oser, B.L. (1959). An integrated essential amino acid index for predicting the biological value of proteins. In “Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition”, A.A. Albanese, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 281–295.Google Scholar
  148. Ostrowski, H.T. (1978). Analysis for availability of amino acid supplements in foods and feeds: Biochemical and nutritional implications. This volume.Google Scholar
  149. Otterburn, M., Healy, M. and Sinclair, W. (1977). The formation, isolation and importance of isopeptides in heated proteins.In “Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences”, M. Friedman, Ed., Plenum, New York, pp. 239–262.Google Scholar
  150. Payne, P.R. (1972). Evaluation of protein quality of diets. In “Protein and Amino Acid Functions”, E.J. Bigwood, Ed., Pergamon, Oxford, England, pp. 363–380.Google Scholar
  151. Pelaez, R., Phillips, D.D. and Walker, D.M. (1978). Amino acid supplementation of isolated soybean protein in milk replacers for preruminant lambs. This volume.Google Scholar
  152. Pellet, P.L. (1973). Methods of protein evaluation with rats. “Proteins in Human Nutrition”, J.W.G. Porter and B.A. Rolls, Eds., Academic Press, London and New York, pp. 225–244.Google Scholar
  153. Platt, B.S. and Miller, D.S. (1959). The net dietary—protein value (N.D.—P.V.) of mixtures of foods—its definition, determination and application. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 18, vii–ix.Google Scholar
  154. Paneranz, Y. and Moore, R.B. (1975). Reliability of several methods for protein determination in wheat. Bakers Digest, 49, 44–48.Google Scholar
  155. Ranawana, S.S.E. and Kellaway, R.C. (1977). Response to postruminal infusions of graded levels of casein in lactating goats. Br. J. Nutr., 37, 67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rangeley, W.R.D. and Lawrie, R.A. (1977). Methylated amino acids as indices in meat products. II. Further examination of protein sources az1 the practical application of methvlamino acid titres in predicting meat content. J. Fd. Technol., 12, 9–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rao, H.D. and Naidu, A.N. (1977). Nutritional Supplementation whom does it benefit most. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 30, 1612–1616.Google Scholar
  158. Reis, P.J. and Tunks, D.A. (1976). The influence of abomasal supplements of zein and some amino acids on wool growth rate and plasma amino acids. J. Agric. Sci., Camb., 86, 475–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Reutlinger, S. and Selowsky, M. (1976). ”Malnutrition ând Poverty: Magnitude and Policy Options”, Johns Hopkins, University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 82 p.Google Scholar
  160. Rosenberg, H.R. (1959). Amino acid supplementation of foods and feeds In “Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition”, A.A. Labanese, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 381–416.Google Scholar
  161. Rufeger, H. (1972). Proteinbewertung und Berechnung exogener und endogener Grossen des N–Stoffwechsels monogastrischer Organismen mit Hilfe einer N–Bilanzfunktion. Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizine, A19, 713–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sarwar, G., Sosulski, F.W., Bell, J.M. and Bowland, J.P. (1978). Nutritional evaluation of oilseeds and legumes as protein supplements to cereals. This volume.Google Scholar
  163. Satterlee, L.D., Kendrick, J.G. and Miller, G.A. (1977). Rapid in vitro assays for estimating protein quality. Nutr. Repts. Int., 16, 187–199.Google Scholar
  164. Schaffert, R.E., Lechtenberg, V.L., Oswalt, D.L., Axtell, J.D., Pickett. R.C. and Rhykerd, C.L. (1974). Effect of tannin on in vitro dry matter and protein disappearance in sorghum grain. Crop Sci., 14, 640–643.Google Scholar
  165. Schelling, G.T. (1975). An efficient procedure for the complete evaluation of dietary proteins. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 1, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 137–163.Google Scholar
  166. Schwenke, K.D., Prahl, L., Ender, B., Bersukow, M.G., Belikow, W.M., Freimuth, U., Charatjan, S.G. and Wolnowa, A.J. (1975). Modifizierung von Proteinen durch Reaktion mit Carbonylverbindungen. Die Nahrung, 19, 921–927 (German).Google Scholar
  167. Schwerdfeger, E. and Schuphan, W. (1976). Protein and amino acids in food plants. Qual. Plant., 26, 29–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Scrimshaw, N.S. and Young, V.R. (1972). Clinical methods for the evaluation of protein quality. In “Protein and Amino Acid Functions”, E.J. Bigwood, Ed., Pergamon, Oxford, England,pp. 363–380.Google Scholar
  169. Sherbon, J.W., Mickle, J.B. and Ward, W.D. (1978). Tbtal solids in nonfat dry milk by atmospheric drying in forced air oven.Google Scholar
  170. Slump, P. and van Beek, L. (1975). Amino acids in feces related to digestibility of food proteins. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 1, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 67–78.Google Scholar
  171. Stahmann, M.A. and Woldegiorgis, G. (1975). Enzymatic methods for protein quality determination. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 211–234.Google Scholar
  172. Steinke, F.H. (1977). Protein efficiency ratio pitfalls and causes of variability: a review. Cereal Chem., 54, 949–957.Google Scholar
  173. Struthers, B.J., Hopkins, D.T., and Dahlgren, R.R. (1978). Reversibility of nephrocytomegaly in rats caused by lysinoalanine. J. Fd. Sci., 43, 616–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Stucki, W.P. and Harper, A.E. (1962). Effects of altering the ratio of indispensable to dispensable amino acids in diets for rats. J. Nutr., 78, 278–286.Google Scholar
  175. Swenseid, M.E., Villalobos, J. and Fridrich, V. (1963). Ratios of essential–to–nonessential amino acids in plasma from rats fed different kinds and amounts of proteins and amino acids. J. Nutr., 80, 99–102.Google Scholar
  176. Tamminga, S. (1975). Observation on protein digestion in the digestive tract of dairy cows. Z. Tierphysiol. Tiernahr. u. Futtermittelkunde, 35, 337–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Tanaka, M., Kimiagar, M. Lee, T. C. and Chichester, C.O. (1977). Effect of the Maillard browning reaction on nutritional quality of protein, In “Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences”, M. Friedman, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 321–341.Google Scholar
  178. Thomas, K. (1909). Arch. Anat. Physiol. Leipzig, Physiol. Abstr., 219.Google Scholar
  179. Uauy, R., Scrimshaw, N.S., Rand, W.M. and Young, V.R. (1978). Human protein requirements: obligatory urinary and fecal nitrogen losses and the factorial estimation of protein needs in elderly males. J. Nutr., 108, 97–103.Google Scholar
  180. Vaughn, D.A., Womack, M. and McClain, P.E. (1977). Plasma free amino acid levels in human subjects after meals containing lactalbumin, heated lactalbumin, or no protein. Amm. J.—Clin. Nutr., 30, 1709–1712.Google Scholar
  181. Venkataswamy, G., Glover, J. Cobby, M. and Pirie, A. (1977). Retinol—binding protein in serum of xerophtalmic, malnourished children before and after treatment at a nutrition center.Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 30, 1968–1973.Google Scholar
  182. Vilstrup, H. and Keiding, S. (1976). Effect of dietary protein depletion on the galactose elimination capacity in intact rats. J. Nutr., 106, 1492–1496.Google Scholar
  183. von der Decken, A., Omstedt, P.T., Walger, B., and Walger, J. (1975). Nutritional evaluation of proteins as estimated by in vitro protein synthesis: Comparison with conventional techniques. In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 1.M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 165–184.Google Scholar
  184. Waterlow, J.C. (1969). The assessment of protein nutrition and metabolism in the whole animal, with special reference to man. In “Mammalian Protein Metabolism”, H.N. Munro, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 325–390.Google Scholar
  185. Williams, P.C., Stevenson, S.G., Starkey, P.M. and Hawtin, G.C. (1978). The application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to protein—testing in pulse breeding programmes. J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 29, 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Womack, M., Vaughn, D.A. and Bodwell, C.E. (1975). A modified PER method for estimating changes In the bioavailability of individual essential amino acids In “Protein Nutritional Quality of Foods and Feeds”, Part 1, M. Friedman, Ed., Dekker, New York, pp. 113–123.Google Scholar
  187. Woodham,. A.A. (1978). The nutritive value of mixed protein. This volume.Google Scholar
  188. Yadav, N.R. and Liener, I.E. (1978). Nutritional evaluation of dry—roasted navy bean flour and mixtures with cereal proteins. This volume.Google Scholar
  189. Young, V.R., Rand, W.M. and Scrimshaw, N.S. (1977). Measuring protein quality in humans: a review and proposed method. Cereal Chem., 54, 929–948.Google Scholar
  190. Young, V.R. and Scrimshaw, N.S. (1972). The nutritional significance of plasma and urinary amino acids. In “Protein and Amino Acid Functions”, E.J. Bigwood, Ed., Pergamanon, Oxford, England pp. 541–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Yudkin, J. (1978). Dietary factors in arteriosclerosis: sucrose. Lipids, 13, 370–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Zezulka, A.Y. and Calloway, D.H. (1976). Nitrogen retention in men fed isolated soybean protein supplemented with L–methionine, D–methionine, and N—acetyl—L—methionine, or inorganic sulfate. J. Nutr., 106, 1286–1291.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mendel Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Department of AgricultureWestern Regional Research Center, Science and Education AdministrationBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations