Yeast Proteins: Recovery, Nutritional and Functional Properties

  • J. E. Kinsella
  • K. J. Shetty
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 105)


The future need for supplementary sources of food grade functional proteins is emphasized and the potential role of yeasts as a source of protein is discussed. The problems of proteolysis and nucleic acid contamination can be circumvented by succinylation or derivatization of the yeast protein during extraction. Succinylated yeast proteins demonstrate improved functional properties though their nutritional value needs to be investigated.


Yeast Cell Functional Property Food Protein Cell Wall Material Yeast Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akin, C. 1976. Water soluble whippable protein product and process for making same. U.S. Patent 3,833,552.Google Scholar
  2. Anon. 1974. “A Hungry World”, General Report, Univ. California, Berkley, California Task Force.Google Scholar
  3. Barman, B. G., Hansen, J. and Mossey, A. 1977. Modification of the physical properties of soy protein isolate by acetylation. J. Agr. Food Chem. 25: 638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellamy, W. D. 1974. Single cell protein from cellulosic wastes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 16: 869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bjornason, J. and Carpenter, K. J. 1969. Mechanism of heat damage in proteins. I. Models with acylated lysine units. Br. J. Nut. 23: 859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjornason, J. and Carpenter, K. J. 1970. Mechanism of heat damage in proteins. Chemical changes in pure proteins. Br. J. Nutr. 24:313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burrows, V., Green, A. H., Karol, M. A., Melnychyn, P., Pearson, G. and Sibbald, I. 1972. Food protein from grains and oilseeds. Can. Wheat Board, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  8. Carenberg, C. O. and Heden, C. G. 1970. Experiments with lysis of living cells of Eremothecium ashbyii and of Methanomonas by microbial enzymes. Biotechnol. & Bioeng. 12: 167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castro, A. C., Sinskey, A. J. and Tannenbaum, S. R. 1971. Reduction of nucleic acid content in Candida yeast cells by bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A treatment. Appl. Microbial. 22: 422.Google Scholar
  10. Cheftel, J. C. 1977. Chemical and nutritional modifications of food proteins due to processing and storage. In Food Proteins. Whitaker and Tannenbaum, Eds. Avi Publ. Co., Westport, Conn. p. 404.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, L. A. 1968. Group-specific reagents in protein chemistry. Ann. Rev. Biochemistry 37: 695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooney, C. L., Levine, D. W. and Snedecor, B. 1975. Production of single cell protein from methanol. Food Technol. 29: 32.Google Scholar
  13. Creamer, L., Roeper, J. and Lohry, E. 1971. Preparation and evaluation of some acid soluble casein derivatives. N.Z.J. Dairy Science and Technol. 6: 107.Google Scholar
  14. Cunningham, S. D., Cater, C. M. and Mattil, K. F. 1977. Rupture and protein extraction of petroleum grown yeast. J. Food Sci. 40: 732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeGroot, A. P., Slump, P., Van Beek, L. and Feron, V. J. 1977. Severe alkali treatment of protein in evaluation of proteins for humans. Bodwell C., Ed. Avi Publ. Co., Westport, Conn. p. 270.Google Scholar
  16. Dunhill, P. and Lilly, M. D. 1975. Protein extraction and recovery from microbial cells. In Single Cell Protein II. Tannenbaum and Wang, Eds. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass. p. 179.Google Scholar
  17. Feeney, R. E. 1977a. Chemical modification of food proteins in food proteins. Feeney and Whitaker, Eds. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D. C. p. 3Google Scholar
  18. Feeney, R. E. 1977b. Chemical changes in food proteins in evaluation of proteins for humans. Bodwell, Ed. Avi Publishing Co., Westport, Conn. p. 233.Google Scholar
  19. Franzen, K. L. and Kinsella, J. E. 1976. Functional properties of succinylated and acetylated soy protein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 24: 788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Friedman, M. 1977a. Protein crosslinking stereochemistry and nomenclature. In Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences. Friedman, Ed. Plenum, New York, p. 1–26.Google Scholar
  21. Friedman, M. 1977b. Effects of lysine modification on chemical, physical, nutritive and functional properties of proteins. In Food Proteins, Whitaker and Tannenbaum, Eds. Avi Publ. Co., Westport, Conn. p. 446.Google Scholar
  22. Fujimaki, M., Arai, S., Yamashita, M. 1977. Enzymatic protein degradation and resynthesis for protein improvement. In Food Proteins. Feeney and Whitaker, Eds. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D. C. p. 156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Galembeck, F., Ryan, D. S., Whitaker, J. R. and Feeney, R. E. 1977. Reaction of proteins with formaldehyde in the presence and absence of sodium borohydride. J. Agr. Food Chem. 25: 238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gandhi, S. K., Schultz, J. R., Boughey, F. W. and Forsythe, R. H. 1968. Chemical modification of egg white with 3,3-dimethylglutaric anhydride. J. Food Sci. 33: 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glazer, A. N. 1976. The chemical modification of proteins by group-specific and site-specific reagents. In The Proteins, Vol. 2, Neurath, Mill & Boeder, Eds. Academic Press., N. Y.Google Scholar
  26. Gounaris, A. and Perlmann, G. E. 1967. Succinylation of pepsinogen. J. Biol. Chem. 242: 2739.Google Scholar
  27. Groninger, H. S. 1973. Preparation and properties of succinylated fish myofibrillar protein. J. Agr. Food Chem. 21: 978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Habeeb, A.F.S.A. 1967. Quantification of conformational changes on chemical modification of proteins: Use of succinylated proteins as a model. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 121: 652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Habeeb, A.F.S.A., Cassidy, H., Singer, S. 1958. Molecular structural effects produced in proteins by reaction with succinic anhydride. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 29: 587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hedenskog, G. and Ebbinghaus, L. 1972. Reduction of the nucleic acid content of single-cell protein concentrates. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 14: 447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hedenskog, G. and Mogren, H. 1973. Some methods for processing of single-cell protein. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 15: 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hermansson, A. M., Olsson I. and Holmberg, B. 1974. Functional properties of proteins for foods: Modification of rapeseed protein concentrates. Lebensmitt Wiss. Technol. 7: 176.Google Scholar
  33. Hirs, C. M., Timmasheff, S. 1972. Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 25. Academic Press, N. Y.Google Scholar
  34. Hockenhull, D. J. 1971. Yeast production. Progr. Indust. Microb. 10: 129.Google Scholar
  35. Humphrey, A. E. 1974. Production of food and feed by fermentation. Proc. Roy. Aust. Chem. Inst. 41: 285.Google Scholar
  36. Johnson, J. C. 1977. Yeasts for food and other purposes. Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N. J.Google Scholar
  37. Kihlberg, R. 1972. The microbe as a source of food. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 26: 427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kinsella, J. E. 1976. Functional properties of proteins in foods: A survey. CRC Critical Revs. in Food Sci. and Nutr. 7: 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kinsella, J. E. 1977. Functional properties in novel proteins: Some methods for improvement. Chemistry & Industry. March. p. 177.Google Scholar
  40. Kinsella, J. E. 1978. Protein texturization and fabrication. In Handbook Food and Nutrition. CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (in press)Google Scholar
  41. Kinsella, J. E. and Shetty, K. J. 1978. Chemical modification for the improvement in fucntional properties of vegetable and yeast proteins. Proc. ACS Symp. Pour-El A.,Ed. ACS Publications. Am. Chem. Sco., Washington, D. C. (in press).Google Scholar
  42. Kinsella, J. E., Vananuvat, P. and Pearce, K. 1976. Chemical modi- fication to improve functional properties of novel proteins. Joint Conference on Single-Cell Protein of US-USSR Groups. Unpubd. Proc., MIT, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  43. Knowles, J. R. 1974. Chemical modification and the reactivity of amino acids in proteins. In MTP Intl. Rev, of Science and Biochemistry. Series one. Chemistry of macromolecules. Gutenfreund, Ed., Vol. I. Uni Park, Baltimore, Md. p. 149.Google Scholar
  44. Labuza, T. P. and Jones, K. A. 1973. Functionality in breadmaking of yeast protein dried at two temperatures. J. Food Sci. 38: 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Labuza, T. P., Jones, K. A., Sinskey, A. J., Gomez, R., Wilson, S. and Miller, B. 1972. Effect of drying conditions on cell viability and functional properties of single cell protein. J. Food Sci. 37: 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lindblom, M. A. 1974. Alkali treatment of a yeast protein concentrate. Lebensmittel.-Wiss p-Technol. 7: 295.Google Scholar
  47. Lindblom, M. 1974. The influence of alkali and heat treatment on yeast protein. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 16: 1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lindblom, M. 1977. Properties of intracellular ribonuclease utilized for RNA reduction in disintegrated cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 19: 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lindblom, M. and Mogren, H. L. 1977. Process for preparing a protein concentrate from a microbial cell mass and the protein content thus obtained. Br. Patent 1,474–313.Google Scholar
  50. Lipinsky, E. S. and Litchfield, J. H. 1974. Single-cell protein in perspective. Food Technol. 28: 16.Google Scholar
  51. Litchfield, J. H. 1977. Single cell proteins. Food Tech. 31: 175.Google Scholar
  52. Mateles, R. T. and Tannenbaum, S. R. (Eds.) 1968. Single Cell Protein. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  53. McElwain, M. D., Richardson, T. and Amundson, C. H. 1975. Some functional properties of succinylated single-cell protein concentrate. J. Milk Food Technol. 28: 521.Google Scholar
  54. McLaren, D. D. 1975. Single cell protein: New processes open wider food uses. Food Prod. Devt. 9: 26.Google Scholar
  55. Means, G. E. and Feeney, R. E. 1971. Chemical modification of proteins. Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco.Google Scholar
  56. Miller, S. A. 1968. Nutritional factors in single-cell protein. In Single-Cell Protein. Mateles and Tannenbaum, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. p. 77Google Scholar
  57. Mogren and Lindblom, M. 1974. Mechanical disintegration of microorganisms in an industrial homogenizer. Biotechnol. & Bioeng’. 16: 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nelson, G.E.N., Anderson, R. F., Rhodes, R. A., Shekleton, M. C. and Hall, H. H. 1960. Lysine, methionine and tryptophan content of microorganisms. II. Yeasts. Appl. Microbiology 8: 179.Google Scholar
  59. Newell, J. A., Robbins, A. E. and Seeley, R. D. 1975. Manufacture of yeast protein isolate having a reduced nucleic acid content by an alkali process. U.S. Patent 3,867–555.Google Scholar
  60. Ohta, S., Maul, S., Sinskey, A. J. and Tannenbaum, S. R. 1971. Characterization of heat shock process for reduction of the nucleic acid content of Candida utilis. Appl. Microbiol. 22: 415.Google Scholar
  61. Pearce, K. P. and Kinsella, J. E. 1978. Emulsifying properties of proteins: A turbidimetric technique. J. Agr. Food Chem. 26: (in press)Google Scholar
  62. Phaff, H. J. 1977. Enzymatic yeast cell wall degradation in food proteins. Feeney and Whitaker, Eds. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D. C. p. 244.Google Scholar
  63. Reed, G. and Peppler, J. H. 1973. Yeast Technology. Avi Publishing Co., Westport, Conn.Google Scholar
  64. Rha, C. 1975. Utilization of single-cell protein for human food. In Single-Cell Protein II. Tannenbaum and Wang, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. p. 587.Google Scholar
  65. Robbins, E. A., Sucher, R. W., Schuldt, Jr., E. H., Sidoti, D. R., Seeley, R. D., and Newell, J. A. 1975. Yeast protein isolate with reduced nucleic acid content and process of making same. U.S. Patent 3,887–431.Google Scholar
  66. Rose, A., Morrison, J. S. 1971. The Yeasts, Vol. 1–3. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Ryan, D. S. 1977. Determinants of the functional properties of proteins and protein derivatives in foods. In Food Proteins. Feeney and Whitaker, Eds. J. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D. C. p. 67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Scrimshaw, N. S. 1975. Single-cell protein for human consumption- An overview. In Single-Cell Protein II, Tannenbaum and Wang, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. p. 24.Google Scholar
  69. Seeley, R. D., Robbins, E. A., Sucher, R. W., Newell, J., Sidoti, D., Clayton, R. A. IV Intl. Congr. Food Science & Tech., Inst. Food Tech., Chicago, Ill. p. 73. 1974.Google Scholar
  70. Shacklady, C. 1970. Single cell proteins from hydrocarbons. Outlook on Agric. 6: 102.Google Scholar
  71. Shetty, K. J. and Kinsella, J. E. 1978. Effect of thiol reagents on rupture of yeast cells. Biotech. Bioeng. 20: (in press).Google Scholar
  72. Shetty, K. J. and Rao, M.S.N. 1974. Studies on groundnut proteins. III. Physicochemical properties of arachin prepared by different methods. Anal. Biochemie 62: 108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shetty, K. J. and Rao, M.S.N. 1978. Effect of succinylation on oligomeric nature of arachin. Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  74. Sinskey, A. J. and Tannenbaum, S. R. 1975. Removal of nucleic acids in SCP. In Single Cell Protein II. Tannenbaum and Wang, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge Mass. p. 158.Google Scholar
  75. Stark, G. R. 1970. Recent developments in chemical modification and sequential degradation of proteins. Adv. Protein Chem. 24: 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tannenbaum, S. 1968. Factors in processing single-cell protein. In Single-cell Protein. Mateles and Tannenbaum, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. p. 343.Google Scholar
  77. Tannenbaum, S. 1971. Single-cell protein: Food of the future. Food Tech. 25: 962.Google Scholar
  78. Tannenbaum, S. 1977. Single cell proteins. In Food Proteins. Whitaker and Tannenbaum, Eds. Avi Publishing Co., Westport, Conn. p. 315.Google Scholar
  79. Tannenbaum, S. 1974. Texturizing process for single cell protein. U.S. Patent 3,845–222.Google Scholar
  80. Tannenbaum, S. R., Sinskey, A. J., and Maul, S. B. 1973. Process of reducing the nucleic acid content in yeast. U. S. Patent 3,720–585.Google Scholar
  81. Tannenbaum, S. and Wang, D. I. 1975. Single Cell Protein II. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  82. Vallee, B. L. and Riordan, J. F. 1969. Chemical approaches to the properties of active sites of enzymes. Ann. Rev. of Biochem. 38: 733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vananuvat, P. and Kinsella, J. E. 1975a. Amino acid composition of yeast S. fragilis. J. Agr. Food Chem. 23: 595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vananuvat, P. and Kinsella, J. E. 1975b. Extraction of protein, low in nucleic acid, from Saccharomyces fragilis grown continuously on crude lactose. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23: 216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vananuvat, P. and Kinsella, J. E. 1975c. Some functional properties of protein isolates from yeast, Saccharomyces fragilis. J. Agr. Food Chem. 23: 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vananuvat, P. and Kinsella, J. E. 1978. Succinylation of yeast protein. I. Preparation and composition. Biotech. Bioeng. (in press).Google Scholar
  87. Waslien, C. I., Callaway, D., Margen, S. and Costa, F. 1970. Uric acid levels in men fed algae and yeasts as protein sources. Food Tech. 35: 294.Google Scholar
  88. Whitaker, J. R. 1978. Chemical modification of casein through covalent attachment of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. Amer. Chem. Soc. Ann. Mtg., Anaheim, Calif. (abstract)Google Scholar
  89. White, P. and Selvey, N. 1970. Proceed. Western Hemisphere Nutrition Congress IV. Publ. Science Group Inc., Acton, Mass.Google Scholar
  90. Worgan, J. T. 1974. Single cell protein. Plant Foods for Mars 1: 99Google Scholar
  91. Young, V. R. and Scrimshaw, N. S. 1975. Clinical studies on the nutritive value of single-cell proteins. In Single-Cell Proteins II, Tannenbaum and Wang, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. p. 566.Google Scholar
  92. Young, V. and Scrimshaw, N. S. 1976. Nutritional value and safety of single-cell protein in man. Unpubl.Proceedings of Joint US-USSR Conference on Single-Cell Protein.Google Scholar
  93. Young, V. R. and Scrimshaw, N. S. and Milner, M.S. 1976. Food from plants. Chem & Industry (July) p. 588.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Kinsella
    • 1
  • K. J. Shetty
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Food ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations