Advertisement

Analysis for Availability of Amino Acid Supplements in Foods and Feeds: Biochemical and Nutritional Implications

  • Henry T. Ostrowski
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 105)

Abstract

In formulated diets based on cereal grains, lysine and/or methionine are usually deficient as well as often being the first amino acids limiting the nutritional value of such diets. Deficiency of these two amino acids in nutritional practice is compensated by synthetic L-lysine and DL-methionine supplementation or by the introduction of various protein sources — rich in lysine and methionine. Among all essential amino acids lysine is most liable and subject to damage during the processing of foods and feeds which can cause the “deepening” of the lysine deficiency not on the total but on the physiologically-available lysine basis. Hence, the simultaneous lysine deficiency and biological “sufficiency” problem is discussed using examples of practical diets in which a balance of biologically-active substances was achieved by the formulation and optimalisation according to the needs of animals, taking into account physiological lysine “accessibility” — “availability”.

Growth rate, nitrogen balance data and chemical composition of the tissues in long term trials are the most valid indication justifying the quantity of amino acid supplements to the practical diets. Prediction of the practical results of dietary amino acid balance from various short-term chemical and biological tests can give misleading results. Their application in nutritional practice is restricted to particular types of foods/feeds, and to specific processing systems and test conditions. Observations of the appearances of most limiting, dietary amino acids in the blood after the meal do not provide a complete nutritional characteristic of practical rations due to complex regulatory mechanisms in protein and amino acid metabolism much of which are not yet fully understood.

Keywords

Essential Amino Acid Amino Acid Supplement Limit Amino Acid Dietary Amino Acid Amino Acid Availability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agricultural Research Council (1967). Nutrient Requirement of Farm Livestock. No. 3, Pigs, London.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, R. D. (1973). Ingredient Analysis Table, Feedstuffs Yearbook. Miller Publ. Co. Minneapolis. 24.Google Scholar
  3. Ashley, J. H. and Fisher, H. (1967). Protein reserves and muscle constituents of protein-depleted and repleted cocks. Br. J. Nutr., 21, 661–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyne, A. W., Ford, J. E., Hewitt, D. and Schrimpton, D. H. (1975). Protein quality of feeding-stuffs. 7. Collaborative studies on the microbiological assay of available amino acids. Br. J. Nutr., 34, 153–162.Google Scholar
  5. Carpenter, K. J. (1960). The estimation of available lysine in animal-protein foods. J. Biochem., 77, 604–10.Google Scholar
  6. Carpenter, K. J. (1974). Problems of amino-acid availability. In, ‘Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers’, H. Swan and D. Lewis (editors). University of Nottingham, London, Butter-worths, 71–89.Google Scholar
  7. Carpenter, K. J. and Booth, V. H. (1973). Damage to lysine in food processing: its measurement and its significance. Nutr. Abstr. Rev., 43, 6, 423–447.Google Scholar
  8. Carpenter, K. J. and Woodham, A. A. (1974). Protein quality of feeding-stuffs. 6. Comparison of the results of collaborative biological assays for amino acids with those of other methods. Br. J. Nutr., 32, 647–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clausen, H. (1965). The protein requirements of growing meat-type pigs. World Rev. Anim. Prod., 1, 1–28.Google Scholar
  10. Combs,. F. and Nott, H. (1967). Amino acid availability of the protein sources used in poultry diets. Feedstuffs, 39, Oct. 21, 36.Google Scholar
  11. Christensen, H. W. (1964). Free amino acids and peptides in tissues. In, ‘Mammalian Protein Metabolism’ Vol.I, Chapter 4. H. N. Munro and J. B. Allison, (Editors). Academic Press, New York and London, 105–124.Google Scholar
  12. Dagliesh, C. E. and Tabechian, J. (1956). Comparison of the metabolism of uniformly 14C Labelled L-Phenyloalenine, L-Tyrosine and L-Tryptophan in the rat. Biochem. J. 62, 625.Google Scholar
  13. Dammers, J. (1964). Digestibility in the pig. Factors influencing the digestion of the components of the feed and the digestibility of the amino acids. Inst. Veevoedingsonderzoek ‘Hoorn’, 1–152.Google Scholar
  14. Davey, R. J., Phelps, J. W. and Thomas, C. H. (1973). Plasma free amino acids of swine as influenced by diet protein level, animal age and time of sampling. J. Anim. Sci., 37, 1, 81.Google Scholar
  15. Elwyn, D. (1969). In, ‘Mammalian Protein Metabolism’, H. N. Munro (Editor). Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Erbersdobler, H.F.(1976). Amino acid availability. In, ‘Protein Metabolism and Nutrition’, D. J. A. Cole, K. N. Borman, P. J. Buttery, D. Lewis, R. J. Neale and H. Swan (Editors). Butter-worths, London.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, H. (1967). Nutritional aspects of protein reserves. In, ‘Newer Methods of Nutritional Biochemistry’. A. A. Albanese, (Editor) Vol. 3, Chapter 2. New York and London: Academic Press, 101–124.Google Scholar
  18. Frohlich, A. (1954). Reaction between Phthalein Dyes and heated foodstudffs. Nature, 174 879.Google Scholar
  19. Harper, A. E. (1968). Diet and plasma amino acids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21, 5, 358–366.Google Scholar
  20. Harper, A. E. and Benevenga, N. J. (1970). Effects of disproportionate amounts of amino acids. In, ‘Proteins as Human Food’, R. A. Lawrie (Editor). Academic Press, Cambridge, 417–447.Google Scholar
  21. Holmes, J. H. G., Bayley, H. S., Leadbeater, P. A., Horney, F. D. (1974). Digestion of protein in small intestine of the pig. Br. J. Nutr., 32, 479–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hurrell, R. F. and Carpenter, K. J. (1974). Mechanism of heat damage in proteins. 4. The reactive lysine content of heat-damaged material as measured in different ways. Br. J. Nutr., 32, 589–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hurrell R. F. and Carpenter, K. J. (1977). Nutritional significance of cross-link formation during food processing. In, ‘Protein crosslinking: Nutritional and medical consequences’, M.Friedman (Editor). Plenum Publishing Company, New York. 231–244.Google Scholar
  24. Kakade, M. L. and Liener, I. E. (1969). Determination of available lysine in proteins. Anal. Biochem., 27. 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kelly, M. and Scott, H. M. (1968). Plasma lysine titers in the chick in relation to source of lysine and mode of administration. J. Nutr., 94, 326–330.Google Scholar
  26. Koreleski, J. and Ostrowski, H. T. (1970). The effect of nitrogen fertilisers on nutritional value of potatoes proteins. Bull. Inst. Zootech., 3/58, 57–69.Google Scholar
  27. Krysciak, J., Ostrowski, H. T. and Rys, R. (1966). Changes in the content of free amino acids in pig blood plasma after ingestion of food. Acta biochem. pol., 13, 229–235.Google Scholar
  28. Longenecker, J. B., House, N. L. (1959). Relationship between plasma amino acids and composition of the ingested protein. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 84, 46–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Longenecker, J. B. and House, N. L. (1961). Relationship between plasma amino acids and composition of ingested protein. II. A shortened procedure to determine plasma amino acid ratios. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 4, 356–364.Google Scholar
  30. Longenecker, J. B. (1963). Utilisation of Dietary Proteins. In, ‘Never Methods Nutritional Biochemistry’, A. A. Albanese (Editor), Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York and London, 113–144.Google Scholar
  31. Marrs, T. C., Addison, J. M., Burston, D. and Matthews, D. M. (1975). Changes in plasma amino acid concentrations in man after ingestion of an amino acid mixture simulating casein, and tryptic hydrolysate of casein. Br. J. Nutr., 34, 259–265.Google Scholar
  32. Munro, H. N. (1964). General aspects of the regulation of protein metabolism by diet and by hormones. In, ‘Mammalian Protein Metabolism’. Vol.I, Chapter 10. H. N. Munro and J. B. Allison (Editors), New York and London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Munro, H. N. (1970). Regulatory mechanisms in mammalian protein metabolism. In, ‘Proteins as human food’, R. A. Lawrie (Editor). Academic Press, Cambridge. 403–415.Google Scholar
  34. Nasset, E. S., Ganapathy, S. N. and Goldsmith, D. P. S. (1963). Amino acids in dog blood and gut contents after feeding zein. J. Nutr., 81, 343–347.Google Scholar
  35. NRC, (1968). ‘Nutrient requirements of swine’. National Academy of Sciences, Research Council, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  36. Omstedt, P. T. and Von der Decken, A. (1974). Dietary amino acids: effect of depletion and recovery on protein synthesis in vitro in rat skeletal muscle and liver. Br. J. Nutr., 31, 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ostrowski, H. T. (1969). The effects of dietary supplementation with lysine and methionine on body and tissue composition in the pig. Anim. Prod., 11, 4, 521–532.Google Scholar
  38. Ostrowski, H. T. (1970). Some problems concerning errors in the nitrogen and lysine balance studies on animals. Bull. de L Academia Polonaise des Science, Serie des Sciences biologiques. Cl. II, XVIII, 11–12, 727–729.Google Scholar
  39. Ostrowski, H. T. (1971). Available lysine as an indication of nutritional evaluation of feedstuffs. IV. An attempt of the application of lysine availability test in feed mixtures as an indication of their nutritional quality in pig nutrition. Bull. Przem. Pasz., 3, 1-8.Google Scholar
  40. Ostrowski, H. T. (1972a). Chemiluminescence as a method for malabsorption syndrome detection. Proc. XIVth Congress Gastroenterology, Prague, p.268.Google Scholar
  41. Ostrowski, H. T. (1972b). Nutritional and physiological role of biostimulators used in “premix” form in feed mixtures. Sci. Publ. Centr. Lab. Feed Ind. Lublin, 1, 12–25, 1972.Google Scholar
  42. Ostrowski, H. T. (1972c). Problem of synergism and antagonism between biostimulators using as component of the feed mixtures for farm animals. Sci. Publ. Centr. Lab. Feed Ind., 1, 26–36.Google Scholar
  43. Ostrowski, H. T. (1972d). Requirements of growing meat type pigs for lysine. Rocz. Nauk rol., 94-B-3, 75–87.Google Scholar
  44. Ostrowski, H. T. (1972e). The studies on premix composition for growing pigs and comparison of the production results with nitrogen balance studies. Scient. Public. Central Lab. Feed Ind. Lublin, 1, 37–80.Google Scholar
  45. Ostrowski, H. T. (1972f). Premixes for growing pigs fed with diets of plant origin with low protein level. Sci. Public. Central Lab. Feed Ind., CLPP, Lublin, 1–139.Google Scholar
  46. Ostrowski, H. T. (1975a). Effect of dietary lysine imbalance on the apparent digestibility of protein, organic matter, and ether extract for pigs. N.Z. J. Agric. Res., 18, 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ostrowski, H. T. and Rys, R. (1969). Attempt of total replacement of barley by potato flakes in bacon fattening with simultaneous completion of the diet with synthetic amino acids L-lysine & DL-methionine. Rocz, Nauk Roln., 92-B-1, 71–92.Google Scholar
  48. Ostrowski, H. T., Jones, A. S. and Cadenhead, A. (1970). Availability of lysine in protein concentrates and diets using Carpenter’s method & a modified Silcock method. J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 21, 103–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ostrowski, H. T. and Koreleski, J. (1970). The effect of nitrogen fertilisers on nutritional value of cereal protein. Bull. Inst. Zootech., 3/58, 39–56.Google Scholar
  50. Ostrowski, H. T., Jones, A. S. and Cadenhead, A. (1971). Nitrogen Metabolism of the Pig. III. Utilisation of protein from different sources. J. Sci. Fd Agri., 22, 34–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ostrowski, H. T., Rys, R. and Morstin, E. (1972). The applying synthetic fatty acids & their sodium salts & amino acids in growing pigs nutrition. Rocz. Nauk rol., 94-B-2, 45–52.Google Scholar
  52. Ostrowski, H. T., Rys, R., Morstin, E. and Koscinskâ, A. (1972). Studies on the effect of synthetic L-lysine & DL-methionine supplements given to pigs after being mixed with feed or separately two hours after the meal. Bull. Przem. Pasz., 3–4, 75–80.Google Scholar
  53. Ostrowski, H. T., Morstin, E. and Koscinska, A. (1972). A comparison of nutritional value of feed mixtures for pigs in experiments on rats & pigs. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk roln., 126, 143–149.Google Scholar
  54. Ostrowski, H. T. and Rys, R. (1973a). Rapeseed oil meal as a protein component of diets for fattening pigs. I. Rocz. Nauk roln., 94-B-4, 83–103.Google Scholar
  55. Ostrowski, H. T. and Rys, R. (1973b). Rapeseed oil meal as a protein component of diets for fattening pigs. II. Rocz. Nauk roln., 94-B-4, 105–122.Google Scholar
  56. PieniOek, D., Rakowska, M., Szkilidziowa, W. and Grabarek, Z. (1975). Estimation of available methionine and cysteine in proteins of food products by in vivo and in vitro methods. Br. J. Nutr., 34, 175–190.Google Scholar
  57. Pion, R., Fauconneau, G. and Rerat, A. (1966). Etude de la digestion des proteines chez le proc par la mesure de L’aminoacidemie porte. Cachier No. 6. (Amino acids, peptides, proteins), 326–339.Google Scholar
  58. Pruss, H. D. and Ney, K. H. (1972). Determination of the “available” lysine in whey powder, whey protein and rannet-precipitated casein by the Remazolbrillantblue-R-method. Z. Lebensmitt. - Untersuch. 148. 347–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rerat, A. (1971). La valeur biologique des proteines: quelques acquisitions recentes. Ann. de Zootech., 20, 2, 193–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rerat, A. and Lougnon, J. (1965). Les besoins en amino acides pore en croissance. Cachier A.E.C. No. 6. (Amino acids, peptides, proteins), 342–421.Google Scholar
  61. Richardson, L. R., Hale, F. and Ritchey, S. J. (1965). Effect of fasting and level of dietary protein on free amino acids in pig plasma. J. Anim. Sci., 24, 368–372.Google Scholar
  62. Rolls, B. A., Porter, J. W. G. and Westgarth, D. R. (1972). The course of digestion of different food proteins in rat. III. The absorption of proteins given alone and with supplements of their limiting amino acids. Br. J. Nutr., 28, 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Said, A. K., Hegsted, D. M. and Hayes, K. C. (1974). Response of adult rats to deficiencies of different essential amino acids. Br. J. Nutr., 31, 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schorrock, C. (1976). An improved procedure for the assay of available lysine and methionine in feedstuffs using Tetrahymene pyriformis W. Br. J. Nutr., 35, 333–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Van Slyke, D. D. and Meyer, G. M. (1913a). The absorption of amino acids from the blood by the tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 16, 197212.Google Scholar
  66. Van Slyke, D. D. and Meyer, G. M. (1913b). The locus of chemical transformation of absorbed amino acids. J. Biol. Chem., 16, 213–229.Google Scholar
  67. Van Slyke, D. D. and Meyer, G. M. (1913c). The effect of feeding and fasting on the amino acid content of the tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 16, 231–233.Google Scholar
  68. Varnish, S. A. and Carpenter, K. J. (1975). Mechanism of heat damage in proteins. VI. The digestibility of individual amino acids in heated and propionyleted proteins. Br. J. Nutr., 34, 339–349.Google Scholar
  69. Woodham, A. A. and Clarke, E. M. W. (1977). Nutritive value of mixed proteins. II. As determined by net protein utilisation and protein efficiency ratio tests. Br. J. Nutr., 37, 309–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry T. Ostrowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Biochemistry DepartmentBendigo College of Advanced EducationBendigoAustralia

Personalised recommendations