The Interpretation of Ultrastructural Abnormalities in Cerebral Ischemia

  • J. H. Garcia
  • A. S. Lossinsky
  • K. Donger
  • F. C. Kauffman


It has been customary to equate the effects of pure lack of oxygen (hypoxia, anoxia) with those of ischemia. Significant differences between them have been determined at the cellular level; these have been attributed, among other reasons, to the fact that ischemia is characterized by major compartmental fluid shifts, which appear to be minimal in hypoxic cells (6). Experimental models of brain ischemia, or impaired intracranial blood flow, range from those in which the entire arterial circulation is interrupted either temporarly (10) or permanently (12), to situations involving interruptions of both arterial and venous flow (1) to models of single-artery occlusion (18). In terms of applicability to human brain injuries, two mechanisms of ischemia are particularly frequent: temporary global ischemia (secondary to hypotension and cardiac arrest) and regional ischemia (due to occlusion of a major artery).


Cerebral Ischemia Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Caudate Nucleus Insular Cortex Regional Ischemia 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. H. Garcia
    • 1
  • A. S. Lossinsky
    • 1
  • K. Donger
    • 1
  • F. C. Kauffman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Department of Pharmacology and Experimental TherapeuticsUniversity of Maryland, School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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