Other Approaches to Therapy

  • Martha Storandt


This chapter represents a pot pourri of techniques, ideas, frames of reference and “therapies,” each of which, in and of itself, has not been sufficiently dealt with by the gerontological research community to warrant treatment in a separate chapter. This is not to imply that these treatment techniques are not widely applied if we consider all therapies currently employed with older adults. Large numbers of institutions caring for the mentally ill aged devote many staff-hours to remotivation therapy. Many group therapists may use a psychodynamic frame of reference in their treatment of older clients. However, relatively little research presently exists with respect to the application of these therapeutic techniques to older adults. Many of the articles and reports which can be found in the literature are think pieces, program descriptions, case studies, or recommendations based on a subjective evaluation on the part of the practitioner. Thus, the research clinical psychologist, with the specialized skills which training in clinical psychology produces, may find this chapter a veritable goldmine of intriguing hypotheses; on the other hand, relatively little in the way of “facts,” or even substantiated theory, will be apparent.


Nursing Home Family Therapy Geriatric Patient Exercise Therapy Token Economy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Atchley, R. C. The social forces in later life (2nd ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1977.Google Scholar
  2. Baer, P. E., Morin, K., and Gaitz, C. M. Familial resources of elderly psychiatric patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1970, 22, 343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes, J. A. Effects of reality orientation classroom on memory loss, confusion, and disorientation in geriatric patients. The Gerontologist, 1974, 14, 138–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beard, M. T., and Bidus, D. R. A study of the effects of remotivation on social competence, social interest and personal neatness. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health Services, 1968, 6, 197–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berezin, M. A., and Stotsky, B. A. The geriatric patient. In H. Grunebaum (Ed.), The practice of community mental health. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1970.Google Scholar
  6. Bok, M. Some problems in milieu treatment of the chronic older mental patient. The Gerontologist, 1971, 11, 141–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bovey, J. A. The effect of intensive remotivation techniques on institutionalized geriatric mental patients in a state mental hospital. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, North Texas State University, 1971.Google Scholar
  8. Bowers, M. B., Anderson, G. K., Blomeier, E. C., and Pelz, K. Brain syndrome and behavior in geriatric remotivation groups. Journal of Gerontology, 1967, 22, 348–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brook, P., Degun, G., and Mather, M. Reality orientation, a therapy for psychogeriatric patients: A controlled study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1975, 127, 42–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Citrin, R. S., and Dixon, D. N. Reality orientation: A milieu therapy used in an institution for the aged. The Gerontologist, 1977, 17, 39–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crosson, C. Art therapy with geriatric patients: Problems of spontaneity. American Journal of Art Therapy, 1976, 15, 51–56.Google Scholar
  12. deVries, H. A. Physiological effects of an exercise training regimen upon men 52–88. Journal of Gerontology, 1970, 25, 325–336.Google Scholar
  13. Dewdney, I. An art therapy program for geriatric patients. American Journal of Art Therapy, 1973, 12, 249–254.Google Scholar
  14. Folsom, J. C. Intensive hospital therapy of geriatric patients.Google Scholar
  15. In J. H. Masserman (Ed.), Current psychiatric therapies (Vol. 7). New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967.Google Scholar
  16. Gatz, M., Siegler, I. C., and Dibner, S. S. Individual and community: Normative conflicts in the development of a new therapeutic community. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1977.Google Scholar
  17. Goldfarb, A. I., Hochstadt, N. J., Jacobson, J. H., and Weinstein, E. A. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of organic mental syndrome in aged persons. Journal of Gerontology, 1972, 27, 212–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldstein, S. W., and Birnbom, F. Hypochondriasis and the elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1976, 24, 150–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gottesman, L. E. Resocialization of the geriatric mental patient. American Journal of Public Health, 1965, 55, 1964–1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gottesman, L. E. The response of long-hospitalized aged psychiatric patients to milieu treatment. The Gerontologist, 1967, 7, 47–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grauer, H., Betts, D., and Birnbom, F. Welfare emotions and family therapy in geriatrics. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1973, 21, 21–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gubrium, J. F., and Ksander, M. On multiple realities and reality orientation. The Gerontologist, 1975, 15, 142–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gutmann, D., Gottesman, L., and Tessler, S. A comparative study of ego functioning in geriatric patients. The Gerontologist, 1973, 13, 419–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harris, C. S., and Ivory, P. B. C. B. An outcome evaluation of reality orientation therapy with geriatric patients in a state mental hospital. The Gerontologist, 1976, 16, 496–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jacobs, E. A., Winter, P. M., Alvis, H. J., and Small, S. M. Hyperoxygentation effect on cognitive functioning in the aged. New England Journal of Medicine, 1969, 281, 753–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keller, J. F., Croake, J. W., and Brooking, J. Y. Effects of a program in rational thinking on anxieties in older persons. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1975, 22, 54–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liederman, P. C., and Liederman, V. R. Group therapy: An approach to problems of geriatric outpatients. In J. H. Masserman (Ed.), Current psychiatric therapies (Vol. 7). New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967.Google Scholar
  28. Litwak, E. Geographical mobility and family cohesion. American Sociological Review, 1961, 26, 258–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Long, R. Remotivation—Fact or artifact. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, Supplementary Mailing No. 151, 1962.Google Scholar
  30. Lowenthal, M. F., and Haven, C. Interaction and adaptation: Intimacy as a critical variable. American Sociological Review, 1968, 33, 20–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mishara, B. L. Geriatric patients who improve in token economy and general milieu treatment programs: A multivariate analysis. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, August, 1977.Google Scholar
  32. Mueller, D. J., and Atlas, L. Resocialization of regressed elderly residents: A behavioral management approach. Journal of Gerontology, 1972, 27, 390–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Oberleder, M. Crisis therapy in mental breakdown of the aging. The Gerontologist, 1970, 10, 111–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Peterson, J. A. Marital and family therapy involving the aged. The Gerontologist, 1973, 13, 27–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Peth, P. R. Rational-emotive therapy and the older adult. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 1974, 6, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Powell, R. R. Psychological effects of exercise therapy upon institutionalized geriatric mental patients. Journal of Gerontology, 1974, 29, 157–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Reichenfeld, H. F., Csapo, K. G., Carriere, L., and Gardner, R. C. Evaluating the effect of activity programs on a geriatric ward. The Gerontologist, 1973, 33, 305–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sanders, R., Smith, R. S., and Weinman, W. S. Chronic psychosis and recovery. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1967.Google Scholar
  39. Silverthorn, A. I., Leech, S., and Silverthorn, L. J. Use of sensory awareness with geriatric patients. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, August, 1975.Google Scholar
  40. Smyer, M. A., Siegler, I. C, and Gatz, M. Learning to live in a therapeutic community: A study of elderly inpatients. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1976, 7, 231–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Spark, G. M. Grandparents and intergenerational family therapy. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, 1973.Google Scholar
  42. Spence, D. L., Cohen, S., and Kowalski, C. Mental health, age, and community living. The Gerontologist, 1975, 15, 77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steer, R. A., and Boger, W. P. Milieu therapy with psychiatric-medically infirm patients. The Gerontologist, 1975, 15, 138–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Taulbee, L. R., and Folsom, J. C. Reality orientation for geriatric patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 1966, 37, 133–135.Google Scholar
  45. Taulbee, L. R., and Wright, H. W. A psychosocial-behavioral model for therapy. In C. W. Spielberger, Current topics in clinical and community psychology (Vol. 3). New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  46. Thompson, L. W. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on behavioral functioning in elderly persons with intellectual impairment. In S. Gershon and A. Raskin (Eds.), Aging, Vol. 2. New York: Raven Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  47. Thralow, J. U., and Watson, C. G. Remotivation for geriatric patients using elementary school students. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 1974, 28, 469–473,PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Toepfer, C. T., Bicknell, A. T., and Shaw, D. O. Remotivation as behavior therapy. The Gerontologist, 1974, 14, 451–453,PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zieger, B. L. Life review in art therapy with the aged. American Journal of Art Therapy, 1976, 15, 47–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martha Storandt
    • 1
  1. 1.Washington UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations