The Analysis of Glasses, Refractories, Ceramics, and Related Materials by Atomic Spectroscopy
The analysis of glasses and refractory oxides has been simplified in recent years through the development of atomic absorption and emission spectrometers that have improved nebulizers, burners, and electronics. When these features are used in conjunction with the conventional excitation flames, readouts are sufficiently stable to allow the determination of some major constituents, viz., Si (1–11), alkalies (3,5–8,11–13), alkaline earths (3,5,7,8,10,11), and Al (3,5,7–11,14–16). The precision and accuracy are equal to those obtained by gravimetric and titrimetric methods. The resulting spectrometric procedures are usually faster than their more classical counterparts because arduous separations which also tend to increase blanks are no longer necessary prior to the introduction of the sample solution into the excitation source and its comparison with appropriate standards. Consequently, the major problems are now associated with adequate sample preparation and decomposition plus obviating spectral, physical, and chemical interferences. Some of these interferences can be eliminated through the use of chemical releasing agents and/or ionization suppressants (17,18), or high temperature argon plasmas (19–21); the latter being especially useful for the very refractory elements.
KeywordsBurner Clay Corn Graphite Zirconium
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