A System for in Vivo Measurement of Oxygen in Intraocular Tissue

  • Robert W. Flower
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 75)


The sensory retina of the eye is unique in that it is nourished by the two separate circulations between which it lies—the retinal vasculature supplying the inner retinal layers and the choroidal vasculature supplying primarily the outer layers. The extremely high metabolic rate of retinal tissue makes it susceptible to ischemic damage when the retinal blood supply is segmentally or totally disrupted; the effect of interrupted choroidal blood supply is currently less well documented. Consequently, the relationship between individual contributions of the retinal and choroidal circulations to retinal oxygenation is fundamental to a thorough understanding of the physiology associated with ischemic eye disease. A number of investigators interested in intraocular oxygen distributions have applied the technique of Polarographic oxygen measurements using microelec-trodes1,2,3..., and one has even coined the convenient term “ophtha lmopolarography”.4


Electrode Pair Polarize Potential Hyperbaric Chamber Choroidal Circulation Current Monitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Briggs, D., Rodenhauser, J.-H.: Distribution and consumption of oxygen in the vitreous body of cats. In: Oxygen Supply, Kessler, M., Bruley, D.F., et al, 1971, University Park Press, p. 265.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ernest, J. T.: In vivo measurement of optic disc oxygen tension, Invest. Ophthalmol. 12: 927, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tsacopoulos, M., Baker, R., et al: The effect of arterial Pco2 on inner-retinal oxygen availability in monkeys, Invest. Ophthalmol. 21: 449, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jakovlev, A.A.: Die Untersuchung der Sauerstoff Spannung in den Geweben und in Kammerwasser des Auges mit Hilfe der Polarographie, Albrecht v. Graefes Arch. klin. exp. Ophthal. 185: 108, 1972.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alm, A., Bill, A.: The oxygen supply to the retina, I. Effects of changes in intraocular and arterial blood pressues, and in arterial Po2 and Pco2 on the oxygen tension in the vitreous body of the cat, Acta. Physiol. Scan. 84: 261, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Flower, R.W.: Construction of a versatile small-animal hyperbaric facility, J. Appl. Physiol. 27: 571, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chubbuck, J.G.: An electromechanical micropositioner, IEEE Trans. Bio. Engr. (In press).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown, K.T.: Optical stimulator, microelectrode advancer, and associated equipment for intraretinal neurophysiology in closed mammalian eyes, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54: 101, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brown, K.T.: The electroretinogram: Its components and their origins, Vision Res. 8: 633, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robinson, D.A.: The electrical properties of metal micro-electrodes, Proc. IEEE, 56: 1065, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Olson, R.A., Brackett, F.S., et al: Oxygen tension measurement by a method of time selection using the static platinum electrode with alternating potential, J. Gen. Physiol. 32: 681, 1949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Albanese, R.A., Chang, C.H., et al: Determination of the absolute oxygen tension in tissue by a new microelectrode technique. In: Hyperbaric Medicine, Brown, I.W., Cox, B.G., 1966, Publication 1404, Washington, NAS/NRC, p. 294.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saulson, S.H.: High speed pulsatile operation of miniature oxygen electrodes. In: Oxygen Transport To Tissue, Bicher, H.I., Bruley, D.F., New York, 1973, Plenum Press, p. 29.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Longmuir, I.S.: Respiration rate of bacteria as a function of oxygen concentrations, Biochem. J. 57: 81, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert W. Flower
    • 1
  1. 1.The Applied Physics Laboratory and The Wilmer, Ophthalmological Institute of The Johns HopkinsUniversity and HospitalBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations