The History of Parenteral Alimentation
Ever since William Harvey announced his theory of circulation in 1615, man has attempted to cure disease by cleansing or enriching the blood with infusion of intravenous remedies. Among the first to investigate this means of therapy was another famous Englishman, Sir Christopher Wren. He performed intravenous infusion in animals and discussed the benefits of blood transfusion, a technique that was undertaken in animals by Richard Lower in 1665 and ten years later by Jean Baptiste Denis who transfused sheep blood into humans. Fortunately, when these early studies met with little success or frequently even with disaster, the initial enthusiasm for human experimentation declined. Gauthier invented a technique for the distillation of water in 1717, and sixteen years later Stephen Hales produced “dropsy” in humans by infusing water intravenously. The study of metabolism was initiated by Lavoisier later in that century, and in 1792 glucose was discovered by Lobowitz.
KeywordsParenteral Nutrition Hypertonic Solution Burns Institute Hypodermic Syringe Synthetic Diet
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