Advertisement

Heavy Metals—Toxicity and Environmental Pollution

  • Jack Schubert
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 40)

Abstract

The screaming Japanese cats of Minamata, the dying birds of Sweden, and the staggering pigs of New Mexico should have taught mankind a fundamental fact of environmental biology. Unfortunately, the lesson to be constantly relearned from those mercury-poisoned animals is that all organisms—from man with 1013 cells to the mindless single cell—are programmed by the same basic substance, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). With such a shared relationship, it would be expected that the response of all organisms to chemicals would qualitatively be the same. Yet, it is curious that to this very day, a lethal or debilitating action of a chemical to animals which may not have been manifested or observed in man, is often disregarded or jocularly dismissed—usually by those who have an economic interest in continuing the use of the chemical in question.

Keywords

Heavy Metal Lead Level Blood Lead Level Lead Poisoning Inorganic Mercury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aa.
    Alexander, C. S. (1972), Amer. J. Med., 53, 395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. A1.
    Ambio, Special Report on the “Evaluation of Genetic Risks of Environmental Chemicals” (in press).Google Scholar
  3. A2.
    Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1972), Geochemical Environment in Relation to Health and Disease, H. C. Hopps and H. L. Cannon, eds., June 28, Vol. 199.Google Scholar
  4. B1.
    Beam, A. G. (1966), “Wilson’s Disease,” The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, Chapter 34, J. B. Stanbury, J. B. Wyngaarden, and D. S. Frederickson, eds., New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  5. B2.
    Beattie, A. D., et al. (1972), Brit. Med. J., May 27, 491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. B3.
    Berlin, M., Jerksell, L. G., and Nordberg, G. (1965), Acta Pharmacol, et Toxicol., 23, 312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. B4.
    Bertilsson, L. and Neujahr, H. Y. (1971), Biochemistry, 10, 2805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. B5(a).
    Billings, C. E. and Matson, W. R. (1972), Science, 176, 1232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. B5 (b).
    Friedman, I. and Peterson, N. (1971), Science, 172, 1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. B6.
    Blokker, P. C. (1972), Atm. Env., 6, I.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. B7.
    Blumenthal, S., Davidow, B., Harris, D., and Oliver-Smith, F. (1972), Amer. J. Public Health, 62, 1060.Google Scholar
  12. B8.
    Bridges, B. (1971), Newsletter Environ. Mutagen Soc., #5, November, 13–15.Google Scholar
  13. B9.
    Browning, E. (1969), Toxicity of Industrial Metals, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 383 pp.Google Scholar
  14. B10(a).
    Brugsch, H. G. (1959), A.M.A. Archiv. Indust. Health, 20, 285.Google Scholar
  15. B10(b).
    Brugsch, H. G. (1965), J. Occup. Med., 7, 394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. B11.
    Bryce-Smith, D. (1972), Lancet, Oct. 14, 817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. B12.
    Buchwald, H. (1972), Amer. Indust. Hyg. Assoc. J., July, 492.Google Scholar
  18. B13.
    Burdé, B. and Choate, Jr., M. S. (1972), J. Pediatrics, 81, 1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. C1.
    Catsch, A. (1964), Radioactive Metal Mobilization in Medicine, Springfield, III.: C. C. Thomas, 170 pp.; ibid. (1968), Dekorporierung Radioakfiver und Stabiler Metallionen, München: Karl Thiemig Kg, 176 pp.Google Scholar
  20. C2.
    Challop, R. S. (1971), New Engl. J. Med., 285, 970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. C3.
    Childs, B., Miller, S. M., and Beam, A. G. (1972), “Gene Mutation as a Cause of Human Disease,” Mutagenic Effects of Envi ronmental Contaminants, H. E. Sutton and M. F. Harris, eds., New York: Academic Press, pp. 3–14.Google Scholar
  22. C4.
    Chisolm, Jr., J. J. and Harrison, H. E. (1956), Pediatrics, 18, 943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. C5.
    Chisolm, Jr., J. J. (1968), J. Pediatr., 73, I.Google Scholar
  24. C6.
    Christensen, H. E., ed. (1972), The Toxic Substances List, Rockville, Md.: U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Health Sciences and Mental Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.Google Scholar
  25. C7.
    Clarkson, T. W. (1972), Ann. Rev. Pharmacology, 12, 375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. C8.
    Cleaning Our Envi ronment—The Chemical Basis for Action (1969), Washington, D. C.: American Chemical Society, 249 pp.Google Scholar
  27. C9.
    Cotzias, G. C. (1967), in Proceedings University of Missouri 1st Annual Conference on Trace Substances in Envi ronmental Health, Columbia, Mo.: Univ. Mo. Environmental Health Center and Extension Division, pp. 5–19;Google Scholar
  28. C9a.
    Cotzias, G. C., et al. (1972), Science, 176, 412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. C10.
    Crawford, M. D., Gardner, M. J., and Sedgwick, P. A. (1972), Lancet, May 6, 988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. D1.
    Dauncey, M. J. and Widdowson, E. M. (1972), Lancet, April 1, 711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. D2.
    David, O., Clark, J., and Voeller, K. (1972), Lancet, Oct. 28, 900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. D3.
    Deichmann, W. B. and Gerarde, H. W. (1964), Sympomalology and Therapy of Toxicological Emergencies, New York: Academic Press, 605 pp.Google Scholar
  33. D4.
    Dingwall-Fordyce, I. and Lane, R. E. (1963), Brit. J. Ind. Med., 20, 313.Google Scholar
  34. D5.
    Dunlap, L. (1971), Chem. & Eng. News, July 5, 22–34.Google Scholar
  35. E1.
    “Effects of Mercury on Man and the Environment,” Hearings of the Committee on Commerce, United States Senate, 91st Congress, May 8, 1970, Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  36. E2.
    Epstein, S. S., Arnold, E., Andrea, J., Bass, W., and Bishop, Y. (1972), Toxicol. and Appl. Pharmacology, 23, 288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. F1.
    Federal Register (1971), Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor, Chapter XVII, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Part 1910, Vol. 36, No. 157, Friday, August 13.Google Scholar
  38. F2.
    Ferm, V. H. (1969), Experientia, 25, 56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. F3.
    Fishbein, L., Flamm, W. G., and Falk, H. L. (1970), Chemical Mutagens, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. F4.
    Foote, R. S. (1972), Science, 177, 513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. F5.
    Fried, J. F., Rosenthal, M. W., and Schubert, J. (1956), Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 92, 331.Google Scholar
  42. F6.
    Fujiki, M. (1963), Kumamoto Igk, Z., 37, 10.Google Scholar
  43. G1.
    Gilfillan, S. C. (1965), J. Occup. Med., 7, 53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. G2.
    Goldstein, A., Aronow, L., and Kaiman, S. M. (1968), Principles of Drug Action, New York: Harper and Row, 1884 pp.Google Scholar
  45. G3.
    Goodman, L. S. and Gilman, A., eds. (1970), The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 4th ed., New York: Macmillan Co., 1785 pp.Google Scholar
  46. G4.
    Goyer, R. S. and Mahaffey, K. R. (1972), Environ. Health Perspectives, October, 73–80.Google Scholar
  47. G5.
    Greenfield, O. (1963), New Engl. J. Med., 269, 1138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. G6.
    Grice, H. C., et al. (1969), Clin. Toxicol., 2, 273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. G7.
    Gunn, S. A., Gould, T. C., and Anderson, W. A. D. (1968), Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 128, 591.Google Scholar
  50. H1.
    Hall, S. K. (1972), Environ. Sci. & Technol., 6, 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. H2.
    Halloran, R. (1973), New York Times, March 21.Google Scholar
  52. H3.
    Hardy, H. L., et al. (1971), Clin. Pharmacol. and Therapeutics, 12, 982.Google Scholar
  53. H4.
    Hartung, R. and Dinman, B. D., eds. (1972), Envi ronmental Mercury Contamination, Ann Arbor Sci. Publ., 349 pp.Google Scholar
  54. H5.
    Hemphill, F. E., Kaeberle, M. L., and Buck, W. B. (1971), Science, 172, 1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. H6.
    Hemphill, D. D., ed. (1972), Trace Substances in Environmental Health, Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri.Google Scholar
  56. I1.
    Imura, N., et al. (1971), Science, 172, 1248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. I2.
    International Labour Office, Sixth Session of the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health, Geneva (1968).Google Scholar
  58. J1.
    Jensen, S. and Jernelöv, A. (1967), Nordforsk Biolidinformation, 10, 4;Google Scholar
  59. J1a.
    Jensen, S. and Jernelöv, A. (1968), Nordforsk Biolidinformation, 14, 3;Google Scholar
  60. J1b.
    Jensen, S. and Jernelöv, A. (1969), Nature, 223, 753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. J2.
    Jones, R. H., Williams, R. L., and Jones, A. M. (1971), Proc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 137, 1231.Google Scholar
  62. K1.
    Kehoe, R. A. (1965), Arch. Environ. Health, 11, 736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. K2.
    Kennedy, A. (1968), Brit. J. Exp. Path., 49, 360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. K3.
    King, B. G., et al. (1972), Amer. J. Public Health, 62, 1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. K4.
    Kurland, L. T., et al. (1960), World Neurology, 1, 370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. L1.
    Lead, Committee on Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants (1972), Washington, D. C.: National Academy of Sciences, 330 pp.Google Scholar
  67. L2.
    Lee, D. H. K., ed. (1972), Metallic Contaminants and Human Health, New York: Academic Press, 244 pp.Google Scholar
  68. L3.
    Lenz, W. (1961), Deutsche med. Wochenschr., 86, 2555.Google Scholar
  69. L4.
    Lewis, G. P., Jusko, W. J., and Coughlin, L. L. (1972), J. Chron. Dis., 25, 717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. L5.
    Lin-Fu, J. S. (1972), New Engl. J. Med., 286, 702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. L6.
    Löfroth, G (1970), “Methyl mercury,” Ecological Research Committee, Bulletin No. 4, 2nd ed., Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish National Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  72. L7.
    Luzio, N. di (1972), Chem. & Eng. News, February 28, 56.Google Scholar
  73. M1.
    Malling, H. V., Wassom, J. S., and Epstein, S. S. (1970), Environmental Mutagen Soc. Newsletter, June, 7.Google Scholar
  74. M2.
    Mancuso, T. F. and El-Attar, A. A. (1969), J. Occup. Med., 11, 422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. M3.
    Masironi, A. T., et al. (1972), Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 47, 139.Google Scholar
  76. M4.
    McCaull, J. (1971), Environment, 13, 3.Google Scholar
  77. M5.
    McClure, C. D. (1970), Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 32, 204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. M6.
    Mclntire, M. S. and Angle, C. R. (1972), Science, 177, 520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. M7.
    Miettinen, J. K. (1972), Science, 176, 1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. M8.
    Millar, J. A., et al. (1970), Lancet, Oct. 3, 695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. M9.
    Montague, P. and Montague, K. (1971), Saturday Review, Feb. 6, 50–55.Google Scholar
  82. M10.
    Moutschen, J., Moës, A., and Gilot, J. (1964), Experientia, 20, 494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. M11.
    Muro, L. A. and Goyer, R. A. (1969), Arch. Path., 87, 660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. N1.
    Needleman, H. L. and Scanlon, J. (1973), New Engl. J. Med., 288, 466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. N2.
    Niemeier, B. (1967), Int. Archiv f. Gewerbepathologie u. Gewerbehygiene, 24, 160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. O1.
    Oehme, F. W. (1970), Clin. Toxicol., 3, 5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. P1.
    Patterson, C. C. (1965), Arch. Environ. Hl th., 11, 344.Google Scholar
  88. P2.
    Pierce, P. E., et al. (1972), J. Amer. Med. Assoc, 220, 1439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. P3.
    Pollycove, M. (1966), “Hemochromatosis,” The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, Chapter 35, J. B. Stanbury, J. B. Wyngaarden, and D. S. Frederickson, eds., New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  90. P4.
    Prerovska, I. and Teisinger, J. (1970), Brit. J. Med., 27, 352.Google Scholar
  91. R1.
    Ramel, C. (1969), Hereditas, 61, 208;PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. R1a.
    Ramel, C. and Magnusson, J. (1969), Hereditas, 61, 231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. R2.
    Ringbom, A. (1963), Complexation in Analytical Chemistry, New York: Interscience, 395 pp.Google Scholar
  94. S1.
    Sands, J. H., Berris, B., and Scherer, L. R. (1950), New Engl. J. Med., 243, 559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. S2.
    Schroeder, H. A. (1965), J. Chron. Dis., 18, 647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. S3.
    Schroeder, H. A., et al. (1967), J. Chron. Dis., 20, 179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. S4.
    Schroeder, H. A. and Nason, A. P. (1971), Clin. Chem., 17, 461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. S5.
    Schroeder, H. A. (1971), Environment, 13, 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. S6.
    Schubert, J. and White, M. R. (1952), J. Lab. Clin. Med., 39, 260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. S7.
    Schubert, J. (1958), Scient. Amer., 199, 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. S8.
    Schubert, J. and Lapp, R. E. (1958), Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 14, 23.Google Scholar
  102. S9.
    Schubert, J. and Rosenthal, M. W. (1959), A.M.A. Arch. Ind. Health, 19, 169.Google Scholar
  103. S10.
    Schubert, J. (1964), “The Chemical Basis of Chelation,” Iron Metabolism, F. Gross, ed., Springer-Verlag, pp. 466–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. S11.
    Schubert, J. (1966), Scient. Amer., 214, 40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. S12.
    Schubert, J. (1972), Radiobiology of Plutonium, W. S. S. Jee and B. J. Stover, eds., University of Utah, 552 pp.Google Scholar
  106. S13.
    Schubert, J. (1972), Ambio, 1, 79.Google Scholar
  107. S14.
    Sever, L. E. and Emanual, I. (1972), Teratology, 7, 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. S15.
    Sharma, V. J. and Schubert, J. (1969), J. Chem. Ed., 46, 506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. S16.
    Shaw, M. (1970), Ann. Rev. Med., 21, 409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. S17.
    Shea, K. P. (1973), Environment, 15, 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. S18.
    Sillen, L. G. and Martell, A. E., eds. (1964), Stability Constants of Metal-Ion Complexes, Special Publication No. 17, London: The Chemical Society,Google Scholar
  112. S18.
    Burlington House, W. I; Stability Constants of Metal-Ion Complexes (1971), Supplement No. I, Special Publication No. 25.Google Scholar
  113. S19.
    Skerfving, S., Hansson, K., and Lindsten, J. (1970), Arch. Environ. Health, 21, 133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. S20.
    Skoryna, S. C. and Waldron-Edward, D., eds. (1971), Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements and Radionuclides, Pergamon Press, 431 pp.Google Scholar
  115. S21.
    Snyder, R. D. (1971), New Engl. J. Med., 284, 1014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. S22.
    Spangler, W. J., Spigarelli, J. L., Rose, J. M., and Miller, H. M. (1973), Science, 180, 192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. S23.
    Stern, C. (1971), Ann. Int. Med., 75, 623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. S24.
    Stokinger, H. E., ed. (1966), Beryllium—Its Industrial Hygiene Aspects, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  119. S25.
    Sullivan, J., Parker, M., and Carson, S. B. (1968), J. Lab. Clin. Med., 71, 893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. S26.
    Symposium on Environmental Lead Contamination (1966), U. S. Public Health Service Publication No. 1440, March, Washington, D. C.: Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, 177 pp.Google Scholar
  121. T1.
    Teisinger, J. (1971), Arch. Environ. Health, 23, 280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. U1.
    Underwood, E. J. (1971), Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 3rd ed., New York: Academic Press, 543 pp.Google Scholar
  123. V1.
    Vigliani, E. C. and Zurlo, N. (1951), Brit. J. Ind. Med., 8, 218.Google Scholar
  124. V2.
    Vincent, W. F., et al. (1970), Amer. J. Clin. Path., 53 963.Google Scholar
  125. W1.
    Wiberg, et al. (1969), Clin. Toxicol., 2, 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. W2.
    Williams, R. T. (1959), Detoxication Mechanisms, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley, 796 pp.Google Scholar
  127. W3.
    Wood, J. M., Kennedy, F. S., and Rosen, C. G. (1968), Nature, 220, 173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. W4.
    Wood, J. M. (1970), Adv. Environ. Sciences, 2, 39.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack Schubert
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiation Health, Graduate School of Public HealthUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations