Brain and Liver Intracellular Compartmental Redox States in Hypoxia, Hypocapnia and Hypercapnia

  • A. T. MillerJr.
  • Francis M. H. Lai
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 33)


This paper gives an account of our experiences with the substrate ratio technique for calculating cytoplasmic and mitochondrial NAD+/NADH2 changes in brain and liver in several metabolic states. The NAD redox system is especially suitable for studies on oxygen availability since it occurs in both the cytoplasm and the mitochondria; this makes it possible to distinguish changes in the NAD+/NADH2 ratio in the two compartments. NAD exists in cells in both free and bound forms. Krebs (1967) and Krebs and Veech (1969) recommend that, on thermodynamic grounds, only the free nucleotide concentrations should be used in calculating redox ratios.


Glutamate Dehydrogenase Intracellular Acidity Substrate Ratio Redox Ratio NADH2 Ratio 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. T. MillerJr.
    • 1
  • Francis M. H. Lai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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