Coagulation Changes in Healthy and Sick Pacific Salmon
Mammalian blood clotting has long been the subject of intensive investigation and the existence of at least 13 clotting factors has been established, with hereditary and acquired defects of almost all clearly delineated (Table I). In contrast, there have been few studies using modern techniques of blood clotting in pre-mammalian species and relatively little is known about their coaguation mechanisms, although this knowledge might provide a key for understanding the complexity of mammalian blood clotting. In the mammalian system there are two pathways for the conversion of pro-thrombin to thrombin, the enzyme which transforms soluble fibrinogen into the insoluble fibrin clot. One of these pathways is referred to as the intrinsic system (Fig. 1) and is initiated by the activation of Hageman factor (factor XII) by a mechanism which is still obscure. In the second or extrinsic mechanism, tissue juices are involved (Fig. 1) and of these, brain and lung tissue have been found to be the most active. There is a final common pathway following the activation of factor X in which factor V, prothrombin and fibrinogen are involved.
KeywordsProthrombin Time Disseminate Intravascular Clotting Partial Thromboplastin Time Pink Salmon Pacific Salmon
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