Comparative Aspects of Congestive Heart Failure in Dogs

  • Robert R. Pensinger
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 241)


A curious paradox in medical research is that animals are frequently employed for the experimental production of diseases and seldom for the observation of spontaneous disorders. In the production of experimental disease, it is seldom possible to duplicate the time course and complexity of spontaneous disease in the aging organism. Such experimental studies may be employed to test hypotheses, but are unlikely to suggest new or unsuspected etiological factors.


Congestive Heart Failure Pulmonic Stenosis Aortic Valve Stenosis Chronic Congestive Heart Failure Heart Lesion 
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  1. 1.
    Detweiler, D.K., et al. Natural history of acquired cardiac disability of the dog. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 147: 318, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pensinger, R.R. Chronic congestive heart failure in dogs-clinical and pathological findings. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 147: 330, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wallace, C.R. Chronic congestive heart failure. Current Veterinary Therapy II., W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, p. 67, 1966.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert R. Pensinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of California, San Diego, School of MedicineLa JollaUSA

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