Prenatal Cardiovascular Adaptation

  • Kurt Benirschke
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 241)


The causes and the pathogenesis of almost all congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system are unknown. Most must originate at a time when the complex folding and septation of the original embryonic vascular channels take place, i.e. within the first six weeks of development. While some genetic factors have been implicated (Zetterqvist, 1971) in most cardiovascular anomalies no strictly genetic basis is ascertained. Conversely, maternal environmental disturbances of embryonic development have been cited occasionally as possible causes of defective fetal growth (Douglas, 1958) and the assumption is made that some of these may affect cardiovascular development as well (Uchida and Rowe, 1957).


Cleft Palate Single Umbilical Artery Transfusion Syndrome Endocardial Fibroelastosis Acardiac Twin 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Benirschke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and PathologyUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

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