Drug Abuse pp 25-34 | Cite as

Non-Pharmacological Factors in Drug Dependence

  • Daniel X. Freedman
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 20)


The apparatus with which man engages reality can—in an evolutionary perspective—be seen to have a certain, though wavering skew toward expediency, survival, and the maintenance of sufficient vigilance for a majority to achieve this. It also permits a range of private experiences, as well as a search for comfort and obtunding of pain; these factors can be sustained with various life styles which can be judged as having tolerable or marginal, or thoroughly inadequate survival value. We seem also to be gifted with the capacity to accentuate and elaborate these capacities and vulnerabilities for subjectivity with a variety of tools and practices; we can implement megalomanic as well as retreatist or reality goals.


Drug Dependence Social Regulation Private Experience Pharmacological Factor Familiar Experience 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel X. Freedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of ChicagoUSA

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