The White Pulp of the Human Spleen in Three Dimensions, and its Relation to Immunologic Function

  • Paul D. Millikin
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 5)


One of the chief difficulties in studying germinal centers is that their anatomic structure is constantly changing. In other parts of the body, such as the ovarian follicle, anatomic changes may accompany changes in function, but the cells involved are stationary; germinal center cells, however, are migratory. It is not known whether any cells migrate into the centers from the outside, but the numerous mitotic figures give ample evidence that there is mass production of new cells locally, and there is also strong evidence that many of these leave the centers, bound for other locations [1, 2]. This means that the germinal center is one of the most variable histologic structures in the entire body, and trying to correlate its changing anatomy with changes in function is one of the most baffling problems in the whole field of immunology.


Germinal Center White Pulp Small Lymphocyte Dark Zone Primary Follicle 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul D. Millikin
    • 1
  1. 1.Lancaster-Fairfield County HospitalLancasterUSA

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