The Relation of Antigen and Virus Localization to the Development and Growth of Lymphoid Germinal Centers

  • M. G. HannaJr.
  • A. K. Szakal
  • H. E. WalburgJr.
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 5)


Early morphologic studies emphasized the proliferative capacity of secondary lymphoid follicles: this resulted in the acceptance of the term “germinal center” as a distinct component of the primary lymphoid follicle. These centers were also characterized by extensive cell death, and it was apparent that both of these phases of the secondary follicle were prominent during an immune or foreign- body reaction. “Dissociation” (a loss of the germinal centers) was a further aspect described by Congdon and Makinodan [1] and later elaborated by Hanna [2]. This response occurred in spleen lymphoid follicles during the first 48 hr after intravenous injection of supra-optimum antigen doses. Loss of the germinal centers was attributed to a dissociative growth of their characteristic large pyroninophilic lymphoid cells into the primary follicle and spleen red pulp. The occurrence of dissociation during the induction phase of the primary immune response suggested that the lymphoid cells of the germinal centers might be precursors of the specific antibody-producing cells. This dissociation was succeeded by hyperplasia of the secondary follicle. As shown in antigen dose studies the hyperplasia was present at all antigen doses, whereas the dissociation was only achieved at optimum and supra-optimum doses [3, 4].


Germinal Center Secondary Follicle Lymphatic Nodule Secondary Immune Response Conventional Mouse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. C Congdon and T. Makinodan, Am. J. Pathol., 39:697, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. G. Hanna Jr., Intern. Arch. Allerqy Appl. Immunol., 26:230, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. G. Hanna Jr., C. C Congdon, and C. J. Wust, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med., 121:281, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. J. V. Nossal, C. M. Austin, J. Pye, and J. Mitchell, Intern. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol., 29:368, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. J. Thorbecke, E. B. Jacobson, and G. M. Hochwald, in: J. Sterzl, Ed., Molecular and Cellular Basis of Antibody Formation, p. 587. Hew York: Academic Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. G. White, I. French, and J. M. Stark, in: H. Cottier, N. Odartchenko, R. Schindler, and C. C Congdon, Eds., Germinal Centers in Immune Responses, p. 131. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. G. Hanna Jr., M. W. Francis, and L. C. Peters, Immunoloqy, 15:75, 1968.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. H. Kaplan, A. H. Coons, and H. W. Derne, J. Exptl. Med., 91:15, 1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. G. White, in: G. E. W. Wolstenholme and J. Knight, Eds., The Immunologically Competent Cell: Its Mature and Origin, p. 6. Ciba Foundation study group no. 16. Boston: Little and Brown, 1963.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. J. V. Mossal, G. L. Ada, and Caroline M. Austin, Austr. J. Exptl. Biol. Med. Sci., 42:311, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. C. Sweet, G. D. Abrams, and A. G. Johnson, J. Immunol., 94:105, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. O. McDevitt, B. A. Askonas, J. H. Humphrey, I. Schecter, and M. Sela, Immunology, 11:337, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. K. Szakal and M. G. Hanna Jr., Exptl. Molec. Pathol., 8:75, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. J. V. Nossal, A. Abbot, J. Mitchell, and Z. Lummus, J. Exptl. Med., 127:277, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. J. Bosma, T. Makinodan, and H. E. Ualburg Jr., J. Immunol., 99:420, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. G. Hanna Jr., P. Nettesheim, and H. E. Walburg Jr., in: E. A. Mirand, Ed., Germfree Biology - Experimental and Clinical Aspects (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 3). New York: Plenum Press, 1969 (in press).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. E. Walburg Jr., E. Mynatt, and D. M. Robie, Radiation Res., 27:616, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. W. Menzies, Nature, 208:163, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Sahiar and R. S. Schwartz, Intern. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol., 29:52, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. L. Gowans and J. W. Uhr, J. Exptl. Med., 124:1017, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. D. Wakefield and G. J. Thorbecke, J. Exptl. Med., 128:171, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. G. Hanna Jr., Lab. Invest., 13:95, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Cottier, G. Keiser, N. Odartchenko, M. Hess, and R. D. Stoner, in: H. Cottier, N. Odartchenko, R. Schindler, and C. C Congdon, Eds., Germinal Centers in Immune Responses, p. 270. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. HannaJr.
    • 1
  • A. K. Szakal
    • 1
  • H. E. WalburgJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology Division and AEC-NCI Cocarcinogenesis ProjectOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations