The Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal System and Human Behavior

  • William T. CarpenterJr.
  • Peter H. Gruen


Following the pioneering work of Hans Selye (1950) the pituitary-adrenal system has been regarded as critical to the individual’s adaptation to changing internal and external environment. This endocrine system has been found responsive to input ranging from shifts in intracellular electrolyte composition to fantasized danger, and its hormonal secretions implicated in the regulation of events ranging from gluconeogenesis to mood. What makes this system relevant to a volume on psychopharmacology is the intricate relationship between distressing subjective experience and neuroendocrine function, a relationship which is subject to pharmacologic modification on both sides of the interface.


Plasma Cortisol Corticotropin Release Factor Cortisol Secretion Depressive Illness ACTH Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • William T. CarpenterJr.
    • 1
  • Peter H. Gruen
    • 2
  1. 1.Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, and Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryBronx Municipal Hospital CenterBronxUSA

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