Advertisement

Drugs of Abuse pp 235-317 | Cite as

Alcohol and Human Behavior

  • Nancy K. Mello
  • Jack H. Mendelson
Part of the Handbook of Psychopharmacology book series (HBKPS)

Abstract

There has been a rapid expansion of behavioral research on alcohol and alcoholism within the past 10 years. The relics of a complex mythology have begun to yield to empirical observations, and a clearer impression of some behavioral effects of alcohol has begun to emerge. However, the transition from mythology to an accurate descriptive phenomenology is still incomplete, and the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol are unknown. We now recognize that alcohol can change human behavior in many subtle and elusive ways that are modulated by experience and expectancy as well as by the drug itself. The nature of the behavioral change is often unpredictable because of the many factors that interact to determine the effect of drinking.

Keywords

Sexual Arousal Alcohol Withdrawal Blood Alcohol Concentration Alcohol Intoxication Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adamson, J., and Burdick, J. A., 1973, Sleep of dry alcoholics, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 28:146–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcohol and Health, First Special Report to Congress, Publ. No. DHEW 72-9099, 1971, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  3. Allen R. P., Faillace, L. A., and Reynolds, D. M., 1971a, Recovery of memory functioning in alcoholics following prolonged intoxication, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 153:417–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, R. P., Wagman, A., Fallice, L. A., and Mcintosh, M., 1971b, Electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep recovery following prolonged alcohol intoxication in alcoholics, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 153:424–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alterman, A. I., Gottheil, E., and Crawford, H. D., 1975, Mood changes in an alcoholism treatment program based on drinking decisions, Am. J. Psychiat. 132:1032–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ball, J. C., Graff, H., and Chien, K., 1975, Changing world patterns of drug abuse, 1945-1974, Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 12:109–113.Google Scholar
  7. Beckman, L. J., 1975, Women alcoholics: A review of social and psychological studies, J. Stud. Alc. 36:797–824.Google Scholar
  8. Bennion, L. J., and Li, T-K., 1976, Alcohol metabolism in American indians and whites: Lack of racial differences in metabolic rate and liver alcohol dehydrogenase, N. Engl. J. Med. 294:9–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benvenuto, J. A., Lau, J., and Cohen, R., 1975, Patterns of nonopiate/polydrug abuse: Findings of a national collaborative research project, in: Problems of Drug Dependence, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Scientific Meeting, Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C, pp. 234–254.Google Scholar
  10. Berger, R. J., 1969, The sleep and dream cycle, in: Sleep, Physiology and Pathology (A. Kales, ed.), pp. 17–32, J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  11. Bigelow, G., Liebson, I., and Griffiths, R., 1974, Alcoholic drinking: Suppression by a brief time-out procedure, Behav. Res. Ther. 12:107–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bloomquist, E. R., 1959, Addiction, addicting drugs, and the anesthesiologist. JAMA 171:518–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bourne, P. G., 1973, Alcoholism in the urban negro population, in: Alcoholism: Progress in Research and Treatment (P. G. Bourne and R. Fox, eds.), pp. 211–226, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Bourne, P. G., 1975, Polydrug abuse—Status report on the federal effort, in: Developments in the Field of Drug Abuse: National Drug Abuse Conference (E. Senay, V. Shorty, and H. Alksen, eds.), pp. 197–207, Schenkman, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  15. Boyatzis, R. E., 1974, The effect of alcohol consumption on the aggressive behavior of men, Q, J. Stud. Alcohol 35:959–972.Google Scholar
  16. Boyatzis, R. E., 1975, The predisposition toward alcohol-related interpersonal aggression in men, J. Stud. Alcohol 36:1196–1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Briddell, D. W., and Wilson, G. T., 1976, Effects of alcohol and expectancy set on male sexual arousal, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 85(2):225–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burch, G. E., and Giles, T. D., 1974, Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3, Clinical Pathology (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 435–460, Plenum, N.Y.Google Scholar
  19. Burford, R., French, I. W., and Leblanc, A. E., 1975, The combined effects of alcohol and common psychoactive drugs: I. Studies on human pursuit tracking capability, in: Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety (S. Israelstam and F. Lambert, eds.), pp. 423–431, Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  20. Burton, G., and Kaplan, K. M., 1968, Sexual behavior and adjustment of married alcoholics, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 29:603–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cahalan, D., and Room, R., 1974, Problem Drinking Among American Men, Monograph No. 7, Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, New Brunswick, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  22. Cahalan, D., Cisin, I. H., and Crossley, H. M., 1969, American Drinking Practices: A National Study of Drinking Behavior and Attitudes, Monograph No. 6, Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, New Brunswick, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  23. Cappell, H., and Herman, P. C, 1972, Alcohol and tension reduction: A review. Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 33:33–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Carpenter, J. A., 1962, Effects of alcohol on some psychological processes, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 23:274–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Carpenter, J. A., and Armenti, N. P., 1972, Some behavioral effects of alcohol on man, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 2, Physiology and Behavior (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 510–543, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Carpenter, J. A., and Ross, B. M., 1965, Effect of alcohol on short-term memory, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 26:561–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Carpenter, T. M., 1940. The metabolism of alcohol: A review, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 1:201–226.Google Scholar
  28. Cermak, L. S., and Butters, N., 1973, Information processing deficits of alcoholic Korsakoff patients, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 34:11 10–11 132.Google Scholar
  29. Cermak, L. S., and Ryback, R. S., 1976, Recovery of verbal short-term memory in alcoholics, J. Stud. Alcohol 37:46–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Davis, D., 1971, Mood changes in alcoholic subjects with programmed and free-choice experimental drinking, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 596-618, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  31. Delacerda, L., Kowarski, A., Johanson, A. J., Athanasiou, R., and Migeon, C. J., 1973, Integrated concentration and crcadian variation of plasma testosterone in normal men, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 37:366–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Devenyi, P., and Wilson, M., 1971, Abuse of barbiturates in an alcoholic population, Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 104:219–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Diethelm, O., and Barr, R. M., 1962, Psychotherapeutic interviews and alcohol intoxication, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 23:243–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Doctor, R. G., Naitoh, P., and Smith, J. C, 1966, Electroencephalographic changes and vigilance behavior during experimentally induced intoxication with alcoholic subjects, Psychosom. Med. 28:605–615.Google Scholar
  35. Dotson, L. E., Robertson, L. S., and Tuchfeld, B., 1975, Plasma alcohol, smoking, hormone concentrations and self-reported aggression; a study in a social-drinking situation, J. Stud. Alcohol 36:578–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dreher, K. F., and Fraser, J. G., 1967, Smoking habits of alcoholic out-patients. I., Int. J. Addict. 2:259–270.Google Scholar
  37. Dreiling, D. A., 1975, Alcoholism, alcoholic pancreatitis, and pancreatic secretion, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 252:187–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dreyfus, P. M., 1974, Diseases of the nervous system in chronic alcoholics, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3, Clinical Pathology (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 265–290, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Ellis, F. W., and Pick, J. R., 1971, Ethanol intoxication and dependence in rhesus monkeys, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 401-412, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  40. Ellis, F. W., Pick, J. R., and Sawyer, M., 1977a, Effects of ethanol administration during pregnancy on fetal development in beagle dogs, Fed. Proc. 36(3):285, Abstract.Google Scholar
  41. Ellis, F. W., Pick, J. R., and Saywer, M., 1977b, Ethanol dose-response relationships in a beagle model of fetal alcohol syndrome, Paper presented at NIAAA Workshop on the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, San Diego, February 12-14, 1977.Google Scholar
  42. Emerson, E. R., 1908 Beverages Past and Present, Vol. 1, Putnam, New York/London.Google Scholar
  43. Essig, C. F., 1968, Alcohol and related addicting drugs, in: Alcoholism, The Total Treatment Approach (R. J. Catanzaro, ed.), pp. 58–69, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, 111.Google Scholar
  44. Evans, M. A., Martz, R., Rodda, B. E., Kiplinger, G. F., and Forney, R. B., 1974, Quantitative relationship between blood alcohol concentration and psychomotor performance, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 15:253–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. EvArts, E. V., 1962, A neurophysiology theory of hallucinations, in: Hallucinations (L. J. West, ed.), pp. 1–13, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Ewing, J. A., Rouse, B. A., and Pellizzari, E. D., 1974, Alcohol sensitivity and ethnic background, Am. J. Psychiat. 131:206–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Farkas, G. M., and Rosen, R. C., 1976, Effect of alcohol on elicited male sexual response, J. Stud. Alcohol 37:265–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Feinberg, I., and Evarts, E. V., 1969, Some implications of sleep research for psychiatry, in: Neurobiological Aspects of Psychopathology (J. Zubin and C. Shagass, eds.), pp. 334–393, Grune 8c Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Feinberg, I., Hibi, S., Cavness, C., and March, J., 1974, Absence of REM rebound after barbiturate withdrawal, Science 185:534–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fenna, D., Mix, L., Schaefer, O., and Gilbert, J. A. L., 1971, Ethanol metabolism in various racial groups, Canad. Med. Assoc. J., 105:472–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fisher, C., and Dement, W. C., 1963, Studies on the psychopathology of sleep and dreams, Am. J. Psychiat. 119:1160–1168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fisher, G., and Brickman, H. R., 1973, Multiple drug use of marihuana users, Dis. Nerv. Sys. 34:40–43.Google Scholar
  53. Fleming, E. W., Tewari, S., and Noble, E. P., 1975, Effects of chronic ethanol ingestion on brain amino acyl-t-RNA synthetases and t-KNA, J. Neurochem. 24:553–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Floody, O. R., and Pfaff, D. W., 1974, Steroid hormones and aggressive behavior: Approaches to the study of hormone-sensitive brain mechanisms for behavior, in: Aggression, Vol. 52 (S. H. Frazier, ed.), pp. 149–185, Res. Publ. ARNMD, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  55. Forbes, S. H. D., 1948, Short History of the Art of Distillation, Leiden.Google Scholar
  56. Forney, R. B., and Hughes, F. W., 1968, Combined Effects of Alcohol and Other Drugs, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, 111.Google Scholar
  57. Forney, R. B., and Hughes, F. W., 1970, Interaction between alcohol and psychopharmacologic drugs, in: International Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Therapy, Vol. 2, Section 20, Alcohol and Derivatives, pp. 445–464, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Franks, H. M., Hensley, V. R., Hensley, W. J., Starmer, G. A., and Teo, R. K. C, 1976, The relationship between alcohol dosage and performance decrement in humans, J. Stud. Alcohol 37:284–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Frederickson, D. S., Levy, R. I., and Lees, R. S., 1967, Fat transport in lipoproteins—An integrated approach to mechanisms and disorders, N. Engl. J. Med. 276:32–44, 94-103, 148-156, 215-226, 273-281.Google Scholar
  60. Freed, E. X., 1973, Drug abuse by alcoholics: A review, Int. J. Addict. 8:451–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Freedman, D. X., 1972, Non-pharmacological factors in drug dependence, in: Drug Abuse: Nonmedical Use of Dependence Producing Drugs (S. Btesh, ed.), pp. 25–34, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Freemon, F. R., Goodwin, D. W., Halikas, J. A., and Othmer, E., 1971, An electroencephalographic study of memory loss during alcohol intoxication, Dis. Nerv. Sys. 32:848–852.Google Scholar
  63. Galvao-Teles, A., Anderson, D. C., Burke, C. W., Marshall, J. C., Corker, C. S., Brown, R. L., and Clark, M. L., 1973, Biologically active androgens and oestradiol in men with chronic liver disease, Lancet 7796:173–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gantt, W. A., 1952, Effect of alcohol on the sexual reflexes of normal and neurotic male dogs, Psychosom. Med. 14:174–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ginsberg, H., Olefsky, J., Farquhar, J. W., and Reaven, G. M., 1974, Moderate ethanol ingestion and plasma triglyceride levels, Ann. Int. Med. 80:143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Goldstein, A., Aronow, L., and Kalman, S. M., 1968, Principles of Drug Action, Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Goldstein, D. H., 1972, Relationship of alcohol dose to intensity of withdrawal signs in mice, J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 180:203–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Goode, E., 1973, The major drugs of use among adolescents and young adults, in: Drugs and Youth (E. Harms, ed.), pp. 33–72, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Goodwin, D. W., 1971a, Blackouts and alcohol induced memory dysfunction, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 508–536, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  70. Goodwin, D. W., 1971b, Is alcoholism hereditary? A review and critique, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 25:545–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Goodwin, D. W., 1973, Alcohol in suicide and homicide, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 34:144–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Goodwin, D. W., 1974, Alcoholic blackout and state dependent learning, Fed. Proc. 33:1833–1835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Goodwin, D. W., 1976, Is Alcoholism Hereditary?, Oxford Univ. Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Goodwin, D. W., Crane, J. B., and Guze, S. B., 1969a, Phenomenological aspects of the alcoholic blackout, Brit. J. Psychiat. 115:1033–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Goodwin, D. W., Crane, J. B., and Guze, S. B., 1969b, Alcoholic blackouts: A review and clinical study of 100 alcoholics, Am. J. Psychiat. 126:191–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Goodwin, D. W., Johnson, J., Maher, C., Rappaport, A., and Guze, S. B., 1969c, Why people do not drink: A study of teetotalers, Comp. Psychiat. 10:209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Goodwin, D. W., Powell, B., Bremer, D., Hoine, H., and Stern, J., 1969a, Alcohol and recall: State-dependent effects in man, Science 163:1358–1360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Goodwin, D. W., Othmer, E., Halikas, J. A., and Freemon, F., 1970, Loss of short term memory as a predictor of the alcoholic “blackout,” Nature (London) 227:201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Goodwin, D. W., Powell, B., and Stern, J., 1971, Behavioral tolerance to alcohol in moderate drinkers, Am. J. Psychiat. 127:1651–1653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Goodwin, D. W., Hill, S. Y., Powell, B., and Viamontes, J., 1973a, Effect of alcohol on short term memory in alcoholics, Br. J. Psychiat. 122:93–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Goodwin, D. W., Schulsinger, F., Hermansen, L., Guze, S. B., and Winokur, G., 1973b, Alcohol problems in adoptees raised apart from alcoholic biological parents, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 28:238–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Goodwin, D. W., Powell, B., Hill, S. Y., Lieberman, W., and Viamontes, J., 1974a, Effect of alcohol on “dissociated” learning in alcoholics, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 158:198–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Goodwin, D. W., Schulsinger, F., Moller, N., Hermansen, L., Winokur, G., and Guze, S. B., 1974b, Drinking problems in adopted and nonadopted sons of alcoholics, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 31:164–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gould, L. C., and Kleber, H. D., 1974, Changing patterns of multiple drug use among applicants to a multimodality drug treatment program, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 31:408–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Green, M. H., Nightingale, S. L., and Dupont, R. L., 1975, Evolving patterns of drug abuse, Ann. Int. Med. 83:402–411.Google Scholar
  86. Greenberg, R., and Pearlman, C., 1967, Delirium tremens and dreaming, Am. J. Psychiat. 124:133–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gresham, S. C., Webb, W. B., and Williams, R. L., 1963, Alcohol and caffeine: Effect on inferred visual dreaming, Science 140:1226–1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Griffiths, R., Bigelow, G., and Liebson, I., 1974a, Suppression of ethanol self-administration in alcoholics by contingent time-out from social interactions, Behav. Res. Ther. 12:327–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Griffiths, R., Bigelow, G., and Liebson, I., 1974b, Assessment of effects of ethanol selfadministration on social interactions in alcoholics, Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 38:105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Griffiths, R., Bigelow, G., and Liebson, I., 1975, Effect of ethanol self-administration on choice behavior: Money vs. socializing, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 3:443–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Griffiths, R., Bigelow, G., and Liebson, I., 1976, Facilitation of human tobacco selfadministration by ethanol: A behavioral analysis, J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 25:279–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gross, M. M., and Goodenough, D. R., 1968, Sleep disturbances in the acute alcoholic psychoses, in: Clinical Research in Alcoholism (J. O. Cole, ed.), pp. 132–147, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  93. Gross, M. M., and Hastey, J. M., 1975a, The relation between baseline slow wave sleep and the slow wave sleep response to alcohol in alcoholics, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies, II, Vol. 59, Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology (M. M. Gross, ed.), pp. 467–475, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  94. Gross, M. M., and Hastey, J. M., 1975b, A note on REM rebound during experimental alcohol withdrawal in alcoholics, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies, II, Vol. 59, Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology (M. M. Gross, ed.), pp. 509–513, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Gross, M. M., and Hastey, J. M., 1976, Sleep disturbances in alcoholism, in: Alcoholism: Interdisciplinary Approaches to an Enduring Problem (R. E. Tarter and A. A. Sugarman, eds.), pp. 257–307, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.Google Scholar
  96. Gross, M. M., Goodenough, D. R., Tobin, M., Halpert, E., Lepore, D., Perlstein, A., Sirota, M., Dibiancoa, J., Fuller, R., and Kishner, I., 1966, Sleep disturbance and hallucinations in the acute alcoholic psychoses, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 142:493–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Gross, M. M., Goodenough, D. R., Hastey, J. M., Rosenblatt, S. M., and Lewis, E., 1971, Sleep disturbances in alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 317–397, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  98. Gross, M. M., Goodenough, D. R., Hastey, J. M., and Lewis, E., 1973, Experimental study of sleep in chronic alcoholics before, during and after four days of heavy drinking, with a non-drinking comparison, in: Alcoholism and the Central Nervous System (F. A. Seixas and S. Eggleston, eds.), Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215:254–265.Google Scholar
  99. Gross, M. M., Lewis, E., and Hastey, J. M., 1974, Acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3, Clinical Pathology (B. Kissin and H. Beglieter, eds.), pp. 191–263, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  100. Gross, M. M., Hastey, J. M., Lewis, E., and Young, N., 1975, Slow wave sleep and carryover of functional tolerance and physical dependence in alcoholics, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies, II, Vol. 59, Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology (M. M. Gross, ed.), pp. 477–493, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Gunnar, R. M., Demakis, J., Rahimtoola, S. H., Sinno, M. Z., and Tobin, J. R., Jr., 1975, Clinical signs and natural history of alcoholic heart disease, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 252:264–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gusfield, J. R., 1962, Status conflicts and the changing ideologies of the American temperance movement, in: Society, Culture and Drinking Patterns (D. J. Pittman and C. R. Snyder, eds.), pp. 101–120, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  103. Haertzen, C. A., and Hooks, N. T., 1969, Changes in personality and subjective experience associated with the chronic administration and withdrawal of opiates, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 148:606–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Haggard, H. W., Greenberg, L., and Lolli, G., 1941, The absorption of alcohol with special reference to its influence on the concentration of alcohol appearing in the blood, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 1:684.Google Scholar
  105. Harger, R. N., and Hulpieu, H. R., 1956, The pharmacology of alcohol, in: Alcoholism (G. N. Thompson, ed.), pp. 103–232, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, 111.Google Scholar
  106. Hart, B. L., 1968, Effects of alcohol on sexual reflexes and mating behavior in the male dog, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 29:833–844.Google Scholar
  107. Higgins, R. L., and Marlatt, G. A., 1973, Effects of anxiety arousal on the consumption of alcohol by alcoholics and social drinkers, J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 41:426–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Higgins, R. L., and Marlatt, G. A., 1975, Fear of interpersonal evaluation as a determinant of alcohol consumption in male social drinkers, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 84:644–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hollister, L. E., Overall, J. E., and Gerber, M. L., 1975, Marihuana and setting, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 32:798–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Honig, W. K., ed., 1966, Operant Behavior: Areas of Research and Application, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Iber, F., Kater, R. M., and Caruli, M., 1969, Differences in the rate of ethanol metabolism in recently drinking alcohol and non-alcoholic subjects, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 22:1608–1617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Isbell, H., Fraser, H., Wikler, A., Belleville, R., and Eisenman, A., 1955, An experimental study of the etiology of rum fits and delirium tremens, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 16:1–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Isselbacher, K. J., and Carter, F. A., 1971, Effects of alcohol on liver and intestinal function, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 42-58, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  114. Isselbacher, K. J., and Greenberger, N. J., 1964, Metabolic effects of alcohol on the liver, N. Engl. J. Med. 270:351-356, 402–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Itil, T. M., Shapiro, D. M., Fink, M., and Kassenbaum, D., 1969, Digital computer classifications of EEG sleep stages, Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 27:76–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Jacobsen, F., 1952, The metabolism of ethyl alcohol, Pharmacol. Rev. 4:107–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Jaffe, J. H., 1970, Drug addiction and drug abuse, in: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, eds.), pp. 276–313, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Jaffe, J. H., 1975, Drug addiction and drug abuse, in: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, eds.), 5th Ed., pp. 284–324, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  119. Jessor, R., and Jessor, S. L., 1975, Adolescent development and the onset of drinking: A longitudinal study, J. Stud. Alcohol 36:27–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. John, E. R., 1967, Mechanisms of Memory, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  121. Johnson, L. C., 1971, Sleep patterns of alcoholics, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 288–316, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  122. Johnson, L. G., Burdick, J. A., and Smith, J., 1970, Sleep during alcohol intake and withdrawal in the chronic alcoholic, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 22:406–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jones, B. M., 1971, Verbal and spatial intelligence in short and long term alcoholics, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 153:292–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jones, B. M., 1973, Memory impairment on the ascending and descending limbs of the blood alcohol curve, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 82:24–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jones, B. M., and Parsons, O. A., 1972, Specific vs. generalized deficits of abstracting ability in chronic alcoholics, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 26:380–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Jones, K. L., Smith, D. W., Ulleland, C. N., and Streissguth, A. P., 1973, Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers, Lancet 1:1267–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jones, K. L., Smith, D. W., Streissguth, A. P., and Myrianthopoulous, N. C., 1974, Outcome in offspring of chronic alcoholic women, Lancet 1:1076–1078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kalant, H., 1970, Effects of ethanol on the nervous system, in: Alcohols and Derivatives, Vol. 1, Section 20, International Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (J. Tremolieres, ed.), pp. 189–236, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  129. Kalant, H., Leblanc, A. E., Wilson, A., and Homatidis, S., 1975, Sensorimotor and physiological effects of various alcoholic beverages, Canad. Med. J. 112:953–958.Google Scholar
  130. Kalb, M., and Propper, M. S., 1976, The future of alcohology: Craft or science? Am. J. Psychiat. 133:641–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kater, R. M. H., Zeive, D., Tobon, F., Roggin, G. M., and Iber, F. L., 1968, Heavy drinking accelerates drugs′ breakdown in liver, JAMA 206:1709.Google Scholar
  132. Kaufman, H., 1975, Multidrug abuse: Definition and determinants, in: Problems of Drug Dependence, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Scientific Meeting, Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C, pp. 218–233.Google Scholar
  133. Kelleher, R. T., Riddle, W. C., and Cook, L., 1963, Persistent behavior maintained by unavoidable shocks, J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 6:507–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Keller, M., 1962, The definition of alcoholism and the estimation of its prevalence, in: Society, Culture and Drinking Patterns (D. J. Pittman and C. R. Snyder, eds.), pp. 310–329, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  135. Kissin, B., 1974, Interactions of ethyl alcohol and other drugs, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3, Clinical Pathology (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 109–161, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  136. Kissin, B., and Begleiter, H., eds., 1974, The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3, Clinical Pathology, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  137. Kissin, B., and Kaley, M. M., 1974, Alcohol and cancer, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3, Clinical Pathology (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 481–511, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  138. Klatsky, A. L., Friedman, G. D., and Siegelaug, A. B., 1974, Alcohol consumption before myocardial infarction, Ann. Int. Med. 81:294–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Knowles, J. B., Laverty, S. G., and Kuechler, H. A., 1968, Effects of alcohol on REM sleep, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 29:342–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Knupfer, G., 1966, Some methodological problems in the epidemiology of alcoholic beverage usage: Definition of amount of intake, Am. J. Public Health 2:237–242.Google Scholar
  141. Kreuz, L. E., and Rose, R. M., 1972, Assessment of agressive behavior and plasma testosterone in a young criminal population, Psychosom. Med. 34:321–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Kuehnle, J. C, Anderson, W. H., and Chandler, E., 1974, Report on first drinking experience in addictive and nonaddictive drinkers, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 31:521–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Laferla, J. J., Anderson, D. L., and Schalach, D. S., 1976, Psychoendocrine response to visual erotic stimulation in human males, Psychosom. Med. 38:62 (Abst.).Google Scholar
  144. Lang, A. R., Goeckner, D. J., Adesso, V. J., and Marlatt, G. A., 1975, Effects of alcohol on aggression in male social drinkers, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 84:508–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Langrod, J., 1970, Secondary drug use among heroin users, Int. J. Addict. 5:611–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Leake, C. D., and Silverman, M., 1971, The chemistry of alcoholic beverages, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 1, Biochemistry (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 575–612, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  147. Lee, T. K., Cho, M. H., and Dobkin, A. B., 1964, Effects of alcoholism, morphinism and barbiturate resistance on induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J. 11:354–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Lemere, F., and Smith, J. W., 1973, Alcohol-induced sexual impotence, Am. J. Psychiat. 130:212–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lester, B. K., Rundell, O. H., Cowden, L. C, and Williams, H. L., 1973, Chronic alcoholism, alcohol and sleep, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies, Vol. 35, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (M. M. Gross, ed.), pp. 261–279, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Lettsom, J. C, 1787, Some remarks on the effects of lignum quassil amare, Memoirs Med. Soc. London 1:151–165.Google Scholar
  151. Levine, J., 1955, The sexual adjustment of alcoholics—A clinical study of a selected sample, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 16:675–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Lieber, C. S., Rubin, E., and Decarli, L. M., 1971, Chronic and acute effects of ethanol on hepatic metabolism of ethanol, lipids and drugs: Correlation with ultrastructural changes, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Hendelson, eds.), pp. 3-41, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  153. Lieber, C. S., and Decarli, L. M., 1974, An experimental model of alcohol feeding and liver injury in the baboon, J. Med. Prim. 3:153–163.Google Scholar
  154. Lieber, C. S., Decarli, L. M., and Rubin, E., 1975, Sequential production of fatty liver, hepatitis, and cirrhosis in sub-human primates fed ethanol with adequate diets, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 72(2):437–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Liebmann, A. J., and Scherl, B., 1949, Changes in whiskey while maturing, Ind. Eng. Chem. 41:534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Lindbeck, V. L., 1972, The woman alcoholic: A review of the literature, Int. J. Addict. 7:567–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Lisman, S. A., 1974, Alcoholic “blackout”: State-dependent learning? Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 30:46–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Lolli, G., and Meschieri, L., 1964, Mental and physical efficiency after wine and ethanol solutions ingested on an empty and on a full stomach, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 25:535–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Lubin, A., Johnson, L. C., and Austin, M. T., 1969, Discrimination among states of consciousness using EEG Spectra, Psychophysiology 6:122–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Macavoy, M. G., and Marks, E. F., 1975, Divided attention performance of cannabis users and non-users following cannabis and alcohol, Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 44:147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Mack, J. E., 1970, Nightmares and Human Conflict, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  162. Maddux, J. F., and Elliott, B., 1975, Problem drinkers among patients on methadone, Am. J. Drug Alc. Abuse 2:245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Majchrowicz, E., 1975, Induction of physical dependence upon ethanol and the associated behavioral changes in rats, Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 43:245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Maletzky, B. M., and Klotter, J., 1974, Smoking and alcoholism, Am. J. Alc. 131:445–447.Google Scholar
  165. Manno, J. E., Kiplinger, G. F., Scholz, N., Forney, R. B., and Haine, S. E., 1971, The influence of alcohol and marihuana on motor and mental performance, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 12:202–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Manno, J. E., Manno, B. R., Kiplinger, G. F., and Forney, R. B., 1974, Motor and mental performance with marihuana: Relationship to administered dose of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its interaction with alcohol, in: Marihuana, Effects on Human Behavior (L. L. Miller, ed.), pp. 45–72, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  167. Mardones, J., 1963, The alcohols, in: Physiological Pharmacology (W. S. Root and F. G. Hoffmann, eds.), pp. 99–183, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  168. Marlatt, G. A., Kosturn, C. F., and Lang, A. R., 1975, Provocation to anger and opportunity for retaliation as determinants of alcohol consumption in social drinkers, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 84:652–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Mayer, R. F., 1966, Peripheral nerve conduction in alcoholics, in: Alcoholism: A Symposium on Recent Advances in Biological and Behavioral Research (J. H. Mendelson, ed.), Psychosom. Med. 28:475–483.Google Scholar
  170. Mayfield, D. C., 1968, Psychopharmacology of alcohol. II. Affective tolerance in alcohol intoxication. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 146:322–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Mcguire, M. T., Mendelson, J. H., and Stein, S., 1966, Comparative psychosocial studies of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects undergoing experimentally induced ethanol intoxication, Psychosom. Med. 28:13–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Mcintosh, M., Funderburk, F., Wagman, A., and Allen, R., 1975, Ocular activity in the quiet sleep of chronic alcoholics, Biol. Psychiat. 10:329–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mckearney, J. W., 1972, Schedule-dependent effects: Effects of drugs, and maintenance of responding with response-produced electric shocks, in: Schedule-Effects: Drugs, Drinking, and Aggression (R. M. Gilbert and J. D. Keehn, eds.), pp. 3–25, Univ. of Toronto Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  174. Mcnamee, H. B., Mello, N. K., and Mendelson, J. H., 1968, Experimental analysis of drinking patterns of alcoholics: Concurrent psychiatric observations, Am. J. Psychiat. 124:1063–1069.Google Scholar
  175. Mcnamee, H. B., Mendelson, J. H., and Korn, J., 1975, Fenmetozole in acute alcohol intoxication in man, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 17:735–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Mello, N. K., 1968, Some aspects of the behavioral pharmacology of alcohol, in: Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress, 1957–1967 (D. H. Efron, ed.), pp. 787-809, U.S. Govt. Printing Office PHS Publ. No. 1863, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  177. Mello, N. K., 1971, Alcohol effects on delayed matching to sample performance by rhesus monkey, Physiol. Behav. 7:77–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Mello, N. K., 1972, Behavioral studies of alcoholism, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 2, Physiology and Behavior (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 219–291, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  179. Mello, N. K., 1973a, A review of methods to induce alcohol addiction in animals, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1:89–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Mello, N. K., 1973b, Short-term memory function in alcohol addicts during intoxication, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies, Proceedings 30th International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (M. M. Gross, ed.), pp. 333–344, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  181. Mello, N. K., 1975, A semantic aspect of alcoholism, in: Biological and Behavioral Approaches to Drug Dependence (H. D. Cappell and A. E. LeBlanc, eds.), pp. 73–87, Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario, Toronto.Google Scholar
  182. Mello, N. K., 1976a, Animal models for the study of alcohol addiction, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 1:347–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mello, N. K., 1976b, Effects of chronic alcohol intoxication on “short-term memory” function in alcohol addicts, in preparation.Google Scholar
  184. Mello, N. K., 1977, Stimulus self-administration: Some implications for the prediction of drug abuse liability, in: Predicting Dependence Liability of Stimulant and Depressant Drugs (P. Thompson and K. R. Unna, eds.), pp. 243–260, University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  185. Mello, N. K., and Mendelson, J. H., 1970a, Experimentally induced intoxication in alcoholics: A comparison between programmed and spontaneous drinking. J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 173:101–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Mello, N. K., and Mendelson, J. H., 1970b, Behavioral studies of sleep patterns in alcoholics during intoxication and withdrawal. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 175:94–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Mello, N. K., and Mendelson, J. H., 1972, Drinking patterns during work-contingent and noncontingent alcohol acquisition, Psychosom. Med. 34:139–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Mello, N. K., and Mendelson, J. H., 1975, Alcoholism: A biobehavioral disorder, in: American Handbook of Psychiatry (M. Reiser, ed.), pp. 371–403, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  189. Mello, N. K., and Mendelson, J. H., 1976, The development of alcohol dependence: A clinical study, McLean Hosp. J. 1:65–88.Google Scholar
  190. Mello, N. K., and Mendelson, J. H., 1977, Clinical aspects of alcohol dependence, in: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology: Drug Addiction (W. R. Martin, ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York (in press).Google Scholar
  191. Mendelson, J. H., ed., 1964, Experimentally induced chronic intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholics, Q J. Stud. Alcohol, Suppl 2.Google Scholar
  192. Mendelson, J. H., 1968, Ethanol-1-C14 metabolism in alcoholics and non-alcoholics, Science 159:319–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Mendelson, J. H., 1970, Biological concomitants of alcoholism, N. Engl. J. Med. 283:24-32, 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Mendelson, J. H., 1971, Biochemical mechanisms of alcohol addiction, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 1, Biochemistry (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 513–544, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  195. Mendelson, J. H., 1975, Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related illness, in: The Cecil-Loeb Textbook of Medicine (P. B. Beeson and W. McDermott, eds.), pp. 597–602, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  196. Mendelson, J. H., and Mello, N. K., 1973, Alcohol-induced hyperlipedemia and beta lipoproteins, Science 180:1372–1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Mendelson, J. H., and Mello, N. K., 1974, Alcohol, aggression and androgens, in: Aggression, Proc. ARNMD (S. H. Frazier, ed.), pp. 225–247, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  198. Mendelson, J. H., and Mello, N. K., 1975, Plasma testosterone levels during chronic heroin use and protracted abstinence: A study of Hong Kong addicts, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 17:529–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Mendelson, J. H., and Stein, S., 1966, The definition of alcoholism, in: Alcoholism (J. H. Mendelson, ed.), pp. 3–16, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  200. Mendelson, J. H., Wexler, D., Leiderman, P., and Solomon, P., 1957, A study of addiction to nonethyl alcohols and other poisonous compounds, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 18:561–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Mendelson, J. H., Stein, S., and Mello, N. K., 1965, Effects of experimentally induced intoxication on metabolism of ethanol-1-C14 in alcoholic subjects, Metabolism 14:1255–1266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Mendelson, J. H., Mello, N. K., and Solomon, P., 1968, Small group drinking behavior: An experimental study of chronic alcoholics, in: The Addictive States Res. Publ. Assoc. Nerv. Ment. Dis. (A. Wilder, ed.), pp. 399–430, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  203. Mendelson, J. H., Rossi, A. M., Bernstein, J. G., and Kuehnle, J. C, 1974, Propranolol and behavior of alcohol addicts after acute alcohol ingestion, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 15:571–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Mendelson, J. H., Ellingboe, J., and Kuehnle, J. C., 1976, Effects of alcohol and marihuana on plasma luteinizing hormone and testosterone, Proceedings 38th Annual Meeting, Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, pp. 525–537, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  205. Mendelson, J. H., Mello, N. K., and Ellingboe, J., 1977, Effects of alcohol on pituitarygonadal hormones, sexual function, and aggression in human males, in: Psychopharmacology, A Generation of Progress, Raven Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  206. Miller, P. M., Hersen, M., Eisler, R. M., and Hilsman, G., 1974, Effects of social stress on operant drinking of alcoholics and social drinkers, Behav. Res. Ther., Oxford, 12:67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Mirin, S. M., Meyer, R. F., and Mcnamee, H. B., 1975, Psychopathology and mood during heroin use: Acute vs. chronic effects, in: Problems of Drug Dependence, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Scientific Meeting, Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C, pp. 300–319.Google Scholar
  208. Mirin, S. M., Mcnamee, H. B., and Meyer, R. F., 1976, Psychopathology, craving and mood during heroin acquisition: An experimental study, Int. J. Addict. 11:525–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Morse, W. H., and Kelleher, R. T., 1970, Schedules as fundamental determinants of behavior, in: The Theory of Reinforcement Schedules (W. N. Schoenfeld, ed.), pp. 139–185, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  210. Morse, W. H., and Kelleher, R. T., 1977, Determinants of reinforcement and punishment, in: Operant Behavior, Vol. 2 (W. K. Honig and J. E. R. Staddon, eds.), pp. 174–200, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  211. Moskowitz, H., 1971, The effects of alcohol on performance in a driving simulator of alcoholics and social drinkers, Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles Technical Report UCLA—ENG—7205 (1971).Google Scholar
  212. Moskowitz, H., and Burns, M., 1975, Effects of rate of drinking on human performance, J. Stud. Alcohol 37:598–605.Google Scholar
  213. Moskowitz, H., and Murray, J. T., 1976a, Backward masking of visual information, J. Stud. Alcohol 37:40–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Moskowitz, H., and Murray, J. T., 1976b, Decrease of iconic memory after alcohol, J. Stud. Alcohol 37:278–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Moskowitz, H., and Sharma, S., 1974, Effects of alcohol on peripheral vision as a function of attention, Human Factors 16:174–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Moskowitz, H., Sharma, S., and Schapiro, M., 1972, A comparison of the effects of marihuana and alcohol on visual function, in: Current Research in Marihuana (M. F. Lewis, ed.), pp. 129–150, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  217. Moskowitz, H., Daily, J., and Henderson, R., 1974, Acute tolerance to behavioral impairment by alcohol in moderate and heavy drinkers, Systems Development Corp., Santa Monica, California Technical Report HS-009-2-332 (1974).Google Scholar
  218. Mulford, H. A., 1964, Drinking and deviant drinking, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 25:634–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Murphree, H. B., 1971, The importance of congeners in the effects of alcoholic beverages, in: Biological Basis of Alcoholism (Y. Israel and J. Mardones, eds.), pp. 209–234, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  220. Myerson, R. M., 1971, Effects of alcohol on cardiac and muscular function, in: Biological Basis of Alcoholism (Y. Israel and J. Mardones, eds.), pp. 183–208, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  221. Nagarajan, M., Gross, M. M., Kissin, B., and Best, S., 1973, Affective changes during 6 days of experimental alcoholization and subsequent withdrawal, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 35 (M. M. Gross, ed.), pp. 351–363, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  222. Nathan, P. E., and O’Brien, J. S., 1971, An experimental analysis of the behavior of alcoholics and nonalcoholics during prolonged experimental drinking: A necessary precursor of behavior therapy? Behav. Ther. 2:455–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Nathan, P. E., Titler, N. A., Lowenstein, L. M., Solomon, P., and Rossi, A. M., 1970, Behavioral analysis of chronic alcoholism: Interaction of alcohol and human contact, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 22:419–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Nathan, P. E., O’Brien, J. S., and Lowenstein, L. M., 1971a, Operant studies of chronic alcoholism: Interaction of alcohol and alcoholics, in: Biological Aspects of Alcohol (M. K. Roach, W. M. Mclsaac, and P. J. Creaven, eds.), pp. 341–370, Univ. of Texas, Austin.Google Scholar
  225. Nathan, P. E., O’Brien, J. S., and Norton, D., 1971b, Comparative studies of the interpersonal and affective behavior of alcoholics and non-alcoholics during prolonged experimental drinking, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 619–646, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  226. Nathan, P. E., Goldman, M. S., Lisman, S. A., and Taylor, H. A., 1972, Alcohol and alcoholics: A behavioral approach, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 34:602–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. National Council on Alcoholism, 1972, Criteria for the diagnosis of alcoholism, Am. J. Psychiat. 129:127–135.Google Scholar
  228. Newman, H. W., 1941, Acquired tolerance to ethyl alcohol, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 2:453–463.Google Scholar
  229. Newman, H. W., and Abramson, M., 1942a, Absorption of various alcoholic beverages, Science 96:43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Newman, H. W., and Abramson, M., 1942b, Some factors influencing the intoxicating effect of alcoholic beverages, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 3:351.Google Scholar
  231. Noble, E. P., and Tewari, S., 1975, Ethanol and brain ribosomes, Fed. Proc. 34:1942–1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Noble, E. P., and Tewari, S., 1977, Metabolic aspects of alcoholism in the brain, in: Metabolic Aspects of Alcoholism (C. S. Lieber, ed.), pp. 149–185, University Park Press, Baltimore.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Noble, E. P., Parker, E., Alkana, R., Cohen, H., and Birch, H., 1973, Propranolol-ethanol interaction in man, Fed. Proc. 32:724.Google Scholar
  234. Noble, E. P., Alkana, R. L., and Parker, E. S., 1975, Ethanol-induced CNS depression and its reversal: A review, in: Biomedical Research in Alcohol Abuse Problems, Conference Proceedings. Non-Medical Use of Drugs Directorate, National Health and Welfare, Canada pp. 308–367, Halifax, Nova Scotia.Google Scholar
  235. Novak, D. J., and Victor, M. C., 1974, The vagus and sympathetic nerves in alcoholic polyneuropathy, Arch. Neurol. 30:273–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Oldendorf, W. H., 1974, Drug penetration of the blood-brain barrier, in: Narcotics and the Hypothalamus (E. Zimmermann and R. George, eds.), pp. 213–222, Raven Press. New York.Google Scholar
  237. Orcutt, J. D., 1975, Social determinants of alcohol and marijuana effects: A systematic theory, Int. J. Addict. 10:1021–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Orcutt, J. D., and Biggs, D. A., 1975, Recreational effects of marihuana and alcohol: Some descriptive dimensions, Int. J. Addict. 10:229–239.Google Scholar
  239. Overton, D. A., 1972, State-dependent learning produced by alcohol and its relevance to alcoholism, in: The Biology of Alcoholism: Physiology and Behavior (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), Vol. 2, pp. 193–217, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Parker, E. S., Alkana, R. L., Birnbaum, I. M., Hartley, J. T., and Noble, E. P., 1974, Alcohol and disruption of cognitive processes, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 31:824–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Pearson, S. B., 1813, Observations on brain fever; delirium tremens, Edinburgh Med. Surg. J. 9:326–332.Google Scholar
  242. Persky, H., Smith, K. D., and Basu, G. K., 1971, Relation of psychologic measures of aggression and hostility to testosterone production in man, Psychosom. Med, 33:265–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Petersen, R. C., 1977, Retrieval failures in alcohol state dependent learning, Psychopharmacologia (Berlin), in press.Google Scholar
  244. Pieper, W. A., Skeen, M. J., Mcclure, H. M., and Bourne, P. G., 1972, The chimpanzee as an animal model for investigating alcoholism, Science 176:71–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Pirola, R. C, and Lieber, C. S., 1974, Acute and chronic pancreatitis, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 3, Clinical Pathology (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 359–402, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  246. Pliner, P., and Cappell, H., 1974, Modification of affective consequences of alcohol: A comparison of social and solitary drinking, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 83:418–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Pohorecky, L. A., 1974, Effects of ethanol on central and peripheral noradrenergic neurons, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 189:380–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Raynes, A., Patch, V. D., and Judson, B., 1975, Polydrug abuse in Boston, in: Developments in the Field of Drug Abuse: National Drug Abuse Conference (E. Senay, V. Shorty, and H. Alksen, eds.), pp. 250–253, Schenkman, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  249. Redos, J. D., Catravas, G. N., and Hunt, W. A., 1976, Ethanol-induced depletion of cerebellar guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate, Science 193:58–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Reed, T. K., Kalant, H., Gibbins, R. J., Kapur, B. M., and Rankin, J. G., 1976, Alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism in Caucasians, Chinese and Amerinds, Can. id. Med. Assoc, f. 115:851–855.Google Scholar
  251. Regan, T. J., Ettinger, P. O., Oldewurtel, H. A., and Haider, B., 1975, Heart cell responses to ethanol, Ann. N. Y. Acad, Sci. 252:250–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Robbins, E., Murphy, G., Wilkerson, R., Gasner, S., and Kayes, J., 1959, Some clinical considerations in the prevention of suicide based on a study of 134 successful suicides, Am. J. Public Health 49:888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Robins, L. N., and Guze, S. B., 1971, Drinking practices and problems in urban ghetto populations, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 825–842, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  254. Rorabaugh, W. J., 1976, Estimated U. S. alcoholic beverage consumption, 1790-1860, J. Stud. Alcohol 37:357–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Rose, R. M., Haladay, J. W., and Bernstein, I. S., 1971, Plasma testosterone, dominance rank and aggressive behaviour in male rhesus monkeys, Nature (London) 231:366–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Rose, R. M., Gordon, P. P., and Bernstein, I. S., 1972, Plasma testosterone levels in the male rhesus: Influences of sexual and social stimuli, Science 178:643–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Rosett, H. L., Ouellette, E. M., and Weiner, L., 1976, A pilot prospective study of the fetal alcohol syndrome at the Boston City Hospital. Part I: Maternal drinking, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 273:118–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Ross, D. H., Medina, M. A., and Cardenas, H. L., 1974, Morphine and ethanol: Selective depletion of regional brain calcium, Science 186:63–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Roueche, B., 1960, The Neutral Spirit: A Portrait of Alcohol, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  260. Rubin, H. B., and Henson, D. E., 1976, Effects of alcohol on male sexual responding, Psychopharmacologia 47:123–134, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Rubin, E., and Lieber, C. S., 1968a, Alcohol-induced hepatic injury in non-alcoholic volunteers, N. Engl J. Med. 278:869–876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Rubin, E., and Lieber, C. S., 1968b, Hepatic microsomal enzymes in man and rat: Induction and inhibition by ethanol, Science 162:690–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Rubin, E., and Lieber, C. S., 1974, Fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis produced by alcohol in primates, N. Engl. J. Med. 290:128–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Rubin, E., Gang, H., Misra, P., and Lieber, C. S., 1970, Inhibition of drug metabolism by acute ethanol intoxication: A hepatic microsomal mechanism, Am. J. Med, 49:800–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Rubin, E., Altman, K., Gordon, G. G., and Southren, A. L., 1976, Prolonged ethanol consumption increases testosterone metabolism in the liver, Science 191:563–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Rubington, E., 1968, The bottle gang, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 29:943–955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Rundell, O. H., Lester, B. K., Griffiths, W. J., and Williams, H. L., 1972, Alcohol and sleep in young adults, Psychopharmacologia 26:201–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Russell, J. A., and Mehrabian, A., 1975, The mediating role of emotions in alcohol use, J. Stud. Alcohol 36:1508–1536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Ryback, R. S., 1970, Alcohol amnesia: Observations on seven drinking inpatient alcoholics, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 31:616–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Schuckit, M., 1972, The alcoholic woman: A literature review, Psychiat. Med. 3:37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Schuckit, M. A., and Morrissey, E. R., 1976, Alcoholism in women: Some clinical and social perspectives, in: Alcoholism in Women and Children (M. Greenblatt and M. A. Schuckit, eds.), pp. 5–35, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  272. Schuckit, M. A., Goodwin, D. A., and Winokur, G., 1972, A study of alcoholism in half siblings, Am. J. Psychiat. 128:1132–1136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Schuntich, R. J., and Taylor, S. P., 1972, The effects of alcohol on human physical aggression, J. Exp. Res. Personal. 6:34–38.Google Scholar
  274. Schut, J., File, K., and Wohlmuth, T., 1973, Alcohol use by narcotic addicts in methadone maintenance and treatment. Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 34:1356–1359.Google Scholar
  275. Seevers, M. H., and Deneau, G. A., 1963, Physiological aspects of tolerance and physical dependence, in: Physiological Pharmacology (W. S. Root and F. G. Hofmann, eds.), pp. 565–640, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  276. Seixas, F. A., and Eggleston, S., eds., 1973, Alcoholism and the Central Nervous System, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215.Google Scholar
  277. Seixas, F. A., Williams, K., and Eggleston, S., eds., 1975, Medical Consequences of Alcoholism, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 252.Google Scholar
  278. Shuntich, R. J., and Taylor, S. P., 1972, The effects of alcohol on human physical aggression, J. Exp. Res. Personal. 6:34–38.Google Scholar
  279. Shupe, L. M., 1954, Alcohol and crime. A study of the urine alcohol concentration found in 882 persons arrested during or immediately after commission of a felony, J. Criminal Law Criminol. 44:661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Sidell, F. R., and Pless, J. E., 1971, Ethyl alcohol: Blood levels and performance decrements after oral administration to men, Psychopharmacologia 19:246–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Silvestrini, R., 1926, Gynecomastia in men with cirrhosis of the liver, La Reforma Med. 142:701–704.Google Scholar
  282. Smiley, A., Leblanc, A. E., French, I. W., and Burford, R., 1975, The combined effects of alcohol and common psychoactive drugs: II. Field studies with an instrumented automobile, in: Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety (S. Israelstam and F. Lambert, eds.), pp. 433–438, Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario, Toronto.Google Scholar
  283. Smith, R. C., Parker, E. S., and Noble, E. P., 1975, Alcohol and affect in dyadic social interaction, Psychosom. Med. 37:25–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Snyder, F., 1965, Progress in the new biology of dreaming, Am. J. Psychiat. 122:377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Southren, A. L., Tochimoto, S., Carmody, N. C., and Isurugi, K., 1965, Plasma production rates of testosterone in normal adult men and women and in patients with the syndrome of feminizing testes, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 25:1441–1450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Spodick, D. H., Pigott, V. M., and Chirife, R., 1972, Preclinical cardiac malfunction in chronic alcoholism, N. Engl. J. Med. 287:677–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Steffen, J. J., Nathan, P. E., and Taylor, H. A., 1974, Tension-reducing effects of alcohol: Further evidence and some methodological considerations, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 83:542–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Steinglass, P., and Weiner, S., 1971, Familial interactions and determinants of drinking behavior, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 687–705, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  289. Steinglass, P., and Wolin, S., 1974, Explorations of a systems approach to alcoholism: Clinical observations of a simulated drinking gang, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 31:527–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Stone, M. L., Salerno, L. J., Green, M., and Zelson, C., 1971, Narcotic addiction in pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 109:716–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Sutton, T., 1813, Tracts on Delirium Tremens, on Periodonitis and Other Inflammatory Afflictions, Thomas Underwood, London.Google Scholar
  292. Talbott, G. D., 1975, Primary alcoholic heart disease, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 252:235–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Talland, G. A., 1965, Deranged Memory, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  294. Talland, G. A., 1966, Effects of alcohol on performance in continuous attention tasks, Psychosom. Med. 28:596–604.Google Scholar
  295. Talland, G. A., Mendelson, J. H., and Ryack, P., 1964a, Experimentally induced chronic intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholics, Part 4, Tests of motor skills, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol, Suppl. 2, 53-73.Google Scholar
  296. Talland, G. A., Mendelson, J. H., and Ryack, P., 1964b, Experimentally induced chronic intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholics, Part 5, Tests of attention, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol, Suppl. 2, 74-86.Google Scholar
  297. Tamerin, J. S., and Mendelson, J. H., 1969, The psychodynamics of chronic inebriation: Observations of alcoholics during the process of drinking in an experimental group setting. Am. J. Psychiat. 125:886–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Tamerin, J. S., Weiner, S., and Mendelson, J. H., 1970, Alcoholics’ expectancies and recall of experiences during intoxication, Am. J. Psychiat. 126:1697–1704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Tamerin, J. S., Weiner, S., Poppen, R., Steinglass, P., and Mendelson, J. H., 1971, Alcohol and memory: Amnesia and short-term function during experimentally induced intoxication, Am. J. Psychiat. 127:1659–1664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Tarter, R. E., Jones, B. M., Simpson, C. D., and Vega, A., 1971, Effects of task complexity and practice on performance during acute alcohol intoxication, Percept. Mot. Skills 33:307–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Taylor, S. P., and Gammon, C. B., 1975, Effects of type and dose of alcohol on human physical aggression, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 32:169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Taylor, S. P., Vardaris, R. M., Rawtich, A. B., Gammon, G. B., Cranston, J. W., and Lubetkin, A. I., 1976, The effects of alcohol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human physical aggression, Aggress. Behav. 2:153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Tec, N., 1973, A clarification of the relationship between alcohol and marihuana, Br. J. Addict. 68:191–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Tewari, S., and Noble, E. P., 1971, Chronic effects of ethanol on brain protein synthesis, in: Recent Advances in Studies of Alcoholism (N. K. Mello and J. H. Mendelson, eds.), pp. 107–122, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Publ. No. (HSM) 71-9045, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  305. Tharp, V. K., Rundell, O. H., Lester, B. K., and Williams, H. L., 1974, Alcohol and information processing. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 40:33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. The Framingham Heart Study; Habits and Coronary Heart Disease, 1966, U.S. Govt. Printing Office PHS Publ. No. 1515, U.S. National Heart Institute, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  307. Thornton, C. C., Alterman, A. I., Skoloda, T. E., and Gottheil, E., 1976, Drinking and socializing in “introverted” and “extroverted” alcoholics, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 273:481–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Tinklenberg, J. R., 1973, Alcohol and violence, in: Alcoholism: Progress in Research and Treatment (P. Bourne and R. Fox, eds.), pp. 195–210, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  309. Van Thiel, D. H., Lester, R., and Sherins, R. J., 1974, Hypogonadism in alcoholic liver disease: Evidence for a double defect, Gastroenterology 67:1188–1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Victor, M., 1966, Treatment of alcoholic intoxication and the withdrawal syndrome: A critical analysis of the use of drugs and other forms of therapy, Psychosom. Med. 28:636–650.Google Scholar
  311. Victor, M., 1973, The role of hypomagnesemia and respiratory alkalosis in the genesis of alcohol-withdrawal symptoms, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215:235–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Victor, M., 1974, Neurologic changes in liver disease, in: Brain Dysfunction in Metabolic Disorders, Res. Publ. Assoc. Nerv. Ment. Dis. (F. Plum, ed.), pp. 1–12, Raven Press, New YGoogle Scholar
  313. Victor, M., 1975, Nutrition and diseases of the nervous system (including psychiatric disorders), Prog. Food Nutr. Sci. 1:145–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Victor, M., and Adams, R. D., 1953, The effect of alcohol on the nervous system, Res. Publ. Assoc. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 32:526–573.Google Scholar
  315. Victor, M., Talland, G. A., and Adams, R. D., 1959, Psychological studies of Korsakoff’s psychosis: I. General intellectual functions, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 128:528–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Victor, M., Adams, R. D., and Collins, G. H., 1971, The Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. A Clinical and Pathological Study of 245 Patients, 82 with Post-mortem Examinations, F. A. Davis, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  317. Wagman, A. M. I., and Allen, R. P., 1975, Effects of alcohol ingestion and abstinence on slow wave sleep of alcoholics, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (M. M. Gross, ed.), Vol. 59, pp. 453–466, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  318. Waller, J. A., 1972, Factors associated with alcohol and responsibility for fatal highway crashes, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 33:160–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Warner, R. H., and Rosett, H. L., 1975, The effects of drinking on offspring, an historical survey of the American and British literature, J. Stud. Alcohol 36:1395–1420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Warren, G. H., and Raynes, A. E., 1972, Mood changes during three conditions of alcohol intake, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 33:979–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Webster, P. D., III, 1975, Secretory and metabolic effects of alcohol on the pancreas, Ann. N. Y.Acad. Sci. 252:183–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Weiner, S., Tamerin, J. S., Steinglass, P., and Mendelson, J. H., 1971b, Familial patterns in chronic alcoholism: A study of a father and son during experimental intoxication, Am. J. Psychiat. 127:1646–1651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Weingartner, H., and Faillace, L. A., 1971, Alcohol state dependent learning in man, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 153:395–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Weingartner, H., Faillace, L. A., and Markley, H. G., 1971, Verbal information retention in alcoholics, Q. J. Stud. Alcohol 32:293–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Wikler, A., and Rasor, R. W., 1953, Psychiatric aspects of drug addiction, Am. J. Med. 14:566–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Williams, A. F., 1966, Social drinking, anxiety and depression, J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 3:689–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Williams, H. L., and Salamy, A., 1974, Alcohol and sleep, in: The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol. 2, Physiology and Behavior (B. Kissin and H. Begleiter, eds.), pp. 436–484, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  328. Wilson, G. T., and Lawson, D. M., 1976a, Effects of alcohol on sexual arousal in women, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 85(5):489–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Wilson, G. T., and Lawson, D. M., 1976b, Expectancies, alcohol, and sexual arousal in male social drinkers, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 85:587–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Wilson, G. S., Desmond, M. M., and Verinaud, W. M., 1973, Early development of infants of heroin addicted mothers, Am. J. Dis. Child. 126:457–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Winger, G. D., and Woods, J. H., 1973, The reinforcing property of ethanol in the rhesus monkey: I. Initiation, maintenance, and termination of intravenous ethanol-reinforced responding, in: Alcoholism and the Central Nervous System (F. A. Seixas and S. Eggleston, eds.), Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215:162-175.Google Scholar
  332. Wolfe, P. H., 1972, Ethnic differences in alcohol sensitivity, Science 175:449–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Wolfgang, M. E., 1958, Patterns in Criminal Homicide, Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  334. Wolin, S. J., 1973, Hallucinations during experimental intoxication, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies: Vol. 35, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (M. M. Gross, ed.), pp. 305–319, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Wolin, S. J., and Mello, N. K., 1973, The effects of alcohol on dreams and hallucinations in alcohol addicts, in: Alcoholism and the Central Nervous System (F. A. Seixas and S. Eggleston, eds.), Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 215:266-302.Google Scholar
  336. Wolin, S. J., and Steinglass, P., 1974, Interactional behavior in an alcoholic community, Med. Ann. D. C. 43:183–187.Google Scholar
  337. Woods, J. H., Ikomi, F. I., and Winger, G. D., 1971, The reinforcing properties of ethanol, in: Biological Aspects of Alcoholism (M. K. Roach, W. N. Mclsaac, and P. J. Creaven, eds.), pp. 371–388, Univ. of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  338. Woods, J. H., Downs, D. A., and Villarreal, J. E., 1973, Changes in operant behavior during deprivation-and antagonist-induced withdrawal states, in: Bayer Symposium IV, Psychic Dependence, pp. 114-121.Google Scholar
  339. Woods, J. H., Downs, D. A., and Carney, J., 1975, Behavioral functions of narcotic antagonists: Response-drug contingencies, Fed. Proc. 34:1777–1784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Woody, G. E., O’Brien, C. P., and Greenstein, R., 1975, Misuse and abuse of diazepam: An increasingly common medical problem, Int. J. Addict. 10:843–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. World Health Organization, 1955, Expert Committee on Alcohol, First Report, Geneva: WHO Technical Report Series, No. 84.Google Scholar
  342. Younger, W., 1966, Gods, Men and Wine, The Wine and Foods Society, World Publ. Co., Cleveland.Google Scholar
  343. Yules, R. B., Freedman, D. X., and Chandler, K. A., 1966a, The effect of ethyl alcohol on man’s electroencephalograph sleep cycle, EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 20:109–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Yules, R. B., Ogden, J. A., Gault, F. P., and Freedman, D. X., 1966b, The effect of ethyl alcohol on electroencephalographic sleep cycles in cats, Psychonomon. Sci. 5:97–98.Google Scholar
  345. Yules, R. B., Lippman, M. E., and Freedman, D. X., 1967, Alcohol administration prior to sleep, the effect on EEG sleep states, Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 16:94–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Zarcone, V., Barchas, J., Hoddes, E., Montplaisir, J., Sack, R., and Wilson, R., 1975, Experimental ethanol ingestion: Sleep variables and metabolites of dopamine and serotonin in the cerebrospinal fluid, in: Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies, II, Vol. 59, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (M. M. Gross, ed.), pp. 431–451, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  347. Zeiner, A. A., Paredes, A., and Cowden, L., 1976, Physiologic responses to ethanol among the Tarahumara Indians, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 273:151–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Zelson, C., Rubio, E., and Wasserman, E., 1971, Neonatal narcotic addiction: 10 year observation, Pediatrics 48:178–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Zwerling, I., and Rosenbaum, M., 1959, Alcohol addiction and personality, in: American Handbook of Psychiatry Vol. I (S. Arieti, ed.), pp. 623–644, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy K. Mello
    • 1
  • Jack H. Mendelson
    • 1
  1. 1.Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research CenterHarvard Medical School—McLean HospitalBelmontUSA

Personalised recommendations