Neuropharmacology of The Sleep-Waking Cycle

  • Michel Jouvet
Part of the Handbook of Psychopharmacology book series (HBKPS)


There are two main problems related to the neuropharmacology of sleep: Is it possible to induce physiological sleep, at will, and for a predetermined duration, with a drug in a normal intact animal? The answer to this question is still negative. Neither in animals nor in man do we have yet the right hypnogenic drug or the combination of drugs which will induce at any time and for any duration the delicate and harmonious succession of the different stages and states of sleep. However, neuropharmacology has allowed us to dissect some of the intimate mechanisms underlying the sleep-waking cycle since some drugs may suppress both states of sleep, or suppress paradoxical sleep (ps) selectively, or restore physiological sleep in an insomniac cat.


Locus Coeruleus Paradoxical Sleep Fusaric Acid Cholinergic Mechanism Intraventricular Injection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aghajanian, G. K., Bloom, F. E., Lovell, R. A., Sheard, M. H., and Freedman, D. X., 1966, The uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3H from the cerebral ventricles: autoradiographic localization, Biochem. Pharmacol. 15:401–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghajanian, G. K., Graham, A. W., and Sheard, M. H., 1970, Serotonin-containing neurons in brain: depression of firing by monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Science 169:1100–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andén, N. E., Magnusson, T., and Stock, G., 1973, Effects of drugs influencing monoamine mechanisms on the increase in brain dopamine produced by axotomy or treatment with gammahydroxybutyric acid, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 278:363–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldy-Moulinier, M., Dupres, G., and Passouant, P., 1969, Organization de la veille et du sommeil au cours du nycthemère chez le chat. Modifications pharmacologiques, Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 120:394–398.Google Scholar
  5. Barratt, E., and Adams, P. M., 1973, Chronic marijuana usage and sleep-wakefulness cycles in cats, Biol. Psychiat. 6:207–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartholini, G., Birlard, W. P., Pletscher, A., and Bates, H. M., 1967, Increase of cerebral catecholamines caused by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine after inhibition of peripheral decarboxylase, Nature (London) 215:852–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartolini, A., and Pepeu, G., 1967, Investigations into the acetylcholine output from the cerebral cortex of the cat in the presence of hyoscine, Brit. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 31:66–74.Google Scholar
  8. Bauer, V., and Sur, R. N., 1972, Studies on the central nervous system actions of papaverine. I. The action on sleep cycle in the rat, Psychopharmacologia 26:263–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baumgarten, H. G., Evetts, K. D., Holman, R. B., Iversen, L. L., Vogt, M., and Gay, W., 1972, Effects of 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine on monoaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the rat, J. Neurochem. 19:1587–1598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baust, W., Niemczyk, H., and Vieth, J., 1963, The action of blood pressure on the ascending reticular activating system with special reference to adrenaline-induced EEG arousal, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 15:63–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baxter, B. L., 1969, Induction of both emotional behavior and a novel form of REM sleep by chemical stimulation applied to cat mesencephalon, Exp. Nenrol. 23:220–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beani, L., Bianchi, L., Santinoceto, L., and Marchetti, P., 1968, The cerebral acetylcholine release in conscious rabbits with semi-permanently implanted epidural cups, Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 7:469–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beani, L., Bianchi, C., and Castelluci, A., 1974, Correlation of brain catecholamines with cortical acetylcholine outflow behavior and electrocorticogram, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 26:63–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benda, P., and Perles, R., 1960, Etude expérimentale de l’abaissement de la vigilance par le gamma butyrolactone, C. R. Acad. Sci. 251:1312–1313.Google Scholar
  15. Bert, J., and Balzamo, E., 1974, Différenciation des effets de la PCPA sur le sommeil de deux primates appartenant au genre papio, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 37:161–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bessman, S. P., and Fishbein, W. N., 1963, Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, a normal brain metabolite, Nature (London) 200:1207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bilkova, J., Radil-Weiss, T., and Bohdanecky, Z., 1971, The influence of low LSD dose administration during sleep in rats, Psychopharmacologia 20:395–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blondaux, C., Juge, A., Sordet, F., Chouvet, G., Jouvet, M., and Pujol, J. F., 1973, Modification du métabolisme de la sérotonine (5-HT) cérébrale induite chez le rat par administration de 6-hydroxydopamine, Brain Res. 50:101–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Blondaux, C., Buda, M., Petitjean, F., and Pujol, J. F., 1975, Hypersomnie par lésion isthmique chez le chat. I. Etude du métabolisme des monoamines cérébrales, Brain Res. 88:425–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bobillier, P., Froment, J. L., Seguin, S., and Jouvet, M., 1973, Effets de la p-chlorophenyl-alanine et du 5-hydroxytryptophane sur le sommeil et le métabolisme central des monoamines et des protéines chez le chat, Biochem. Pharmacol. 22:3077–3090.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bobillier, P., Sakai, F., Seguin, S., and Jouvet, M., 1974, The effect of sleep deprivation upon the in vivo and in vitro incorporation of tritiated amino acids into brain proteins in the rat at three different age levels, J. Neurochem. 22:23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bobillier, P., Petitjean, F., Salvert, D., Ligier, M., and Seguin, S., 1975, Differential projections of nucleus raphe dorsalis and nucleus raphe centralis as revealed by autoradiography, Brain Res. 85:205–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Borenstein, P., Gekiere, F., Gruet-Masson, J., Menchikoff, F., Allegre, G., and Cujo, P., 1969, Etude comparative de l’effet de trois neuroleptiques majeurs sur l’évolution des tracés de veille-sommeil de chats implantés libres, Sem. Hop. Paris, 19:1271–1300.Google Scholar
  24. Borenstein, P., Gekiere, F., Brindeau, F., Clean, M., and Allegre, G., 1973, Etude comportementale et polygraphique de trois benzodiazepines et d’un barbiturique sur le chat implanté libre, Ann. Med. Psychol. 2:13–43.Google Scholar
  25. Bradley, P. B., and Elkes, J., 1957, The effects of some drugs on the electrical activity of the brain, Brain 80:77–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Branchey, M., and Kissin, B., 1970, The effect of alpha methylparatyrosine on sleep and arousal in the rat, Psychosom. Sci. 19:281–282.Google Scholar
  27. Bremer, F., 1954, The neurophysiological problem of sleep, in: Brain Mechanisms and Consciousness (E. D. Adrian, F. Bremer, and H.H. Jasper, eds.), pp. 137–162, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Bremer, F., and Chatonnet, J., 1949, Acétylcholine et cortex cérébral, Arch. Intern. Physiol. 57:106–109.Google Scholar
  29. Brodie, B. B., and Shore, P. A., 1957, On a role for serotonin and norepinephrine as chemical mediators in the central autonomie nervous system, in: Hormones, Brain Function and Behaviour (H. Hoagland, ed.), pp. 161–176, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Bronzino, J. D., Brusseau, J. N., Stern, W. C., and Morgane, P. J., 1973, Power density spectra of cortical EEG of the cat in sleep and waking, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 35:187–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brooks, D. C., and Gershon, M. D., 1971, Eye movement potentials in the oculomotor and visual system: a comparison in reserpine-induced waves with those present during wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep, Brain Res. 27:223–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Buguet, A., Petitjean, F., and Jouvet, M., 1970, Suppression des pointes PGO du sommeil par lésion ou injection in situ de 6-hydroxydopamine au niveau du tegmentum pontique, C. R. Soc. Biol. 164:2293–2300.Google Scholar
  33. Capon, A., 1959, Nouvelles recherches sur l’effet d’éveil de l’adrénaline, J. Physiol. (Paris) 51:424–425.Google Scholar
  34. Celesia, G. G., and Jasper, H. H., 1966, Acetylcholine released from cerebral cortex in relation to state of activation, Neurology 16:1053–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cespuglio, R., Laurent, J. P., and Calvo, J. M., 1976, Organisation anatomique des activités phasiques provoquées par la réserpine au niveau du système oculo-moteur, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 40:12–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cohen, H. B., Duncan, R. F., and Dement, W. C., 1968, The effect of diphenylhydantoin on sleep in the cat, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 24:401–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cohen, H. B., Ferguson, J., Henriksen, S., Stolk, J. M., Zarcone, V. J., Barchas, J., and Dement, W., 1970, Effects of chronic depletion of brain serotonin on sleep and behavior, Proc. Am. Psychol. Assoc. 78:831–832.Google Scholar
  38. Cohen, H. B., Dement, W. C., and Barchas, J. D., 1973, Effects of chlorpromazine on sleep in cats pretreated with para-chlorophenylalanine, Brain Res. 53:363–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Constantinidis, J., Bartholini, G., Tissot, R., and Pletscher, A., 1968, Accumulation of dopamine in the parenchyma after decarboxylase inhibition in the capillaries of brain, Experientia 24:130–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Constantinidis, J., Geissbuhler, F., Gaillard, J. M., Aubert, C., Novaguimiau, T., and Tissot, R., 1975, Formation de norepinephrine dans le cerveau du rat après administration de (+)-erythro-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine, Psychopharmacologia 41:201–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cordeau, J. P., Moreau, A., Beaulnes, A., and Lawrin, C., 1963, EEG and behavioural changes following microinjections of acetylcholine and adrenaline in the brainstem of cats, Arch. Ital. Biol. 101:30–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cordeau, J. P., Champlain, J. de, and Jacks, B., 1971, Excitation and prolonged waking produced by catecholamines injected into the ventricular system of cats, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 49:627–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Costa, E., Pscheidt, G. R., Van Meter, W. G., and Himwich, H. E., 1960, Brain concentrations of biogenic amines and EEG patterns of rabbits, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 130:81–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Costa, E., Groppetti, A., and Naimzada, M. K., 1972, Effects of amphetamine on the turnover rate of brain catecholamines and motor activity, Brit.J. Pharmacol. 44:742–752.Google Scholar
  45. Cramer, H., Tagliamonte, A., Tagliamonte, P., Perez-Cruet, J., and Gessa, G. L., 1973, Stimulation of brain serotonin turnover by paradoxical sleep deprivation in intact and hypophysectomized rats, Brain Res. 54:372–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dahl, D. R., 1968, Short-chain fatty acid inhibition of rat brain Na-K adenosine triphosphatase, J. Neurochem. 15:815–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. David, J., Grewal, R. S., and Wagle, G. P., 1974, Persistent electroencephalographic changes in rhesus monkeys after single doses of pentobarbital, nitrazepam, and imipramine, Psychopharmacologia 35:61–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dell, P., 1960, Intervention of an adrenergic mechanism during brain stem reticular activation, in: Adrenergic Mechanisms. Ciba Foundation Symposium (J. R. Varre, G. E. W. Wolstenholme, and C. M. O’Connor, eds.), pp. 393-409, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  49. Dell, P., 1963, Reticular homeostasis and cortical reactivity, in: Brain Mechanisms (G. Moruzzi, A. Fessard, and H. H. Jasper, eds.), pp. 82–103, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  50. Delorme, F., 1966, Monoamines et sommeils. Etude polygraphique neuropharmacologique et histochimique des états de sommeil chez le chat, Thèse Université de Lyon, pp. 168, Imprimerie LMD.Google Scholar
  51. Delorme, F., Jeannerod, M., and Jouvet, M., 1965, Effets remarquables de la réserpine sur l’activité EEG phasique pontogeniculo occipitale, C. R. Soc. Biol. 159:900–903.Google Scholar
  52. Delorme, F., Froment, J. L., and Jouvet, M., 1966, Suppression du sommeil par la p-chloromethamphetamine et la p-chlorophenylalanine, C. R. Soc. Biol. 160:2347–2351.Google Scholar
  53. Dement, W., Ferguson, J., Cohen, H., and Barchas, J., 1970a, Nonchemical methods and data using a biochemical model: the REM quanta, in: Some Current Issues in Psychochemical Research Strategies in Man (A. Mandell, ed.), pp. 275-325, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  54. Dement, W., Zarcone, V., Ferguson, J., Cohen, H., Pivik, T., and Barchas, J., 1970, Some parallel findings in schizophrenic patients and serotonin-depleted cats, in: Schizophrenia. Current Concepts and Research (D. V. Siva-Sankar, ed.), pp. 775–811, PJD Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Dement, W. C., Mitler, M., and Henriksen, S. J., 1972, Sleep changes during chronic administration of p-chlorophenylalanine, Rev. Can. Biol. 31:239–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Depoortere, H., and Loew, D. M., 1971, Alterations in sleep, wakefulness cycle in rats following treatment with LSD, Br.J. Pharmacol. 41:402–403.Google Scholar
  57. Dewhurst, W. G., and Marley, E., 1965, Action of sympathomimetic and allied amines on the central nervous system of the chicken, Br. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 25:705–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Dolezalova, H., and Stepita-Klauco, M., 1974, Piperidine concentration changes in the brain and blood of dormant mice, Brain Res. 74:182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dolezalova, H., Stepita-Klauco, M., and Fairweather, R., 1974, An elevated cadaverine content in the brain of dormant mice, Brain Res. 77:166–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Domino, E. F., and Stawiski, M., 1971, Effects of the cholinergic antisynthesis agent HC-3 on the awake-sleep cycle of cat, Psychophysiology 7:315–316.Google Scholar
  61. Domino, E. F., and Yamamoto, K., 1965, Nicotine: effect on the sleep cycle of the cat, Science 150:637–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Domino, E. F., Yamamoto, K., and Dren, A. T., 1968, Role of cholinergic mechanisms in states of wakefulness and sleep, Progr. Brain Res. 28:113–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Drew, W. G., Champlin, M., and Miller, L., 1971, Comparison of the effects of cyclazocine and imipramine on the circadian sleep-waking cycle of the cat, Pharmacology 6:339–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Drucker-Colin, R. R., and Giacobini, E., 1975, Sleep-inducing effect of piperidine, Brain Res. 88:186–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Drucker-Colin, R. R., Rojas-Ramirez, J. A., Vera-Trueba, J., Monroy-Ayala, G., and Hernandez-Peon, R., 1970, Effect of crossed perfusions of the midbrain reticular formation upon sleep, Brain Res. 23:269–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Drucker-Colin, R. R., Spanis, C. W., Cotman, C. W., and McGaugh, J. L., 1975a, Changes in protein levels in perfusates of freely moving cats: relation to behavioral state Science 187:963–964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Drucker-Colin, R. R., Spanis, C., Hunyadi, J., Sassin, J. F., and McGaugh, J. L., 1975b, Growth hormone effects on sleep and wakefulness in the rat, Neuroendocrinology 18:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Dufy, B., Vincent, J. D., Dufy-Barbe, L., and Faure, J., 1973, Effects of vaginal stimulation and pituitary hormones on sleep patterns in the female rabbit, Endocrinology 92:1293–1295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Dusan-Peyrethon, D., and Froment, J. L., 1968, Effets du disulfiram sur les états de sommeil chez le chat, C. R. Soc. Biol. 162:2141–2145.Google Scholar
  70. Dusan-Peyrethon, D., Peyrethon, J., and Jouvet, M., 1968, Suppression élective du sommeil paradoxal chez le chat par alpha-méthyl-dopa, C. R. Soc. Biol. 162:116–118.Google Scholar
  71. Echols, S. D., and Jewett, R. E., 1972, Effects of morphine on sleep in the cat, Psychopharmacologia 24:435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Faure, J., 1964, Hormones in relation to sleep-wakefulness mechanisms, in: Endocrinology (S. Tayen, ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Endocrinologists, London, 1964, pp. 606–611, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  73. Felstein, A., Chang, F. H., and Kucharski, J. M., 1970, Tryptophol, 5-hydroxytryptophol and 5-methoxytryptophol induced sleep in mice, Life Sci. 9:323–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fencl, V., Koski, G., and Pappenheimer, J. R., 1971, Factors in cerebrospinal fluid from goats that affect sleep and activity in rats, J. Physiol. (London) 216:565–589.Google Scholar
  75. Florio, V., Scotti de Carolis, A., and Longo, V. G., 1968, Observations on the effect of DL-parachlorophenylalanine on the electroencephalogram, Physiol. Behav. 3:861–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Froment, J. L., Eskazan, E., and Jouvet, M., 1971, Effets du LSD et du methysergide sur les états de sommeil du chat, C. R. Soc. Biol. 165:2153–2157.Google Scholar
  77. Froment, J. L., Petitjean, F., Bertrand, N., Cointy, C., and Jouvet, M., 1974, Effets de l’injection intracérébrale de 5,6-hydroxytryptamine sur les monoamines cérébrales et les états de sommeil du chat, Brain Res. 67:405–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fuxe, K., and Lidbrink, P., 1973, Biogenic amine aspects on sleep and waking, in: Sleep. First European Congress on Sleep Research, Basel 1972 (W. P. Koella and P. Levin, eds.), pp. 12–26, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  79. Fuxe, K., and Ungerstedt, U., 1968, Histochemical studies on the distribution of catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine after intraventricular injections, Histochemie 13:16–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fuxe, K., Lidbrink, P., Hokfelt, T., Bolme, P., and Goldstein, M., 1974, Effects of piperoxane on sleep and waking in the rat. Evidence for increased waking by blocking inhibitory adrenaline receptors on the locus coeruleus, Acta Physiol. Scand. 91:566–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gadea-Ciria, M., Stadler, H., Lloyd, K. G., and Bartholini, G., 1973, Acetylcholine release within the cat striatum during the sleep-wakefulness cycle, Nature (London) 243:518–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gaillard, J. M., Bartholini, G., Herkert, B., and Tissot, R., 1974, Involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the cortical synchronization induced by l-dopa in the rabbit, Brain Res. 68:344–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gal, E. M., Roggeveen, A. E., and Millard, S. A., 1970, DL-(214C)-p-chlorophenylalanine as an inhibitor of tryptophan 5-hydroxylase, J. Neurochem. 17:1221–1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gardiner, J. E., 1961, The inhibition of acetylcholine synthesis in brain by hemicholinium, Biochem. J. 31:297–303.Google Scholar
  85. George, R., Haslett, W. L., and Jenden, D. J., 1964, A cholinergic mechanism in the brainstem reticular formation: induction of paradoxical sleep, Int. f. Pharmacol. 3:451–552.Google Scholar
  86. Gerardy, J., Quinaux, N., Maeda, T., and Dresse, A., 1969, Analyse des monoamines du locus coeruleus et d’autres structures cérébrales par Chromatographie sur couche mince, Arch. Int. Pharmacol. Ther. 177:492–496.Google Scholar
  87. Gessa, G. L., Crabai, F., Vargiu, L., and Spano, P. F., 1968, Selective increase of brain dopamine induced by gamma-hydroxybutyrate: study of the mechanism of action, J.Neurochem. 15:377–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Giarman, N. J., and Schmidt, K. F., 1963, Some neurochemical aspects of the depressant action of γ-butyrolactone on the central nervous system, Br. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 20:563–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gitlow, S. E., Bentkover, S. H., Dziedzic, S. W., and Khazan, N., 1973, Persistence of abnormal REM sleep response to ethanol as a result of previous ethanol ingestion, Psychopharmacologia 33:135–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Godin, Y., Mark, J., and Mandel, P., 1968, The effects of 4-hydroxybutyric acid on the biosynthesis of amino acids in the central nervous system, J. Neurochem. 15:1085–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Goldstein, M., Lauber, E., and McKereghan, M. R., 1964, The inhibition of dopamine-β-hydroxylase by tropolone and other chelating agents, Biochem. Pharmacol. 13:1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gottesmann, C., 1966, Reserpine et vigilance chez le rat, C. R. Soc. Biol. 160:2056–2061.Google Scholar
  93. Haigler, H. J., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1974, Peripheral serotonin antagonists: failure to antagonize serotonin in brain areas receiving a prominent serotonergic input, J. Neural. Transm. 35:257–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hanson, L. C. F., 1967, Evidence that the central action of (+)-amphetamine is mediated via catecholamines, Psychopharmacologia 10:289–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hartmann, E., 1968, On the pharmacology of dreaming sleep (the D state), J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 146:165–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hartmann, E., 1970, The D state and norepinephrine-dependent systems, in: Sleep and Dreaming (E. Hartmann, ed.), pp. 308–328, Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  97. Hartmann, E., Bridwell, T. J., and Schildkraut, J. J., 1971a, Alpha-methyl-paratyrosine and sleep in the rat, Psychopharmacologia 21:157–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hartmann, E., Chung, R., Draskoczy, P., and Schildkraut, J. J., 1971b, Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on sleep in the rat, Nature (London) 233:425–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hartmann, E., Zwilling, G., and List, S., 1973, Effects of an alpha-adrenergic blocker on sleep in the rat, in: Sleep Research (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), p. 58, Brain Supl. Service, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  100. Harvey, J. A., McMaster, S. E., and Yunger, L. M., 1975, p-Chloramphetamine: selective neurotoxic action in brain, Science 187:841–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Havlicek, V., 1967, The effect of dl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (precursor of noradrenaline) on the ECOG of unrestrained rats, Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 6:83–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hazra, J., 1970, Effect of hemicholinium-3 on slow wave and paradoxical sleep of cat, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 11:395–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hazra, J., 1971, Effect of serotonin depletion on HC-3 induced slow wave sleep of cat, Experientia 27:909–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Henriksen, S. J., and Dement, W. C., 1972, Effects of chronic intravenous administration of α-methyl paratyrosine on sleep in the cat, in: Sleep Research (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), Vol. 1, Brain Supl. Service, p. 55, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  105. Henriksen, S. J., Jacobs, B. C., and Dement, W. C., 1972, Dependence of REM sleep PGO waves on cholinergic mechanisms, Brain Res. 48:412–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hernandez-Peon, R., O’Flaherty, J. J., and Mazzuchelli-O’Flaherty, A. L., 1967, Sleep and other behavioural effects induced by acetylcholinic stimulation of basal temporal cortex and striate structure, Brain Res. 4:243–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hery, F., Pujol, J. F., Lopez, M., Macon, J., and Glowinski, J., 1970, Increased synthesis and utilization of serotonin in the central nervous system in the rat during paradoxical sleep deprivation, Brain Res. 21:391–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Heuser, G., 1967, Induction of anesthesia, seizures and sleep by steroid hormones, Anesthesiology 28:173–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Heuser, G., Ling, G., and Kluver, M., 1967, Sleep induction by progesterone in the preoptic area in cats, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 22:122–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hiebel, G., Bonvallet, M., Hube, P., and Dell, P., 1954, Analyse neurophysiologique de l’action centrale de la d-amphetamine (maxiton), Sem. Hop. Paris 30:1880–1885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hishikawa, Y., Nakai, K., Hidenobu, L, and Kaneko, Z., 1965, The effect of imipramine, desmethylimipramine and chlorpromazine on the sleep-wakefulness cycle of the cat, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 19:518–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hobson, J. A., 1964, The effect of LSD on the sleep cycle of the cat, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 17:52–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hokfelt, T., Fuxe, K.J., Goldstein, M., and Johanzzon, O., 1973, Evidence for adrenaline neurons in the rat brain, Acta Physiol. Scand. 89:286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Holman, R. B., Shillito, E., and Vogt, M., 1971, Sleep produced by clonidine, Br. J. Pharmacol. 43:685–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Holmquist, B., and Ingvar, D. H., 1957, Effects of short-chain fatty acid anions upon cortical blood flow and EEG in cats, Experientia 8:331–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Howard, J. L., and Breese, G. R., 1974, Physiological and behavioral effects of centrally administered 6-hydroxydopamine in cats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2:651–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hoyland, J., Shillito, E., and Vogt, M., 1970, The effect of parachlorophenylalanine on the behaviour of cats, Br. J. Pharmacol. 40:659–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Iskander, T. N., and Kaelbling, R., 1970, Catecholamines, a dream sleep model and depression, Am. J. Psychiat. 127:43–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Jacobs, B. L., Henriksen, S. J., and Dement, W. C., 1972, Neurochemical bases of the PGO waves, Brain Res. 48:406–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jacobs, B. L., Asher, R., and Dement, W. C., 1973, Electrophysiological and behavioral effects of electrical stimulation of the raphe nuclei in cats, Physiol. Behav. 11:489–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jalfre, M., Monachon, M., and Haefely, W., 1970, Pharmacological modifications of benzoquinolizine induced geniculate spikes, Experientia 26:691–694.Google Scholar
  122. Jalfre, M., Monachon, A., and Haefely, W., 1973, Drug and PGO-waves in the cat, in: Proceedings of the First Canadian International Symposium on Sleep (A. W. McClure, ed.), Roche, Montreal.Google Scholar
  123. Jalfre, M., Ruck-Monachon, M. A., and Haefely, W., 1974, Methods for assessing the interaction of agents with 5-HT neurons and receptors in the brain, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 10:121–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Jasper, H. J., and Tessier, J., 1971, Acetylcholine liberation from cerebral cortex during paradoxical (REM) sleep, Science 172:601–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jeannerod, M., 1965, Organisation de l’activité électrique phasique du sommeil paradoxal. Etude électrophysiologique et neuropharmacologique, Thèse de Médecine (J. Tixiez, ed.), p. 90, Lyon.Google Scholar
  126. Jewett, R. E., and Norton, S., 1966, Effects of some stimulant and depressant drugs on sleep cycles of cats, Exp. Neurol. 15:463–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Johnson, D. N., Funderburk, W. H., and Ward, J. W., 1971, Effects of Fenfluramine on sleep-wakefulness in cats, Psychopharmacologia 20:1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Johnson, D. N., Funderburk, W. H., Ruckart, R. T., and Ward, J. W., 1972, Contrasting effects of two 5-hydroxytryptamine depleting drugs on sleep patterns in cats, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 20:80–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Jones, B., 1970, The double role of catecholamines in waking and paradoxical sleep: a neuropharmacological model, Ph.D. thesis, University of Delaware.Google Scholar
  130. Jones, B. E., 1972, The respective involvement of noradrenaline and its deaminated metabolites in waking and paradoxical sleep: a neuropharmacological model, Brain Res. 39:121–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Jones, B. E., Bobillier, P., Pin, C., and Jouvet, M., 1973, The effects of lesion of catecholamine containing neurons upon monoamine content of the brain and EEG and behavioural waking in the cat, Brain Res. 58:157–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Jouvet, D., and Delorme, F., 1965, Evolution des signes électriques du sommeil paradoxal au cours de la nacrose au pentobarbital chez le chat, C. R. Soc. Biol. 159:387–390.Google Scholar
  133. Jouvet, M., 1961, Telencephalic and rhombencephalic sleep in the cat, in: The Nature of Sleep (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and M. O’Connor, eds.), pp. 188–208, CIBA Foundation Symposium, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  134. Jouvet, M., 1965, Etude de la dualité des états de sommeil et des mécanismes de la phase paradoxale, in: Aspects Anatomo Fonctionnels de la Physiologie du Sommeil (M. Jouvet, ed.), pp. 397–449, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  135. Jouvet, M., 1968, Neuropharmacology of sleep, in: Psychopharmacology. A review of Progress (D. H. Efron, ed.), pp. 523–540, Public Health Service Publication No. 1836.Google Scholar
  136. Jouvet, M., 1969, Biogenic amines and the states of sleep, Science 163:32–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Jouvet, M., 1972, The role of monoamines and acetylcholine-containing neurons in the regulation of the sleep-waking cycle, Ergeb. Physiol. 64:165–305.Google Scholar
  138. Jouvet, M., Cier, A., Mounier, D., and Valatx, J. L., 1961, Effets du 4-butyrolactone et du 4-hydroxybutyrate de sodium sur l’EEG et le comportement du chat, C. R. Soc. Biol. 155:1313–1316.Google Scholar
  139. Juan de Mendoza, J. L., Gauthier, P., Rodi, M., Roux, R., and Gottesmann, C., 1973, Effect of enhanced GABA level in the central nervous system on the different sleep-wakefulness stages in the rat, C. R. Soc. Biol. 167:73–83.Google Scholar
  140. Karczmar, A. G., Longo, V. G., and Scotti de Carolis, A., 1970, A pharmacological model of paradoxical sleep: the role of cholinergic and monoamine systems, Physiol. Behav. 5:175–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Key, G. J., 1975, Electrocortical changes induced by perfusion of catecholamines into the brain stem reticular formation, Neuropharmacology 14:41–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Key, G. J., and Marley, E., 1962, The effect of the sympathomimetic amines on behaviour and electrocortical activity of the chicken, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 14:90–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Khazan, N., and Sawyer, C. H., 1964, Mechanisms of paradoxical sleep as revealed by neurophysiologic and pharmacologic approaches in the rabbit, Psychopharmacologia 5:457–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Khazan, N., Weeks, J. R., and Schroeder, L. A., 1967, Electroencephalographic, electromyographic and behavioral correlates during a cycle of self-maintained morphine addiction in the rat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 155:521–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Killam, E. K., 1962, Drug action on the brain-stem reticular formation, Pharmacol. Rev. 14:175–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. King, C. D., 1971, The pharmacology of rapid eye movement sleep, Advances in Pharmacology and Chemotherapy, Vol. 9 (S. Garattini et al., eds.), pp. 1–91, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  147. King, D., and Jewett, R. E., 1971, The effects of alpha methyltyrosine on sleep and brain norepinephrine in cat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 177:188–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kitahama, K., and Valatx, J. L., 1975, Action de l’alpha-methyl-dopa sur les rythmes veille-sommeil de souris C57 Br et C 57 B1/6, Psychopharmacologia 45:189–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Koe, B. K., and Weissman, A., 1966, p-Chlorophenylalanine, a specific depletor of brain serotonin, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 154:499–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Koella, W. P., 1969, Serotonin and sleep, Exp. Med. Surg. 27:157–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Koella, W. P., and Czicman, J., 1966, Mechanism of the EEG synchronizing action of serotonin, Am.J. Physiol. 211:926–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Koella, W. P., Feldstein, A., and Czicman, J. S., 1968, The effect of parachlorophenylalanine on the sleep of cats, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25:481–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Laborit, H., 1964, Sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate, Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 3:433–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Laguzzi, R., Petitjean, F., Pujol, J. F., and Jouvet, M., 1972, Effets de l’injection intraventriculaire de 6-hydroxydopamine sur le cycle veille-sommeil du chat, Brain Res. 48:295–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Lanoir, J., and Killam, E. K., 1968, Alteration in the sleep-wakefulness patterns by benzodiazepines in the cat, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 25:530–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Laurent, J. P., Cespuglio, R., and Jouvet, M., 1974, Delimitation des voies ascendantes de l’activité ponto-géniculo-occipitale chez le chat, Brain Res. 65:29–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Lichtensteiger, W., and Langemann, H., 1966, Uptake of exogenous catecholamines by monoamine-containing neurons of the central nervous system: uptake of catecholamines by arcuato-infundibular neurons, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 151:400–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Lidbrink, P., 1974, The effect of lesions of ascending noradrenaline pathways on sleep and waking in the rat, Brain Res. 74:19–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Loizou, L. A., 1969, Projections of the nucleus locus coeruleus in the albino rat, Brain Res. 15:563–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Loizzo, A., and Longo, V. G., 1968, A pharmacological approach to paradoxical sleep, Physiol.Behav. 3:91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Longo, V. G., 1973, Central effects of y6-hydroxydopamine, Behav. Biol. 9:397–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Macon, J. B., Sokoloff, L., and Glowinski, J., 1971, Feedback control of rat brain 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis, J. Neurochem. 18:323–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Magherini, P. C., Pompeiano, O., and Thoden, U., 1971, The neurochemical basis of REM sleep: a cholinergic mechanism responsible for rhythmic activation of the vestibulooculomotor system, Brain Res. 35:565–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Magni, F., Moruzzi, G., Rossi, G. F., and Zanchetti, A., 1959, EEG arousal following inactivation of the lower brain stem by selective injection of barbiturate into the vertebral circulation, Arch. Ital. Biol. 97:33–46.Google Scholar
  165. Mandell, A. J., and Mandell, M. P., 1965, Biochemical aspects of rapid eye movement sleep, Am. J. Psychiat. 122:391–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Mandell, A. J., and Spooner, C. E., 1968, Psychochemical research studies in man, Science 162:1442–1453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Marantz, R., Rechtschaffen, A., Lovell, R. A., and Whitehead, P. K., 1968, Effect of alpha-methyltyrosine on the recovery from paradoxical sleep deprivation in the rat, Commun. Behav. Biol. 2:161–164.Google Scholar
  168. Marcus, R. J., Winters, W. D., Mori, K., and Spooner, C. E., 1967, EEG behavioral comparison of gamma-hydroxybutyrate, gamma-butyrolactone and short chain fatty acids in the rat, Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 6:175–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Matsumoto, J., and Jouvet, M., 1964, Effets de réserpine, DOPA et 5-HTP sur les 2 états de sommeil, C. R. Soc. Biol. 158:2137–2140.Google Scholar
  170. Matsumoto, J., and Watanabe, S., 1967, Effects of adrenergic blocking agents, Proc. Jpn. Acad. 43:680–683.Google Scholar
  171. Matsuyama, S., Coindet, J., and Mouret, J., 1973, 6-Hydroxydopamine intracisternale et sommeil chez le rat, Brain Res. 57:85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Matsuzaki, M., 1969, Differential effects of sodium butyrate and physostigmine upon the activities of para-sleep in acute brain stem preparations, Brain Res. 13:247–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Matsuzaki, M., Takagi, H., and Tokizane, T., 1964, Paradoxical phase of sleep and its artificial induction in the cat by sodium butyrate, Science 146:1328–1329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. McGeer, E. G., McGeer, P. L., and Peters, D. A., 1967, Inhibition of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by 5-halotryptophans, Life Sci. 6:2221–2233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. McGinty, D. J., Harper, R. M., and Fairbanks, M. K., 1973, 5-HT-containing neurons: unit activity in behaving cats, in: Serotonin and behavior (J. Barchas and E. Usdin, eds.), pp. 267–280, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  176. McGinty, D., and Krenek, T., 1974, REM phenomena during α-chloralose anesthesia in the cat, in: Sleep Research (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), Vol. 3, Brain Information Service, p. 61, Brain Res. Inst., University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  177. Miyata, T., Kamata, K., Nishikibe, M., Kasi, Y., Takahama, K., and Okano, Y., 1974, Effects of intracerebral administration of piperidine on EEG and behaviour, Life Sci. 15:1135–1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Monachon, M. A., Burkard, W., Jalfre, M., and Haefely, W., 1972, Blockade of central 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors by methiothepin, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 274:192–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Monnier, M., and Tissot, R., 1958, Action de la réserpine et de ses médiateurs (5-HTP-serotonine et DOPA-noradrenaline) sur le comportement et le cerveau du lapin, Helv.Physiol.Acta 16:255–267.Google Scholar
  180. Monnier, M., and Graber, S., 1963, Action de la DOPA et du blocage de la monoaminoxydase par l’iproniazid sur le cerveau, Sonderdruck Schw., Arch. Neurol Neurochem. Psychol. 92:410–414.Google Scholar
  181. Monnier, M., Fallert, M., and Bhattacharya, I. C., 1967, The waking action of histamine, Experientia 23:21–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Monti, J. M., 1968, The effect of haloperidol on the sleep cycle of the cat, Experientia 24:1143–1144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Moreton, J. E., and Davis, W. M., 1973, Electroencephalographic study of the effects of tetrahydroxycannabinols on sleep in the rat, Neuropharmacology 12:897–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Morgane, P. J., 1969, Chemical mapping of hypnogenic and arousal systems in the brain, Psychophysiology 6:219.Google Scholar
  185. Morgane, P. J., and Stern, W. C., 1973a, Effects of serotonin metabolites on sleep-waking activity in cats, Brain Res. 50:205–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Morgane, P. J., and Stern, W. C., 1973b, Monoamine systems in the brain and their role in the sleep states, in: Serotonin and behavior (J. Barchas and E. Usdin, eds.), pp. 427–442, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  187. Morgane, P. J., and Stern, W. C., 1974, Interaction of amine systems in the central nervous system in the regulation of the states of vigilance, in: Neurohumoral Coding of Brain function (R. D. Myers and R. Drucker-Colin, eds.), Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  188. Moruzzi, G., 1964, The historical development of the deafferentation hypothesis of sleep, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 108:19–28.Google Scholar
  189. Moruzzi, G., 1972, The sleep-waking cycle, Ergeh. Physiol. 64:1–164.Google Scholar
  190. Mouret, J., Froment, J. L., Bobillier, P., and Jouvet, M., 1967, Etude neuropharmacologique et biochimique des insomnies provoquées par la p-chlorophenylalanine, J. Physiol. (Paris) 59:463–464.Google Scholar
  191. Mouret, J., Bobillier, P., and Jouvet, M., 1968ö, Insomnia following p-chlorophenylalanine in the rat, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 5:17–22.Google Scholar
  192. Mouret, J., Vilppula, A., Frachon, N., and Jouvet, M., 1968b, Effets d’un inhibiteur de la monoamine-oxydase sur le sommeil du rat, C. R. Soc. Biol. 162:914–917.Google Scholar
  193. Mouret, J., Coindet, J., and Chouvet, G., 1974, Effet de la pinéalectomie sur les états et les rythmes de sommeil du rat mâle, Brain Res. 81:97–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Nauta, W. J. H., 1958, Hippocampal projections and related neural pathways to the midbrain of the cat, Brain 81:319–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Nava, B., Carbonell, J., Gutierrez, J., Arce, M., and Obrador, S., 1973, Implantes cefalicos en perros. II. Estudios neurologicos y electroencefalograficos, Rev. Clin. Esp. 130:301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Ng, K. Y., Chase, T. N., Colburn, R. W., and Kopin, I. J., 1970, L-DOPA-induced release of cerebral monoamines, Science 170:76–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Oswald, I., 1968, Drugs and sleep, Pharmacol. Rev. 20:273–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Oswald, I., 1969, Human brain proteins, drugs and dreams, Nature (London) 223:893–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Panksepp, J., Jalowiec, J. E., Morgane, P. J., Zolovick, A. J., and Stern, W. C., 1973, Noradrenergic pathways and sleep-waking states in cats, Exp. Neurol. 41:233–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Pascalon, A., Ashford, W., Dansereau, J., and Mouret, J., 1972, The effect of 6-chlorotryptophan on sleep in the rat, Life Sci. 11:893–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Passouant, P., and Baldy-Moulinier, M., 1970, Données actuelles sur le traitement de la narcolepsie. Action des imipraminiques, Concours Med. 92:1967–1970.Google Scholar
  202. Pegram, V., Hammond, D., and Bridgers, W., 1973, The effect of protein synthesis inhibition on sleep in mice, Behav. Biol. 3:377–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Pepeu, G., and Bartolini, A., 1967, Effect of some psychopharmacological agents on acetylcholine release from the cerebral cortex of the cat, Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. 43:1409–1411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Petitjean, F., Laguzzi, R., Jouvet, M., and Pujol, J. F., 1972, Effets de l’injection intraventriculaire de 6-hydroxydopamine. I. Sur les monoamines cérébrales du chat, Brain Res. 48:281–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Petitjean, F., Sakai, K., Blondaux, C., and Jouvet, M., 1975a, Hypersomnie par lésion isthmique chez le chat. II. Etude neurophysiologique et pharmacologique, Brain Res. 88:439–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Petitjean, F., Sastre, J. P., Bertrand, N., Cointy, C., and Jouvet, M., 1975b, Suppression du sommeil paradoxal par le chloramphenicol. Absence d’effet du Thiamphenicol, C. R. Soc. Biol. 169:1236–1239.Google Scholar
  207. Pichot, P., and Serdaru, M., 1972, Psychopharmacologie du sommeil, Encephale 4:1–109.Google Scholar
  208. Pieron, H., 1913, Le problème physiologique du sommeil, 520 pp., Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  209. Poirier, L. J., Langelier, P., Roberge, A., Boucher, R., and Kitsikis, A., 1972, Nonspecific histopathological changes induces by the intracerebral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), J. Neurol. Sci. 16:401–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Pompeiano, O., 1972, Reticular control of the vestibular nuclei. Physiology and pharmacology, in: Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 37 (O. Pompeiano and A. Brodai, eds.), pp. 614–618, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  211. Puizillout, J. J., Ternaux, J. P., Foutz, A. S., and Fernandez, G., 1974, Les stades de sommeil de la préparation “encéphale isolé.” I. Déclenchement des pointes pontogéniculo-occipitales et du sommeil phasique à ondes lentes. Rôle des noyaux du raphé, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 37:561–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Pujol, J. F., Mouret, J., Jouvet, M., and Glowinski, J., 1968, Increased turnover of cerebral norepinephrine during rebound of paradoxical sleep in the rat, Science 159:112–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Pujol, J. F., Buguet, A., Froment, J. L., Jones, B., and Jouvet, M., 1971, The central metabolism of serotonin in the cat during insomnia: a neurophysiological and biochemical study after p-chlorophenylalanine or destruction of the raphe system, Brain Res. 29:195–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Pujol, J. F., Stein, D., Blondaux, C., Petitjean, F., Froment, J. L., and Jouvet, M., 1973, Biochemical evidences for interaction phenomena between noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems in the cat brain, in: Frontiers in Catecholamine Research (E. Usdin and S. Snyder, eds.), Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  215. Rechtschaffen, A., Lovell, R. A., Freedman, D. W., Whitehead, P. K., and Aldrich, M., 1969, Effect of p-chlorophenylalanine on sleep in rats, Psychophysiology 6:223.Google Scholar
  216. Reich, P., Geyer, S. J., and Karnovsky, M. L., 1974, Metabolism of brain during sleep and wakefulness, J. Neurochem. 19:487–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Reis, D. J., Moorhead, D. T., and Meslino, N., 1970, Dopa-induced excitement in the cat, Arch. Neurol. 22:31–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Reite, M., Pegram, G. V., Stephens, L. M., Bixler, E. C., and Lewis, O. L., 1969, The effect of reserpine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors on paradoxical sleep in the monkey, Psychopharmacologia 14:12–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Ricci, G. F., and Zamparo, L., 1965, Electrocortical correlates of avoidance conditioning in the monkey. Their modifications with atropine and amphetamine, in: Pharmacology of Conditioning, Learning and Retention (M. Y. Michelson and V. G. Longo, eds.), pp. 269–283, Czechoslovak Medical Press, Prague.Google Scholar
  220. Rinaldi, F., and Himwich, H. E., 1955, Cholinergic mechanism involved in function of mesodiencephalic activating system, Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 73:396–402.Google Scholar
  221. Rizzoli, A. A., and Galzigna, L., 1970, Molecular mechanism of unconscious state induced by butyrate, Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:2727–2736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Roth, G. I., Walton, P. L., and Yamamoto, W. S., 1970, Area postrema abrupt EEG synchronization following close intra-arterial perfusion with serotonin, Brain Res. 23:223–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Roth, R. H., and Giarman, N. J., 1969, Conversion in vivo of gamma-aminobutyric to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the rat, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18:247–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Roth, R. H., and Giarman, N. J., 1970, Natural occurrence of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in mammalian brain, Biochem. Pharmacol. 19:1087–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Rougeul, A., Verdeaux, J., and Letalle, A., 1969, Effets electrographiques et comportementaux de divers hallucinogènes chez le chat libre, Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 120:391–394.Google Scholar
  226. Roussel, B., 1967, Monoamines et sommeils: suppression du sommeil paradoxal et diminution de la noradrénaline cérébrale par les lésions des noyaux locus coeruleus. Thèse de Médecine (J. Tixier, ed.), Lyon, 141 pp.Google Scholar
  227. Rubin, R. T., Poland, R. E., Rubin, L. E., and Gouin, P. R., 1974, The neuroendocrinology of human sleep, Life Sci. 14:1041–1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Sabelli, H. C., and Giardina, W. J., 1970, Tryptaldehydes (indoleacetaldehydes) in serotoninergic sleep in newly hatched chicks, Arzneimittelforschung 20:74–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Samson, F. E., Dahl, N., and Dahl, D. N., 1956, A study on the narcotic action of the shortchain fatty acids, J. Clin. Invest. 35:1291–1298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Satoh, T., and Tanaka, R., 1973, Selective suppression of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) by fusaric acid, an inhibitor of dopamine-β-oxidase, Experientia 29:177–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Sawyer, C. H., and Kawakami, M., 1961, Interactions between the central nervous system and hormones influencing ovulation, in: Control of Ovulation (C. A. Villee, ed.), pp. 79–100, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  232. Schoenenberger, G. A., Cueni, L. B., Hatt, A. M., and Monnier, M., 1972, Physico-chemical characteristics of the hypnogenic factor, Rev. Neurol. 126:427–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Segal, D. S., and Mandell, A. J., 1970, Behavioral activation of rats during intraventricular infusion of norepinephrine, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 66:289–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Seiler, N., and Lamberty, U., 1975, Interrelations between polyamines and nucleic acids: changes of polyamine and nucleic acid concentrations in the developing rat brain, J. Neurochem. 24:5–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Shimizu, A., and Himwich, H. E., 1968, The effects of amphetamine on the sleepwakefulness cycle of developing kittens, Psychopharmacol. 13:161–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Shute, C. C. D., and Lewis, P. R., 1967, The ascending cholinergic reticular system: neocortical, olfactory and subcortical projections, Brain 90:497–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Simon, R. P., Gershon, M. D., and Brooks, D. C., 1973, The role of the raphe nuclei in the regulation of ponto-geniculo-occipital wave activity, Brain Res. 58:313–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Spooner, C. E., and Winters, W. D., 1966, Neuropharmacological profile of the young chick, Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 5:217–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Spooner, C. E., Mandell, A. J., Winters, W. D., Sabbot, I. M., and Cruikshank, M. K., 1968, Pharmacological and biochemical correlates of 5-hydroxytryptamine entry into the central nervous system during maturation, Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 11:98–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Stein, D., Jouvet, M., and Pujol, J. F., 1974, Effect of alpha methyl-p-tyrosine upon cerebral amine metabolism and sleep states in the cat, Brain Res. 72:360–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Stern, W. C., and Morgane, P. J., 1973a, Effects of reserpine on sleep and brain biogenic amine levels in the cat, Psychopharmacologia 28:275–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Stern, W. C., and Morgane, P. J., 1973b, Effects of α-methyltyrosine on REM sleep and brain amine levels in the cat, Biol. Psychiat. 6:301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Stern, W. C., and Morgane, P. J., 1974, Theoretical view of REM sleep function: maintenance of catecholamine in the central nervous system, Behav. Biol. 11:1–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Stern, W. C., Morgane, P. J., Panksepp, J., Zolovick, A., and Jalowiec, J. E., 1972, Elevation of REM sleep following inhibition of protein synthesis, Brain Res. 47:254–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Stern, W. C., Jalowiec, J. E., and Morgane, P. J., 1974, Growth hormone and sleep in the cat, in: Sleep Research, Vol. 3 (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), Brain Information Service, p. 173, Brain Res. Inst., University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  246. Stolk, J., Barchas, J., Dement, W., and Schauberg, S., 1969, Brain catecholamine metabolism following p-chlorophenylalanine treatment, Pharmacologist 11:258.Google Scholar
  247. Tabushi, K., and Himwich, H. E., 1969, The acute effects of reserpine on the sleep-wakefulness cycle in rabbits, Psychopharmacologia 16:240–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Takagi, H., and Matsuzaki, M., 1968, Sleep state and its induction by sodium butyrate in acute “encéphale isolé” and “isolated midbrain pons-medulla” preparations, Jpn. J. Physiol. 18:380–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Thoenen, H., and Tranzer, J. P., 1973, The pharmacology of 6-hydroxydopamine, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 13:169–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Torda, C., 1967, Effect of brain serotonin depletion on sleep in rats, Brain Res. 6:375–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Torda, C., 1968, Effects of changes of brain norepinephrine content of sleep cycle in rat, Brain Res. 10:200–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Torii, S., Mitsumori, K., Inubushi, S., and Yanagisawa, I., 1973, The REM sleep-inducing action of a naturally occurring organic bromine compound in the encéphale isolé cat, Psychopharmacologia 28:65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Ursin, R., 1972, Differential effect of para-chlorophenylalanine on the two slow wave sleep stages in the cat, Acta Physiol. Scand. 86:278–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Valatx, J. L., Chouvet, G., and Jouvet, M., 1975, Sleep-waking cycle of the hypophysectomized rat, Progr. Brain Res. 42:115–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Van Meter, W. G., and Ayala, G. F., 1961, EEG effect of intracarotid or intravertebral arterial administration of d-amphetamine in rabbits with basilar artery ligation, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 13:382–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Villablanca, J. H., 1966, Effects of atropine, eserine and adrenaline in cats with mesencephalic transection and in the “isolated hemisphere” cat preparation, Arch. Biol. Med. Exp. 3:118–129.Google Scholar
  257. Villablanca, J., and Marcus, R. J., 1974, Long term sleep-wakefulness effects of caudate nucleus ablation in cats, in: Sleep Research, Vol. 3 (M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, eds.), Brain Information Service, p. 26, Brain Res. Inst., University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  258. Vimont-Vicary, P., 1966, La suppression des différents états de sommeil. Etude comportementale, EEC, et neuropharmacologique chez le chat, Thèse Université de Lyon (J. Tixier, ed.), 95 pp.Google Scholar
  259. Vitale-Neugebauer, A., Ginditta, A., Vitale, B., and Giaquinto, S., 1970, Pattern of RNA synthesis in rabbit cortex during sleep, J. Neurochem. 17:1263–1273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Wallach, M. B., Winters, W. D., Mandell, A. J., and Spooner, C. E., 1969, Effects of antidepressant drugs on wakefulness and sleep in the cat, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 27:574–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Weil-Malherbe, H., Axelrod, J., and Tomchick, R., 1959, Blood-brain barrier for adrenaline, Science 129:1226–1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Weissman, A., and Koe, B. K., 1965, Behavioral effects of l-alpha-methyl-tyrosine hydroxylase, Life Sci. 4:1037–1049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Weitzman, E. D., Rapport, M. M., McGregor, P., and Jacoby, J., 1968, Sleep patterns of the monkey and brain serotonin concentration: effect of p-chlorophenylalanine, Science 160:1361–1363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Weitzman, E. D., McGregor, P., Moore, C., and Jacoby, J., 1969, The effect of alphamethyl-paratyrosine on sleep patterns of the monkey, Life Sci. 8:751–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Wikler, A., 1952, Pharmacologie dissociation of behaviour and EEG “sleep patterns” in dogs. Morphine, N-allylmorphine and atropine, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 79:165–261.Google Scholar
  266. Yanagizawa, L, and Yoshikawa, K., 1968, Microdetermination of bromine in cerebrospinal fluid, Clin. Chim. Acta 21:217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Zattoni, J., and Rossi, G. F., 1967, A study of the hypnogenic action of “Mogadon” by selective injection into carotid and vertebral circulation, Physiol. Behav. 2:277–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Zolovick, A. J., Stern, W. C., Jalowiec, J. E., Panksepp, J., and Morgane, P. J., 1973a, Sleep-waking patterns and brain biogenic amine levels in cats after administration of 6-hydroxydopamine into the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1:557–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Zolovick, A. J., Stern, W. C., Panksepp, J., Jalowiec, J. E., and Morgane, P. J., 1973b, Sleep-waking patterns in cats after administration of fenfluramine and other monoaminergic-modulating drugs, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1:41–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Jouvet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental MedicineUniversity Claude BernardLvonFrance

Personalised recommendations