Binding, Metabolism, and Action of Steroid Hormones in the Central Nervous System

  • Richard E. Zigmond
Part of the Handbook of Psychopharmacology book series (HBKPS, volume 5)


Evidence that steroid hormones can act directly on the central nervous system comes largely from implantation studies. The work of Harris et al. (1958), Lisk (1967), Davidson (1969), and others established that many of the effects on behavior and on gonadotropin secretion produced by peripheral injections of estrogens and androgens could also be produced by direct implantation of these compounds in certain areas of the brain. Effective sites were clustered in the preoptic area and hypothalamus. Implants in many other regions of the brain had no detectable effects (for review, see McEwen et al., 19726).


Arcuate Nucleus Preoptic Area Anterior Hypothalamus Medial Preoptic Area Estradiol Benzoate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alger, M., Baulieu, E.-E., and Milgram, E., 1974, An investigation of progesterone receptors in guinea-pig vagina, uterine cervix, mammary glands, pituitary and hypothalamus, Endocrinology 94: 161–167.Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez, E., and Ramirez, V., 1970, Distribution curves of sH-testosterone and sH-estradiol in neonatal female rats, Neuroendocrinology 6: 349–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, C. H., and Greenwald, G. S., 1969, Autoradiographic analysis of estradiol uptake in the brain and pituitary of the female rat, Endocrinology 85: 1160–1165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. N., Peck, E. J., JR., and Clark, J. H., 1973, Nuclear receptor complex: Accumulation, retention, and localization in the hypothalamus and pituitary, Endocrinology 93: 711–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, K. M., and Liao, S., 1968, Selective retention of dihydrotestosterone by prostatic nuclei, Nature 219: 277–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Appelgren, L.-E., 1970, Chromatographic studies and scintillation counting of selected tissues of mice injected with labelled testosterone, Biol. Reprod. 3: 128–133.Google Scholar
  7. Appleton, T. C., 1964, Autoradiography of soluble labelled compounds, J. Roy. Micros. Soc. 83: 277–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arai, Y., and Gorski, R. A., 1968, Effects of anti-estrogen on steroid induced sexual receptivity in ovariectomized rats, Physiol. Behay. 3: 351–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Armstrong, D. T., and King, E. R., 1971, Uterine progesterone metabolism and progestational response: Effects of estrogens and prolactin, Endocrinology 89: 191–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Attramadal, A., 1964, Distribution and site of action of oestradiol in the brain and pituitary gland of rat following intramuscular administration, in: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Endocrinology, pp. 612–616, Excerpta Medica International Congress Series No. 83, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  11. Axelrod, L. R., 1971, The metabolism of corticosteroids by incubated and perfused brain tissues, in: Influence of Hormones on the Nervous System: Proceedings of the International Society of Psychopharmacology, Brooklyn 1970, pp. 74–84, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  12. Bainbridge, J. G., and Labhsetwar, A. P., 1971, The role of oestrogens in spontaneous ovulation: Location of site of action of positive feedback of oestrogen by intracranial implantation of the anti-oestrogen, I.C.I. 46474, J. Endocrinol. 50: 321–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ball, J., 1940, The effect of testosterone on the sex behaviour of female rats, J. comp. Psychol. 29: 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnea, A., Weinstein, A., and Lindner, H. R., 1972, Uptake of androgens by the brain of the neonatal female rat, Brain Res. 46: 391–402.Google Scholar
  15. Baron, D. N., and Abelson, D., 1954, Cortisone and hydrocortisone in cerebrospinal fluid, Nature 173: 174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barraclough, C. A., and Haller, E. W., 1970, Positive and negative feedback effects of estrogen on pituitary LH synthesis and release in normal and androgen sterilized female rats, Endrocinology 86: 542–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baulieu, E. E., Lasnitzki, I., and Robel, P., 1968, Metabolism of testosterone and action of metabolites on prostate glands grown in organ culture, Nature 219: 1155–1156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beach, F. A., 1942a, Male and female mating behaviour in prepuberally castrated female rats treated with androgen, Endocrinology 31: 673–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beach, F. A., 1942b, Importance of progesterone to induction of sexual receptivity in spayed female rats, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 51: 369–371.Google Scholar
  20. Beach, F. A., 1948, Hormones and Behaviour: A Survey of Interrelationships Between Endocrine Secretions and Patterns of Overt Response, Hoeber, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Beach, F. A., and Westbrook, W. H., 1968a, Morphological and behavioural effects of an “antiandrogen” in male rats, J. Endocrinol. 42: 379–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beach, F. A., and Westbrook, W. H., 1968b, Dissociation of androgenic effects on sexual morphology and behaviour in male rats, Endocrinology 83: 395–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Beart, P. M., Kelly, J. S., and Schon, F., 1974, y-Aminobutyric acid in the rat peripheral nervous system, pineal and posterior pituitary, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2: 266–268.Google Scholar
  24. Beyer, C., and Komisaruk, B., 1971, Effects of diverse androgens on estrous behaviour, lordosis reflex and genital tract morphology in the rat, Horm. Behay. 2: 217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Beyer, C., and Vidal, N., 1971, Inhibitory action of Mer-25 on androgen-induced oestrus behaviour in the ovariectomized rabbit. J. Endocrinol. 51: 401–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Beyer, C., Mcdonald, P., and Vidal, N., 1970a, Failure of 5a-dihydrotestosterone to elicit estrous behaviour in the ovariectomized rabbit, Endocrinology 86: 939–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Beyer, C., Vidal, N., and Majares, A., 1970b, Probable role of aromatization in the induction of estrous behaviour by androgens in the ovariectomized rabbit, Endocrinology 87: 1386–1389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Beyer, C., Morali, G., and Cruz, M. L., 1971 a, Effect of 5œ-dihydrotestosterone on gonadotrophin secretion and estrous behaviour in the female Wistar rat, Endocrinology 89: 1158 1161.Google Scholar
  29. Beyer, C., Morali, G., and Vorgas, R., 1971 b, Effects of diverse estrogens on estrous behaviour and genital tract development in ovariectomized rats, Horm. Behay. 2: 273–277.Google Scholar
  30. Beyer, C., Jaffe, R. B., and Gay, V. L., 1972, Testosterone metabolism in target tissues: Effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone injection and hypothalamic implantation on serum LH in ovariectomized rats, Endocrinology 91: 1372–1375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Billard, R., and Mcdonald, P. G., 1973, Inhibition of ovulation in the rat by intrahypothalamic implants of an antioestrogen, J. Endocrinol. 56: 585–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Boling, J. L., and Blandau, R. J., 1939, The estrogen-progesterone induction of mating responses in the spayed female rat, Endocrinology 25: 359–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bloch, G. J., and Davidson, J. M., 1967, Antiandrogen implanted in brain stimulates male reproductive system, Science 155: 593–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bloch, G. J., and Davidson, J. M., 1971, Behavioural and somatic responses to the antiandrogen cyproterone, Horm. Behay. 2: 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bogdanove, E. M., 1963, Direct gonad-pituitary feedback: An analysis of effects of intracranial estrogenic depots on gonadotrophin secretion, Endocrinology 73: 696–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bottoms, G. D., Smith, R. D., and Burgen, R. 0., 1969, Distribution of radioactivity in different tissues of pigs after 3H-hydrocortisone injection, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 132: 1133–1136.Google Scholar
  37. Brown-Grant, K., 1971, The role of steroid hormones in the control of gonadotrophin secretion in adult female mammals, in: Steroid Hormones and Brain Function ( C. H. Sawyer and R. A. Gorski, eds.), pp. 269–284, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  38. Brown-Grant, K., 1974, Failure of ovulation after the administration of steroid hormones to female rats during the neonatal period, J. Endocrinol., in press.Google Scholar
  39. Brown-Grant, K., Munk, A., Naftolin, F., and Sherwood, M. R., 1971, The effects of the administration of testosterone propionate alone or with phenobarbitone and of testosterone metabolites to neonatal female rats, Horm. Behay. 2: 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bruchovsky, N., and Wilson, J. D., 1968, The conversion of testosterone to 5a-androstan-17ßo1–3-one by rat prostate in vivo and in vitro, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 2012–2021.Google Scholar
  41. Bush, I. E., 1953, Species differences in adrenocortical secretion, J. Endocrinol. 9: 95–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Butte, J. C., Kakihana, R., and Noble, E. P., 1972, Rat and mouse brain corticosterone, Endocrinology 90: 1091–1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Byrnes, W. W., and Shipley, E. G., 1955, Guinea pig copulatory reflex in response to adrenal steroids and similar compounds, Endocrinology 57: 5–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Callantine, M. R., 1967, Non-steroid estrogen antagonists, Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 10: 74–87.Google Scholar
  45. Callantine, M. R., Humphrey, R. R., Lee, S. L., Windsor, B. L., Schottin, N. H., and O’brien, O. P., 1966, Action of an estrogen antagonist on reproductive mechanism in the rat, Endocrinology 79: 153–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Callantine, M. R., Clemens, L. E., and Shih, Y., 1968, Displacement of 17ß-estradiol from uterine receptor sites by an estrogen antagonist, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 128: 382–386.Google Scholar
  47. Chader, G. J., 1973, Some factors affecting the uptake, binding and retention of 3H-cortisol by the chick embryo retina as related to enzyme induction, J. Neurochem. 21: 1525–1532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Chader, G. J., and Villee, C. A., 1970, Uptake of oestradiol by the rabbit hypothalamus: Specificity of binding by nuclei in vitro, Biochem. J. 118: 93–97.Google Scholar
  49. Chader, G. J., and Villee, C. A., 1971, Estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, in: Influence of Hormones on the Nervous System: Proceedings of the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology, Brooklyn, 1970 ( D. H. Ford, ed.), pp. 17–24, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  50. Chambers, W. F., and Howe, G., 1968, A study of estrogen-sensitive hypothalamic centers using a technique for rapid application and removal of estradiol, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 128: 292–294.Google Scholar
  51. Cheng, Y., and Karavolas, H. J., 1973, Conversion of progesterone to 5a-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3a-hydroxy-5a-pregnane-20-one by rat medial basal hypothalami and the effects of estradiol and stage of estrous cycle on conversion, Endocrinology 93: 1157–1162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Chytil, F., and Toft, D., 1972, Corticoid binding component in rat brain, J. Neurochem. 19: 2877–2880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Clark, J. H., Campbell, P. S., and Peck, E. J., 1972, Receptor estrogen complex in the nuclear fraction of the pituitary and hypothalamus of male and female immature rats, Neuroendocrinology 77: 218–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Davidson, J. M., 1966, Activiation of the male rat’s sexual behaviour by intracerebral implantation of androgen, Endocrinology 79: 783–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Davidson, J. M., 1969, Feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion, in: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology ( W. F. Ganong and L. Martini, eds.), pp. 343–388, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Davidson, J. M., and Bloch, G. J., 1969, Neuroendocrine aspects of male reproduction, Biol. of Reprod. 1:67–92 (Suppl. 1).Google Scholar
  57. De Kloet, E. R., Wallach, G., and Mcewen, B. S., 1974, Differences in glucocorticosteroid binding to macromolecules in rat brain regions and pituitary, Fifty-sixth Meeting of the Endocrine Society, p. A-203 (abst.).Google Scholar
  58. Dempsey, E. W., Herz, R., and Young, W. C., 1936, The experimental induction of oestrus (sexual receptivity) in the normal and ovariectomized guinea-pig, Am. J. Physiol. 116: 201–209.Google Scholar
  59. Denef, C., Magnus, C., and Mgewen, B. S., 1973, Sex differences and hormonal control of testosterone metabolism in rat pituitary and brain, J. Endocrinol. 59: 605–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Diamond, H., and Dale, E., 1967, Distribution of radiolabelled steroid after administration to the neonatal rat, Anat. Rec. 157:234 (abst.).Google Scholar
  61. Dorfman, R. I., and Shipley, R. A., 1956, Androgens, Biochemistry, Physiology, and Clinical Significance, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Duncan, G. W., Lyster, S. C., Clark, J. J., and Lednicer, D., 1963, Antifertility activities of two diphenyl-dihydronaphthalene derivatives, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 112: 439–442.Google Scholar
  63. Edwards, D. A., and Thompson, M. L., 1970, Neonatal androgenization and estrogenization and the hormonal induction of sexual receptivity in rats, Physiol. Behay. 5: 1115–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Eik-Nes, K. B., and Brizee, K. R., 1965, Concentration of tritium in brain tissue of dogs given (1,2–311) cortisol intravenously, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 97: 320–333.Google Scholar
  65. Eisenfeld, A. J., 1967, Computer analysis of the distribution of [3H] estradiol, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 136: 498–507.Google Scholar
  66. Eisenfeld, A. J., 1969, Hypothalamic estradiol binding macromolecules, Nature 224: 1202–1203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Eisenfeld, A. J., 1970, 3H-estradiol: In vivo binding to macromolecules from the rat hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and uterus, Endocrinology 86:1313–1318.Google Scholar
  68. Eisenfeld, A. J., 1972, Interaction of estrogens, progestational agents and androgens with brain and pituitary and their role in the control of ovulation, in: Perspectives in Neuropharmacology ( S. H. Snyder, ed.), pp. 113–142, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  69. Eisenfeld, A. J., and Axelrod, J., 1965, Selectivity of estrogen distribution in tissues, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 150: 469–475.Google Scholar
  70. Eisenfeld, A. J., and Axelrod, J., 1966, Effect of steroid hormones, ovariectomy, estrogen pretreatment, sex and immaturity on the distribution of 5H-estradiol, Endocrinology 79: 38–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Eisenfeld, A. J., and Axelrod, J., 1967, Evidence for estradiol binding in the hypothalamus—The effects of drugs, Biochem. Pharmacol. 16: 1781–1785.Google Scholar
  72. England, J. M., Rogers, A. W., and Miller, R. G., 1973, The identification of labelled structures on autoradiographs, Nature 242: 612–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Everett, J. W., 1961, The mammalian female reproductive cycle and its controlling mechanisms, in: Sex and Internal Secretions, Vol. 1, 3rd ed. ( W. C. Young, ed.), pp. 497–555, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  74. Falk, R. J., and Bardin, C. W., 1970, Uptake of tritiated progesterone by the uterus of the ovariectomized guinea-pig, Endocrinology 86: 1059–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Feder, H. H., 1971, The comparative actions of testosterone propionate and 5a-androstan-17ß01–3-one propionate on the reproductive behaviour, physiology and morphology of male rats, J. Endocrinol. 51: 241–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Feder, H. H., Brown-Grant, K., Corker, C. S., and Exley, D., 1969, Systemic plasma progesterone levels during (he pro-oestrus critical period in rats, J. Endocrinol. 43: XXIX (abst.).Google Scholar
  77. Feder, H. H., Naftolin, F., and Ryan, K. J., 1974, Male and female sexual responses in male rats given estradiol benzoate and 5a-androstan-17ß-o1–3-one propionate, Endocrinology 94: 136–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ferin, M., Tempone, A., Zimmering, P. E., and Vande Wiele, R. L., 1969, Effect of antibodies to 17ß-estradiol and progesterone on the estrous cycle of the rat, Endocrinology 85: 1070–1078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Flerko, B., and Mess, B., 1968, Reduced oestradiol-binding of androgen-sterilized rats, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 33: 111–113.Google Scholar
  80. Flerko, B., Mess, B., and Illei-Donhoffer, A., 1969, On the mechanism of androgen sterilization, Neuroendocrinology 4: 164–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Flerko, B., Illei-Donhoffer, A., and Mess, B., 1971, Oestradiol-binding capacity in neural and non-neural target tissues of neonatally androgenized female rats, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 22: 125–130.Google Scholar
  82. Flores, F., Naftolin, F., Ryan, K. J., and White, R. J., 1973, Estrogen formation by the isolated perfused monkey brain, Science 180: 1074–1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Fontana, J. A., Walker, M. D., Casper, A. G. T., Meret, S., and Henkin, R. I., 1970, Sequential subcellular localization of cortisol in cat brain, Endocrinology 86: 1469–1471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Frederiksen, D. W., and Wilson, J. D., 1971, Partial characterization of the nuclear reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: A4–3-Ketosteroid 5a-oxidoreductase of rat prostate, J. Biol. Chem. 246: 2584–2593.Google Scholar
  85. Gerlach, J. L., and Mcewen, B. S., 1972, Rat brain binds adrenal steroid hormone: Radioautography of hippocampus with corticosterone, Science 175: 1133–1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gerlach, J. L., Mcewen, B. S., Pfaff, D. W., Ferin, M., Carmel, P. W., 1974, Rhesus monkey brain binds radioactivity from 3H-estradiol and 5H-corticosterone, demonstrated by nuclear isolation and radioautography, Fifty-sixth Meeting of the Endocrine Society, p. A-240 (abst.).Google Scholar
  87. Gerall, A. A., and Kenney, A. Mcm., 1970, Neonatally androgenized females’ responsiveness to estrogen and progesterone, Endocrinology 87: 560566.Google Scholar
  88. Glascock, R. F., and Michael, R. P., 1962, Localization of oestrogen in a neurological system in the brain of the female cat, J. Physiol. 163: 38P - 39 P.Google Scholar
  89. Gogan, F., 1968, Sensibilité hypothalamique à la testosterone chez le Canard, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 11: 316–327.Google Scholar
  90. Gordon, A. S., Zanjani, E. D., Levere, R. D., and Kappas, A., 1970, Stimulation of mammalian erythropoiesis by 5ß-H steroid metabolites, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 65: 919–924.Google Scholar
  91. Gorski, R. A., 1963, Modification of ovulatory mechanism by postnatal administration of estrogen to the rat, Am. J. Physiol. 205: 842–844.Google Scholar
  92. Green, J. D., Clemente, C. D., and DE Groot, J., 1957, Rhinencephalic lesions and behavior in cats: An analysis of the Kluver-Bucy syndrome with particular reference to normal and abnormal sexual behaviour. J. Comp. Neurol. 108: 505–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Green, R., Luttge, W. G., and Whalen, R. E., 1969, Uptake and retention of tritiated estradiol in brain and peripheral tissues of male, female and androgenized female rats, Endocrinology 85: 373–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Green, R., Luttge, W. G., and Whalen, R. E., 1970, Induction of receptivity in ovariectomized rats by a single intravenous injection of estradiol-17ß, Physiol. Behay. 5: 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Grosser, B. I., 1966, 11ß-Hydroxy steroid metabolism by mouse brain and glioma 261, J. Neurochem. 13: 475–478.Google Scholar
  96. Grosser, B. I., and Axelrod, L. R., 1967, Acetylation of cortisol by neonatal rat brain in vitro, Steroids 9: 229–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Grosser, B. I., and Axelrod, L. R., 1968, Conversion of cortisol to cortisol acetate, cortisone acetate, and cortisone by the developing primate brain, Steroids 11: 827–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Grosser, B. I., and Bliss, E. L., 1966, Metabolism of 11-hydroxysteroids by cerebral tissues in vitro, Steroids 8: 915–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Grosser, B. I., Stevens, W., Bruenger, F. W., and Reed, D. J., 1971, Corticosterone binding in rat brain cytosol, J. Neurochem. 18: 1725–1732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Grosser, B. I., Stevens, W., and Reed, D. J., 1973, Properties of corticosterone binding macromolecules from rat brain cytosol, Brain Res. 57: 387–395.Google Scholar
  101. Gual, C., Morato, T., Hayano, M., Gut, M., and Dorfman, R. I., 1962, Biosynthesis of estrogens, Endocrinology 71: 920–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hamilton, T. H., 1968, Control by estrogen of genetic transcription and translation, Science 161: 649–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Harper, M. J. K., and Walpole, A. L., 1967, A new derivative of triphenylethylene: Effect on implantation and mode of action in rats, J. Reprod. Fertil. 13: 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Harris, G. W., and Michael, R. P., 1964, The activation of sexual behaviour by hypothalamic implants of oestrogen, J. Physiol. 171: 275–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Harris, G. W., Michael, R. P., and Scott, P. P., 1958, Neurological site of action of stilboestrol in eliciting sexual behaviour, in: Ciba Foundation Symposium on the Neurological Basis of Behaviour ( G. E. W. Wolstenholme and C. M. O’Connor, eds.), pp. 236–251, Churchill, I.ondon.Google Scholar
  106. Hart, B. L., 1967, Testosterone regulation of sexual reflexes in spinal male rats, Science 155: 1283–1284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hart, B. L., 1968, Alteration of quantitative aspects of sexual reflexes in spinal male dogs by testosterone, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 66: 726–730.Google Scholar
  108. Hart, B. L., 1969, Gonadal hormones and sexual reflexes in the female rat, Horm. Behay. 1: 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hart, B. L., 1970, Mating behaviour in the female dog and the effects of estrogen on sexual reflexes, Horm. Behay. 1: 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hart, B. L., and Haugen, C. M., 1968, Activation of sexual reflexes in male rats by spinal implantation of testosterone, Physiol. Behay. 3: 735–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Heffner, L. J., and Van Tienhoven, A., 1973, Effects of progesterone on uptake and retention of 3H-testosterone in the neonatal female rat, Neuroendocrinology 12: 129–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Henkin, R. A., Casper, A., Brown, R., Horlan, A., and Barter, F., 1968, Presence of corticosterone and cortisol in the central and peripheral nervous system of the cat, Endocrinology 82: 1058–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hilliard, J., Penard, R., and Sawyer, C. H., 1967, A functional role for 20a-hydroxypregn-4en-3-one in the rabbit, Endocrinology 80: 901–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Holtkamp, D. E., Greslin, J. G., Root, C. A., and Lerner, L. J., 1960, Gonadotrophin inhibiting and anti-fecundity effects of chloramiphene, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 105: 197–201.Google Scholar
  115. Hutchison, J. B., 1970, Influence of gonadal hormones on the hypothalamic integration of courtship behaviour in the Barbary dove, J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 11: 15–41.Google Scholar
  116. Hutchison, J. B., 1975, Hypothalamic mechanisms of sexual behaviour, with special reference to birds, in: Advances in the Study of Behaviour, Vol. 6 (J. S. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, E. Shaw, and C. Beer, eds), Academic Press, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  117. Iramain, C. A., and Strott, C. A., 1973, Uptake and regional distribution of progesterone in the female guinea pig brain and adenohypophysis: A comparison with known target (uterus) and non-target (muscle) tissues, Fifty-fifth Meeting of the Endocrine Society, p. A117 (abst.).Google Scholar
  118. Jaffe, R. B., 1969, Testosterone metabolism in target tissues: Hypothalamic and pituitary tissues of the adult rat and human fetus and the immature rat epiphysis, Steroids 14: 483–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Jensen, E. V., 1966, Mechanism of estrogen action in relation to carcinogenesis, Gonad. Cancer Conf. 6: 143–165.Google Scholar
  120. Jensen, E. V., and De Sombre, E. R., 1973, Estrogen-receptor interaction, Science 182: 126–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jensen, E. V., and Jacobson, H. I., 1962, Basic guides to the mechanism of estrogen action, Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 18: 387–408.Google Scholar
  122. Johnston, P., and Davidson, J. M., 1972, Intracerebral androgens and sexual behaviour in the male rat, Horm. Behay. 3: 345–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jouan, P., Samperez, S., Thieulant, M. L., and Mercier, L., 1971, Étude du recepteur cytoplasmique de la [1,2–3H]testosterone dans l’hypophyse anterieure et l’hypothalamus du rat, J. Steroid Biochem. 2: 223–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jung, I., and Baulieu, E. E., 1972, Testosterone cytosol “receptor” in the rat levator ani muscle, Nature New Biol. 237: 24–26.Google Scholar
  125. Kahwanago, I., Heinrichs, W. L., and Herrmann, W. L., 1969, Isolation of oestradiol receptors from bovine hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland, Nature 223: 313–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kahwanago, I., Heinrichs, W. L., and Herrmann, W. L., 1970, Oestradiol “receptors” in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland: Inhibition of estradiol binding by SH group blocking agents and clomiphene citrate, Endocrinology 86: 1319–1326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Karavolas, H. J., and Herf, S. H., 1971, Conversion of progesterone by rat medial basal hypothalamic tissue to 5a-pregnane-3,20-dione, Endocrinology 89: 940–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kato, J., 1970, In vitro uptake of tritiated oestradiol by the rat anterior hypothalamus during the oestrous cycle, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen). 63: 577–584.Google Scholar
  129. Kato, J., and Villee, C. A., 1967a, Preferential uptake of estradiol by the hypothalamus of the rat, Endocrinology 80: 567–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kato, J., and Villee, C. A., 1967b, Factors affecting the uptake of estradiol-6,7 3H by the hypophysis and hypothalamus, Endocrinology 80: 1133–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kato, J., Kobayashi, T., and Villee, C. A., 1968, Effect of clomiphene on the uptake of estradiol by the anterior hypothalamus and hypophysis, Endocrinology 82: 1049 1052.Google Scholar
  132. Kato, J., Inaba, M., and Kobayashi, T., 1969, Variable uptake of tritiated oestradiol by the anterior hypothalamus of postpubertal female rats, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen). 61: 585–591.Google Scholar
  133. Kato, J., Sugimara, N., and Kobayashi, T., 1971a, Changing patterns of the uptake of estradiol by the anterior hypothalamus, the median eminence and the hypophysis in the developing female rat, in: Hormones in Development ( M. Hamburgh and E. J. W. Barrington, eds.), pp. 689–703, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  134. Kato, J., Atsumi, Y., and Inaba, M., 1971b, Development of oestrogen receptor in rat hypothalamus, J. Biochem. 70: 1051–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kawakami, M., Seto, K., and Yoshida, K., 1968, Influence of corticosterone implantation in limbic structures upon biosynthesis of adrenocortical steroid, Neuroendocrinology 3: 349–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Keefer, D. A., Stumpf, W. E., and Sar, M., 1973, Estrogen-topographical localization of estrogen-concentrating cells in the rat spinal chord following 3H-estradiol administration, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 143: 414–417.Google Scholar
  137. Kendall, J. W., 1971, Feedback control of adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion, in: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology ( L. Martini and W. F. Ganong, eds.), pp. 177–207, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  138. Kent, G. C., and Liberman, M. J., 1949, Induction of psychic estrus in the hamster with progesterone administered via the lateral brain ventricle, Endocrinology 45: 29–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Kincl, F. A., 1964, Copulatory reflex response to steroids, in: Methods in Hormone Research, Vol. 3 ( R. I. Dorfman, ed.), pp. 477–484, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  140. Kincl, F., 1970, Neonatal sterilization of rodents with steroid hormones. I. The uptake of radioactivity from injected estradiol or testosterone propionate in various organs of 5-day old male and female rats, Endocrinol. Exp. 4: 139–141.Google Scholar
  141. Knizley, H., 1972, The hippocampus and septal area as primary target sites for corticosterone, J. Neurochem. 19: 2737–2745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Komisaruk, B. R., and Beyer, C., 1972, Differential antagonism, by Mer-25 of behavioral and morphological effects of estradiol benzoate in rats, Horm. Behay. 3: 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Kulin, H. E., and Reiter, E. 0., 1972, Ontogeny of the in vitro uptake of tritiated estradiol by the hypothalamus of the female rat, Endocrinology 90: 1371–1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Labhsetwar, A. P., 1970a, The role of oestrogens in spontaneous ovulation: Evidence for positive oestrogen feedback in the 4-day oestrous cycle, J. Endocrinol. 47: 481–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Labhsetwar, A. P., 1970b, The role of oestrogen in spontaneous ovulation as revealed by the use of oestrogen-antagonist, I.C.I. 46,474, Nature 225: 80–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Labhsetwar, A. P., 1970c, Role of oestrogens in ovulation: A study using the oestrogen-antagonist, I.C.I. 46,474, Endocrinology 87: 542–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Labhsetwar, A. P., and Bainbridge, J. G., 1971, Inhibition of ovulation by intracranial implantation of progesterone in the 4-day cyclic rat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 27: 445–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Langford, J., and Hilliard, J., 1967, Effect of 20a-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one on mating behavior in spayed female rats, Endocrinology 80: 381–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Laumas, K. R., and Farooq, A., 1966, The uptake in vivo of [1,2 3H]progesterone by the brain and genital tract of the rat, J. Endocrinol. 36: 95–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Lemaire, I., Dupont, A., Bastarache, E., Labrie, F., and Fortier, C., 1974, Some corticosterone-binding characteristics of the dorsal hippocampus and of the adenohypophysis in the rat, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 52: 451–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Lerner, L. J., Holthaus, F. J., JR., and Thomas, C. R., 1958, A non-steroidal estrogen antagonist 1-(p-2-diethylaminoethoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-2-p-methoxyphenyl ethanol, Endocrinology 63: 295–318.Google Scholar
  152. Levere, R. D., Kappas, A., and Granick, S., 1967, Stimulation of hemoglobin synthesis in chick blastoderms by certain 5ß androstane and 5ß pregnane steroids, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 58: 985–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Liao, S., and Fang, S., 1969, Receptor-proteins for androgens and the mode of action of androgens on gene transcription in ventral prostate, Vitam. Horm. 27: 17–90.Google Scholar
  154. Lisk, R. D., 1962, Diencephalic placement of estradiol and sexual receptivity in the female rat, Am. J. Physiol. 203: 493–496.Google Scholar
  155. Lisk, R. D., 1967, Neural localization for androgen activation of copulatory behavior in the male rat, Endocrinology 80: 754–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Lovtrup-Rein, H., and Mcewen, B. S., 1966, Isolation and fractionation of rat brain nuclei, J. Cell Biol. 30: 405–415.Google Scholar
  157. Luttge, W. G., 1972a, The estrous cycle of the rat: Effects on the accumulation of estrogenic metabolites in brain and peripheral tissues, Brain Res. 38: 315–325.Google Scholar
  158. Luttge, W. G., 1972b, Activation and inhibition of isolation induced intermale fighting behavior in castrate male CD-i mice treated with steroidal hormones, Horm. Behay. 3: 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Luttge, W. G., and Wallis, C J., 1973, In vitro accumulation and saturation of ‘H-progestins in selected brain regions and in the adenohypophysis, uterus and pineal of the female rat, Steroids 22: 493–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Luttge, W. G., and Whalen, R. E., 1970a, Regional localization of estrogenic metabolites in the brain of male and female rats, Steroids 15: 605–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Luttge, W. G., and Whalen, R. E., 1970b, Dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, testosterone: Comparative effectiveness in masculinizing and defeminizing reproductive systems in male and female rats, Horm. Behay. 1: 265–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Luttge, W. G., and Whalen, R. E., 1972, The accumulation, retention and interaction of oestradiol and oestrone in central neural and peripheral tissues of gonadectomized female rats, J. Endocrinol. 52: 379–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Luttge, W. G., Chronister, R. B., and Hall, N. R., 1973, Accumulation of 3H-progestins in limbic, diencephalic and mesencephalic regions of mouse brain, Life Sci. 12: 419–424.Google Scholar
  164. Mainwaring, W. I. P., 1969, A soluble androgen receptor in the cytoplasm of rat prostate, J. Endocrinol. 45: 531–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Massa, R., Stupnicka, E., Kniewald, Z., and Martini, L., 1972, The transformation of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone by the brain and the anterior pituitary, J. Steroid Biochem. 3: 385–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Maurer, R., and Wooley, D., 1971, Distribution of 3H-estradiol in clomiphene treated and neonatally androgenized rats, Endocrinology 88: 1281–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Mcdonald, P. G., 1971, Some biological actions of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), J. Reprod. Fertil. 25: 309–310 (abst.).Google Scholar
  168. Mcdonald, P. G., and Doughty, C., 1972a, Comparison of the effect of neonatal administration of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the female rat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 330: 5562.Google Scholar
  169. Mcdonald, P. G., and Doughty, C., 1972b, Inhibition of androgen-sterilization in the female rat by administration of an anti-oestrogen, J. Endocrinol. 55: 455–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Mcdonald, P. G., Vidal, N., and Beyer, C., 1970a, Sexual behavior in the ovariectomized rabbit after treatment with different amounts of gonadal hormones, Horm. Behay. 1: 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Mcdonald, P., Beyer, C., Newton, F., Brien, B., Baker, R., Tan, H. S., Sampson, C., Kitching, P., Greenhill, R., and Pritchard, D., 1970b, Failure of 5a-dihydrotestosterone to initiate sexual behavior in the castrated male rat, Nature 227: 964–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Mcewen, B. S., 1973a, Glucocorticoid binding sites in rat brain: Subcellular and anatomical localizations, Prog. Brain Res. 39: 87–96.Google Scholar
  173. Mcewen, B. S., 19736, Adrenal steroid binding to presumptive receptors in the limbic brain of the rat, Neuroendocrinologie de l’axe corticotrope (Brain-Adrenal Interactions), Les Colloques de l’Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (P. Dell, ed.), pp. 41–62, INSERM, Paris.Google Scholar
  174. Mcewen, B. S., and Pfaff, D. W., 1970, Factors influencing sex hormone uptake by rat brain regions. I. Effects of neonatal treatment, hypophysectomy, and competing steroid on estradiol uptake, Brain Res. 21: 1–16.Google Scholar
  175. Mcewen, B. S., and Pfaff, D. W., 1973, Chemical and physiological approaches to neuroendrocrine mechanisms: Attempts at integration, in: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology ( L. Martini and W. F. Ganong, eds.), pp. 267–335, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  176. Mcewen, B. S., and Plapinger, L., 1970, Association of corticosterone–1,2–31–1 with macromolecules extracted from brain cell nuclei, Nature 226: 263 – 264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Mcewen, B. S., and Wallach, G., 1973, Corticosterone binding to hippocampus: Nuclear and cytosol binding in vitro, Brain Res. 57: 373–386.Google Scholar
  178. Mcewen, B. S., and Zigmond, R. E., 1972, Isolation of brain cell nuclei, in: Research Methods in Neurochemistry, Vol. 1 ( N. Marks and R. Rodnight, eds.), pp. 139–161, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Mcewen, B. S., Weiss, J. M., and Schwartz, L. S., 1968, Selective retention of corticosterone by limbic structures in rat brain, Nature 220: 911–912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Mcewen, B. S., Weiss, J. M., and Schwartz, L. S., 1969, Uptake of corticosterone by rat brain and its concentration by certain limbic structures, Brain Res. 16: 227–241.Google Scholar
  181. Mcewen, B. S., Pfaff, D. W., and Zigmond, R. E., 1970a, Factors influencing sex hormone uptake by rat brain regions. II. Effects of neonatal treatment and hypophysectomy on testosterone uptake, Brain Res. 21: 17–28.Google Scholar
  182. Mcewen, B. S., Pfaff, D. W., and Zigmond, R. E., 19706, Factors influencing sex hormone uptake by rat brain regions. III. Effects of competing steroids on testosterone uptake, Brain Res. 21: 29–38.Google Scholar
  183. Mcewen, B. S., Weiss, J. M., and Schwartz, L. S., 1970c, Retention of corticosterone by cell nuclei from brain regions of adrenalectomized rats, Brain Res. 17: 471–482.Google Scholar
  184. Mcewen, B. S., Zigmond, R. E., Azmitia, E. C., JR., and Weiss, J. M., 1970d, Steroid hormone interaction with specific brain regions, in: Biochemistry of the Brain and Behavior ( R. E. Bowman and S. P. Data, eds.), pp. 123–167, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Mcewen, B. S., Magnus, C., and Wallach, G., 1971, Biochemical studies of corticosterone binding to cell nuclei and cytoplasmic macromolecules in specific regions of the brain, in: Steroid Hormones and Brain Function (C. H. Sawyer and R. A. Gorski, eds.), pp. 247–258, UCLA Forum Med. Sci. No. 15, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  186. Mcewen, B. S., Magnus, C., and Wallach, G., 1972a, Soluble corticosterone-binding macromolecules extracted from rat brain, Endocrinology 90: 217–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Mcewen, B. S., Zigmond, R. E., and Gerlach, J. L., 19726, Sites of steroid binding and action in the brain, in: Structure and Function of the Nervous System, Vol. 5, (G. H. Bourne, ed.), pp. 205–291, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  188. Mcewen, B. S., Wallach, G., and Magnus, C., 1974a, Corticosterone binding to hippocampus: Immediate and delayed influence of the absence of adrenal secretion, Brain Res. 70: 321–334.Google Scholar
  189. Mcewen, B. S., Denef, C. J., Gerlach, J. L., and Plapinger, L., 1974b, Chemical studies of the brain as a steroid hormone target tissue, in: The Neurosciences: Third Study Program ( F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, eds.), pp. 599–620, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  190. Mcguire, J. L., and Lisk, R. D., 1968, Estrogen receptors in the intact rat, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 61: 497–503.Google Scholar
  191. Mcguire, J. L., and Lisk, R. D., 1969, Localization of estrogen receptors in the rat hypothalamus, Neuroendocrinology 4: 289–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Mcguire, J. S., JR., and Tompkins, G. H., 1960, The heterogeneity of A4–3-ketosteroid reductases, J. Biol. Chem. 235: 1634–1638.Google Scholar
  193. Meyer, C. C., 1973, Testosterone concentration in the male chick brain: An autoradiographic survey, Science 180: 1381–1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Meyerson, B. J., 1967, Relationship between the anaesthetic and gestagenic action and estrous behavior-inducing activity of different progestins, Endocrinology 81: 369–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Meyerson, B., 1972, Latency between intravenous injection of progestins and the appearance of estrous behavior in estrogen-treated ovariectomized rats, Horm. Behay. 3: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Meyerson, B. J., and Lindstrom, L., 1968, Effects of an oestrogen antagonist ethamoxytripetol (MER-25) on oestrous behavior in rats, Acta Endocrinol. 59: 41–48.Google Scholar
  197. Meyerson, B. J., Nordstrom, E.-B., and Agmo, A., 1971, Sexual behavior and testosterone in the female rat, Acta. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 29:38 (abst.) (Suppl. 4 ).Google Scholar
  198. Michael, R. P., 1961, An investigation of the sensitivity of circumscribed neurological areas to hormonal stimulation by means of the application of oestrogens directly to the brain of the cat, in: Regional Neurochemistry ( S. Kety and J. Elkes, eds.), pp. 465–480, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  199. Michael, R. P., 1962, Estrogen-sensitive neurons and sexual behavior in female cats, Science 136: 322–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Michael, R. P., 1964, Action of hormones on the cat brain, in: Brain and Behavior, Vol. III ( R. A. Gorski and R. E. Whalen, eds.), pp. 82–98, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  201. Michael, R. P., 1965a, The selective accumulation of estrogens in the neural and genital tissues of the cat, in: Hormonal Steroids, Vol. 2 ( L. Martini and A. Pecile, eds.), pp. 469–480, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  202. Michael, R. P., 1965b, Oestrogens in the central nervous system, Brit. Med. Bull. 21: 87–90.Google Scholar
  203. Michael, R. P., 1966, Action of hormones on the cat brain, in: Brain and Behavior, Vol. III: The Brain and Gonadal Function ( R. A. Gorski and R. E. Whalen, eds.), pp. 82–98, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  204. Mowles, T. F., Ashkanazy, G., Mix, E., and Sheppard, M., 1971, Hypothalamic and hypophyseal estradiol binding complexes, Endocrinology 89: 484–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Nadler, R. D., 1970, A biphasic influence of progesterone on sexual receptivity of spayed female rats, Physiol. Behay. 5: 95–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Nadler, R. D., 1973, Further evidence on the intra-hypothalamic locus for androgenization of female rats, Neuroendocrinology 12: 110–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Naftolin, F., Ryan, K. J., and Petro, Z., 197la, Aromatization of androstenedione by the diencephalon, J. Clin. Endocrinol. 33: 368–370.Google Scholar
  208. Naftolin, F., Ryan, K. J., and Petro, Z., 19716, Aromatization of androstenedione by limbic system tissue from human foetuses, J. Endocrinol. 51: 795–796.Google Scholar
  209. Naftolin, F., Ryan, K. J., and Petro, Z., 1972, Aramitization and androstenedione by the anterior hypothalamus of adult male and female rats, Endocrinology 90: 295–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Naftolin, F., Ryan, K. J., Davis, I. J., Petro, Z., and Kuhn, M., 1974, The formation and metabolism of estrogens in brain tissue, Advan. Biosci., in press.Google Scholar
  211. Nequin, L. G., and Schwartz, N. B., 1971, Adrenal participation in the timing of mating and LH release in the cyclic rat, Endocrinology 88: 325–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Nunez, E., Engelmann, F., Benassayag, C., and Jayle, M.-F., 1971, Identification et purification préliminaire de la foeto-protéine liant les oestrogenes dans le serum de rats nouveau-nés, C. R. acad. Sci. Paris 273: 831–834.Google Scholar
  213. Palka, Y. S., and Sawyer, C. H., 1966a, The effect of hypothalamic implants of ovarian steriods on oestrous behaviour in rabbits, J. Physiol. 185: 251–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Palka, Y. S., and Sawyer, C. H., 1966b, Induction of estrous behaviour in rabbits by hypothalamic implants of testosterone, Am. J. Physiol. 211: 225–228.Google Scholar
  215. Palka, Y. S., Ramirez, V. D., and Sawyer, C. H., 1966, Distribution and biological effects of tritiated estradiol implanted in the hypothalamus hypophyseal region of female rats, Endocrinology 78: 487–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Pasteels, J. L., and Ectors, F., 1971, Identical localization of oestrogen-and progestogensensitive hypothalamic areas, in: Basic Actions of Sex Steroids on Target Organs ( P. O. Hubinont, F. Leroy, and P. Galand, eds.), pp. 200–207, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  217. Peng, M.-T., and Peng, Y.-M., 1973, Changes in the uptake of tritiated estradiol in the hypothalamus and adenohypophysis of old female ratg, Fert. Steril. 24: 534–539.Google Scholar
  218. Peretz, E., 1968, Estrogen dose and the duration of the mating in cats, Physiol. Behay. 3: 41–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Perez-Palacios, G., Castaneda, E., Gomez-Perez, F., Perez, A. E., and Gual, C., 1970, In vitro metabolism of androgens in dog hypothalamus, pituitary and limbic system, Biol. Reprod. 3: 205–213.Google Scholar
  220. Peterson, N. A., and Chaikoff, I. L., 1963, Uptake of intravenously-injected [4–14C]cortisol by adult rat brain, J. Neurochem. 10: 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Peterson, N. A., Chaikoff, I. L., and Jones, C., 1965, The in vitro conversion of cortisol to cortisone by subcellular brain fractions of young and adult rats, J. Neurochem. 12: 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Petrusz, P., and Nagy, E., 1967, On the mechanism of sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus: Decreased hypothalamic oestrogen sensitivity in androgen-sterilized female rats, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 18: 21–26.Google Scholar
  223. Pfaff, D. W., 1968, Autoradiographic localization of radioactivity in the rat brain after injection of tritiated sex hormones, Science 161: 1355–1356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Pfaff, D. W., 1970a, Nature of sex hormone effects on rat sex behaviour: Specificity of effects of individual patterns of response, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 73: 349–358.Google Scholar
  225. Pfaff, D. W., 19706, Synergistic and antagonistic effects of sex hormones on rat sexual behaviour, Am. Zoologist 10: (abst.).Google Scholar
  226. Pfaff, D. W., 1971, Steroid sex hormones in the rat brain: Specificity of uptake and physiological effects, in: Steroid Hormones and Brain Function ( C. H. Sawyer and R. A. Gorski, eds.), pp. 103–110, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  227. Pfaff, D. W., and Keiner, M., 1972, Estradiol-concentrating cells in the rat amygdala as part of a limbic hypothalamic hormone-sensitive system, in: The Neurobiology of the Amygdala ( B. Eleftheriou, ed.), pp. 775–785, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Pfaff, D. W., and Keiner, M., 1973, Atlas of estradiol concentrating cells in the central nervous system of the female rat, J. Comp. Neurol. 151: 121–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Pfaff, D. W., and Zigmond-Igmond, R. E., 1971, Neonatal androgen effects on sexual and nonsexual behaviour of adult rats tested under various hormone regimes, Neuroendocrinology 7: 129–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Pfaff, D. W., Silva, M. T. A., and Weiss, J. H., 1971, Telemetered recording of hormone effects on hippocampal neurons, Science 172: 394–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Pfaff, D. W., Diakow, C., Zigmond, R. E., and Kow, L.-M., 1974, Neural and hormonal determinants of female mating behaviour in rats, in: The Neurosciences, Vol. III ( F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, eds.), pp. 621–646, M.I.T. Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  232. Phoenix, C. H., 1973, The role of testosterone in the sexual behaviour of laboratory male rhesus, in: Symposium of the Fourth International Congress of Primatology, Vol. 2: Primate Reproductive Behaviour, pp. 99–122, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  233. Plapinger, L., and Mcewen, B. S., 1973, Ontogeny of estradiol-binding sites in rat brain. I. Appearance of presumptive adult receptors in cytosol and nuclei, Endocrinology 93: 1119–1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Plapinger, L., Mcewen, B. S., and Clemens, L. E., 1973, Ontogeny of estradiol-binding sites in rat brain. II. Characteristics of a neonatal binding macromolecule, Endocrinology 93: 1129–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Potash, L. M., 1970, Neuroanatomical regions relevant to production and analysis of vocalization within the avian, Torus semicircularis, Experientia 26: 1104–1105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Powers, J. B., 1970, Hormonal control of sexual receptivity during the estrous cycle of the rat, Physiol. Behay. 5: 831–835.Google Scholar
  237. Powers, J. B., 1972, Facilitation of lordosis in ovariectomized rats by intracerebral progesterone implants, Brain Res. 48: 311–325.Google Scholar
  238. Presl, J., Rohling, S., Horskÿ, J., and Herzmann, J., 1970, Changes in uptake of 3H-estradiol by the female rat brain from birth to maturity, Endocrinology 86: 899–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Purdy, R. H., and Axelrod, L. R., 1968, Properties of corticosteroid-21-O-acetyltransferase from the baboon brain, Steroids 11: 851–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Purdy, R. H., Grosser, B. I., and Axelrod, L. R., 1968, The distribution of corticosteroid-21O-acetyltransferase in the baboon brain, Steroids 11: 837–850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Raisinghani, K. H., Dorfman, R. I., Forchielli, L., Gyernek, L., and Geutler, G., 1968, Uptake of intravenously administered progesterone, pregnanedione and pregnanolone by the rat brain, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 57: 393–404.Google Scholar
  242. Raynaud, J.-P., Mercier-Bodard, C., and Baulieu, E. E., 1971, Rat estradiol plasma protein, Steroids 18: 767–788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Reddy, V. V. R., Naftolin, F., and Ryan, K. J., 1973, Aromatization in the central nervous system of rabbits: Effects of castration and hormone treatment, Endocrinology 92: 589–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Reddy, V. V. R., Naftolin, F., and Ryan, K. J., 1974, Conversion of androstenedione to estrone by neural tissues from fetal and neonatal rats, Endocrinology 94: 117–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Resko, J. A., Gov, R. W., and Phoenix, C. H., 1967, Uptake and distribution of exogenous testosterone-1,2–3H in neural and genital tissues of castrate guinea-pig, Endocrinology 80: 490–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Reuter, L. A., and Lisk, R. D., 1973, Progesterone-sensitive loci for blockade of ovulation in the hamster, Neuroendocrinology 12: 17–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Rhees, R. W., Abel, J. H., JR., and Haack, D. W., 1972, Uptake of tritiated steroids in the brain of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos): An autoradiographic study, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 18: 292–300.Google Scholar
  248. Robel, P., Corpéchot, C., and Baulieu, E. E., 1973, Testosterone and androstanolone in rat plasma and tissues, FEBS Letters 33: 218–220.Google Scholar
  249. Rodgers, C. H., 1970, Timing of sexual behaviour in the female rat, Endocrinology 86: 1181–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Rogers, A. W., 1973, Techniques of Autoradiography, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  251. Rommerts, F. F. G., and Van Der Molen, H. J., 1971, Occurrence and localization of 5a-steroid reductase, 3a-and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in hypothalamus and other brain tissues of the male rat, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 248: 489–502.Google Scholar
  252. Ross, J., Claybaugh, C., Clemens, L. G., and Gorski, R. A., 1971, Short latency induction of estrous behaviour with intracerebral gonadal hormones in ovariectomized rats, Endocrinology 89: 32–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Ross, J. W., Shryne, J., Gorski, R. A., and Marshall, J. R., 1973a, Effect of clomiphene citrate and its isomers on sexual behaviour in ovariectomized rats, Endocrinology 92: 1079–1083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Ross, J. W., Paup, D. C., Brant-Zawadzki, M., Marshall, J. R., and Gorski, R. A., 19736, Effects of cis and trans-clomiphene in the induction of sexual behaviour, Endocrinology 93: 681–685.Google Scholar
  255. Roth, L. J., and Stumpf, W. E. (eds.), 1969, Autoradiography of Diffusable Substances, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  256. Rotsztejn, W. H., 1973, Recherches sur le rôle et la régulation des récepteurs à l’oestradiol dans le système nerveux central et l’hypophyse, Thesis, University of Paris.Google Scholar
  257. Roy, S. K., and Laumas, K. R., 1969, [1,2 3H]Testosterone: Distribution and uptake in neural and genital tissues of intact male, castrate male and female rats, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 61: 629–646.Google Scholar
  258. Roy, S., Mahesh, V. B., and Greenblatt, R. B., 1964, Effects of clomiphene on the physiology of reproduction in the rat. III. Inhibition of uptake of radioactive oestradiol by the uterus and the pituitary gland on immature rat, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 47: 669–675.Google Scholar
  259. Ruf, K., and Steiner, F. A., 1967, Steroid-sensitive single neurons in rat hypothalamus and midbrain: Identification by microelectrophoresis, Science 156: 667–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Ryan, K. J., 1960, Estrogen formation by the human placenta: Studies on the mechanisms of steroid aromatization by mammalian tissues, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 35:697–698 (abst.) (Suppl. 51 ).Google Scholar
  261. Ryan, K. J., Naftolin, R., Reddy, V., Flores, F., and Petro, Z., 1972, Estrogen formation in the brain, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 114: 454–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Sar, M., and Stumpf, W. E., 1972, Cellular localization of androgen in the brain and pituitary after the injection of tritiated testosterone, Experientia 28: 1364–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Sar, M., and Stumpf, W. E., 1973a, Autoradiographic localization of radioactivity in the rat brain after the injection of 1,2–3H-testosterone, Endocrinology 92: 251–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Sar, M., and Stumpf, W. E., 1973b, Cellular and subcellular localization of radioactivity in the rat pituitary after injection of 1,2–3H-testosterone using dry autoradiography, Endocrinology 92: 631–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Sar, M., and Stumpf, W. E., 1973c, Effects of progesterone or cyproterone acetate on androgen uptake in the brain, pituitary and peripheral tissue, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 144: 26–29.Google Scholar
  266. Sar, M., and Stumpf, W. E., 1973d, Neurons of the hypothalamus concentrate [sHJprogesterone or its metabolites, Science 182: 1266–1268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Saucier, R., Banerjee, R. C., Brazeau, P., and Husain, S. M., 1970, Effects of norethynodrel on the tissue distribution of 3H-estradiol-17ß in ovariectomized rats, Steroids 16: 463–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Sawyer, C. H., 1972, Functions of the amygdala related to the feedback actions of gonadal steroid hormones, in:The Neurobiology of theAmygdala(B. E. Eleftheriou, ed.), pp. 745–762, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  269. Sawyer, C. H., and Gorski, R. A., eds., Steroid Hormones and Brain Function, UCLA Form. Med. Sci., No. 15, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  270. Sayler, A., 1970, The effect of anti-androgens on aggressive behaviour in the gerbil, Physiol. Behay. 5: 667–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Schrier, B. K., and Thompson, E. J., 1974, On the role of glial cells in the mammalian nervous system: Uptake, excretion, and metabolism of putative neurotransmitters by cultured glial tumor cells, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 1769–1780.Google Scholar
  272. Schwartz, N. B., 1969, A model for the regulation of ovulation in the rat, Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 25: 1–43.Google Scholar
  273. Schwartz, N. B., and Talley, W. L., 1965, Effect of acute ovariectomy on mating in the cyclic rat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 10: 463–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Seiki, M., and Hattori, R., 1971, A more extensive study of the uptake of labelled progesterone by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland of rats. J. Endocrinol. 51: 793–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Seiki, K., Higashida, M., Imanishi, Y., Miyamoto, M., Kitagawa, T., and Kotami, M., 1968, Radioactivity in the rat hypothalamus and pituitary after the injection of labelled progesterone, J. Endocrinol. 41: 109–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Seiki, M., Miyamoto, M., Yamashita, A., and Kotami, M., 1969, Further studies on the uptake of labelled progesterone by the hypothalamus and pituitary of rats, J. Endocrinol. 43: 129–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Sheratt, M., Exley, D., and Rogers, A. W., 1969, Failure to demonstrate uptake of 5H-testosterone by the hypothalamus of young rats, Neuroendocrinology 4: 374–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Sheridan, P. J., Sar, M., and Stumpf, W. E.,1973, Localization of 3H-estradiol or its metabolites in the CNS of the neonatal female rat, Fifty-fifth Meeting of the Endocrine Society, p. A67 (abst.).Google Scholar
  279. Sherins, R. J., and Loriaux, D. L., 1973, Studies on the role of sex steroids in the feedback control of FSH concentrations in men, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 36: 886–893.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Shirley, B., Wolinsky, J., and Schwartz, N. B., 1968, Effects of a single injection of an estrogen antagonist on the estrous cycle of the rat, Endocrinology 82: 959–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Sholiton, L. J., and Werk, E. E., 1969, The less-polar metabolites produced by incubation of testosterone 4-“C with rat and bovine brain, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 61: 641–648.Google Scholar
  282. Sholiton, L. J., Werk, E. E., and Macgee, J., 1965, Metabolism of cortisol-4-C“ and cortisone-4-C” by rat brain homogenates, Metabolism 14: 1122–1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Sholiton, L. J., Hall, I. L., and Werk, E. E., 1970, The iso-polar metabolites produced by incubation of [4-“C]testosterone with rat and bovine brain, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 63: 512–518.Google Scholar
  284. Sholiton, L. J., Jones, C. E., and Werk, E. E., 1972, The uptake and metabolism of (1,2–3H)-testosterone by the brain of functionally hepatectomized and totally eviscerated male rats, Steroids 20: 399–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Smith, E. R., and Davidson, J. M., 1967, Testicular maintenance and its inhibition in pituitary transplanted rats, Endocrinology 80: 725–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Smith, E. R., Weick, R. F., and Davidson, J. M., 1969, Influence of intracerebral progesterone on the reproductive system of female rats, Endocrinology 85: 1129–1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Snipes, C. A., and Shore, L. S., 1972, Metabolites of progesterone in vitro by neural and uterine tissues, Fed. Proc. 31: 236 (abst.).Google Scholar
  288. Steggles, A. W., and King, R. J. B.,1970, The use of protamine to study [6,7 3H]oestradiol-l7ß binding in rat uterus, Biochem. J. 118: 695–701.Google Scholar
  289. Steiner, F. A., 1971, Local effects of adrenal steroids on cerebral neurons, in: Steroid Hormones and Brain Function ( C. H. Sawyer and R. A. Gorski, eds.), pp. 43–47, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  290. Steiner, F. A., Ruf, K., and Akert, F., 1969, Steroid-sensitive neurones in rat brain: Anatomical localization and responses to neurohumours and ACTH, Brain Res. 12: 74–85.Google Scholar
  291. Stern, J. M., 1972, Androgen accumulation in hypothalamus and anterior pituitary of male ring doves; influence of steroid hormones, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 18: 439–449.Google Scholar
  292. Stern, J. M., and Eisenfeld, A., 1969, Androgen accumulation as binding to macromolecules in seminal vesicles: Inhibition by cyproterone, Science 166: 233–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Stern, J. M., and Eisenfeld, A., 1971, Distribution and metabolism of ‘H-testosterone in castrated male rats; effects of cyproterone, progesterone and unlabelled testosterone, Endocrinology 88: 1117–1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Stetson, M. H., 1972, Feedback regulation of testicular function in Japanese quail: Testosterone implants in the hypothalamus and adenohypophysis, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 19: 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Stevens, W., Grosser, B. I., and Reed, D. J., 1971, Corticosterone-binding molecules in rat brain cytosols: Regional distribution, Brain Res. 35: 602–607.Google Scholar
  296. Stevens, W., Reed, D. J., Erickson, S., and Grosser, B. I., 1973, The binding of corticosterone to brain proteins: Diurnal variation, Endocrinology 93: 1152–1156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Stumpf, W. E., 1968a, Estradiol concentrating neurons: Topography in the hypothalamus by dry-mount autoradiography, Science 162: 1001–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Stumpf, W. E., 1968b, Cellular and subcellular ‘H-estradiol localization in the pituitary by autoradiographs, Z. Zellforsch. 92: 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Stumpf, W. E., 1970a, Estrogen-neurons and estrogen-neuron systems in the periventricular brain, Am. J. Anat. 129: 207–218.Google Scholar
  300. Stumpf, W. E., 1970b, Localization of hormones by autoradiography and other histochemical techniques: A critical review, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 18: 21–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Stumpf, W. E., 1971, Hypophysiotropic neurons in the periventricular brain: Topography of estradiol concentrating neurons, in: Steroid Hormones and Brain Function ( C. H. Sawyer and R. A. Gorski, eds.), pp. 215–223, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  302. Stumpf, W. E., 1972, Estrogen, androgen and glucocorticoid concentrating neurons in the amygdala, studied by dry autoradiography, in: The Neurobiology of the Amygdala ( B. E. Eleftheriou, ed.), pp. 763–774, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Stumpf, W. E., and Roth, L. J., 1965, Thin sections cut at temperatures of -70° to -90 °C, Nature 205: 712–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Stumpf, W. E., and Roth, L. J., 1966, High resolution autoradiography with dry-mounted freeze-dried frozen sections, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 14: 274–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Stumpf, W. E., and Roth, L. J., 1967, Freeze-drying of small tissue samples and thin frozen sections below -60°C: A simple method of cryosorption pumping, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 15: 243–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Stumpf, W. E., and Sar, M., 1973, Hormonal inputs to releasing factor cells, feedback sites, in: Drug Effects on Neuroendocrine Regulation Vol. 39 of Progress in Brain Research, pp. 53–70, Elsevier, Amsterdam.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Sulman, F. G., 1958, The mechanism of the push and pull principle. I. Pharmacological effect of oestrogenic hormone on the cells of the pituitary anterior lobe, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 115: 354–359.Google Scholar
  308. Swaneck, G. E., Highland, E., and Edelman, I. S., 1969, Stereospecific nuclear and cytosol aldosterone-binding proteins of various tissues, Nephron 6: 297–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Thiessen, D. D., Yahr, P. I., and Owen, K., 1973, Regulatory mechanisms of territorial marking in the Mongolian gerbil, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 82: 382–393.Google Scholar
  310. Thomas, P. J., 1968, Cortisol acetyltransferase from baboon brain, Biochem. J. 109: 695–696Google Scholar
  311. Touchstone, J. C., Griffin, J. E., and Kasparow, M., 1963, Cortisol from human nerve, Science 141: 1275–1276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Touchstone, J. C., Kasparow, M., Hughes, M. A., and Harowitz, M. R., 1966, Corticosteroids in human brain, Steroids 7: 205–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Tuohimaa, P., 1971, The radioautoragraphic localization of exogenous tritiated dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and oestradiol in the target organs of female and male rats, in: Basic Actions of Sex Steroids on Target Organs ( P. O. Hubinot, F. Leroy, and P. Galand, eds.), pp. 208–214, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  314. Tuohimaa, P., and Johansson, R., 1971, Decreased oestradiol binding in the uterus and anterior hypothalamus of androgenized female rats, Endocrinology 88: 1159–1164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Tuohimaa, P., and Niemi, M., 1972a, Uptake of sex steroids by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary of pre-and neonatal rats, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 71: 37–44.Google Scholar
  316. Tuohimaa, P., and Niemi, M., 1972b, In vitro uptake of tritiated sex steroids by the hypothalamus of adult rats treated neonatally with an anti-androgen (cyproterone), Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 71: 45–54.Google Scholar
  317. Uchida, K., Kadowaki, M., and Miyake, T., 1969a, Ovarian secretion of progesterone and 20a-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one during rat estrous cycle in chronological relation to pituitary release of luteinizing hormone, Endocrinol. Jap. 16: 227–237.Google Scholar
  318. Uchida, K., Kadowaki, M., and Miyake, T., 1969b, Effect of exogenous progesterone on the preovulatory progesterone secretion in the rat, Endocrinol. Jap. 16: 485–491.Google Scholar
  319. Uchida, K., Kadowaki, M., and Miyake, T., 1970, Further studies on the effect of exogenous progesterone and related compounds on the preovulatory progesterone secretion in the rat, Endocrinol. Jap. 17: 99–106.Google Scholar
  320. Von Berswordt-Wallrabe, R., and Neumann, F., 1967, Influence of a testosterone antagonist (cyproterone) on pituitary and serum FSH-content in juvenile male rats, Neuroendocrinology 2: 107–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Vertes, M., and King, R. J. B., 1971, The mechanism of oestradiol binding in rat hypothalamus: Effect of androgenization, J. Endocrinol. 51: 271–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Vertes, M., Barnes, A., Lindner, H. R., and King, R. J. B., 1973, Studies on androgen and estrogen uptake by rat hypothalamus, in: Receptors for Reproductive Hormones, Vol. 36 st. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ( B. W. O’Malley and A. R. Means, eds.), pp. 137–173, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Wade, G. N., and Feder, H. H., 1972a, [1,2-°H]Progesterone uptake by guinea-pig brain and uterus: Differential localization, time-course of uptake and metabolism and effects of age, sex, estrogen-priming and competing steroids, Brain Res. 45: 525–543.Google Scholar
  324. Wade, G. N., and Feder, H. H., 1972b, Uptake of [1,2 3H]20a-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, [1,2–3H]corticosterone, and [6,7–3Hjestradiol-17ß by guinea pig brain and uterus: Comparison with uptake of [1,2 3H]progesterone, Brain Res. 45: 545–554.Google Scholar
  325. Wade, G. N., and Feder, H. H., 1972c, Effects of several pregnane and pregnene steroids on estrous behaviour in ovariectomized estrogen-primed guinea pigs, Physiol. Behay. 9: 773–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Wade, G. N., Harding, C. F., and Feder, H. H., 1973, Neural uptake of [1,2 3H]progesterone in ovariectomized rats, guinea pigs and hamsters: Correlation with species differences in behavioural responsiveness, Brain Res. 61: 357–367.Google Scholar
  327. Warembourg, M., 1970a, Fixation de l’oestradiol 3H dans le telencephale et le diencephale chez la souris femelle, C. R. Soc. Biol. 164: 126–129.Google Scholar
  328. Warembourg, M., 1970b, Fixation de l’oestradiol 3H au niveau des noyaux amygdaliens, septaux et du système hypothalamo-hypophysaire chez la souris femelle, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 270: 152–154.Google Scholar
  329. Warembourg, M., 1971, Étude historadioautographique des rétroactions hormonales gonadohypothalamiques, Lille Med. 16: 507–514.Google Scholar
  330. Warembourg, M., 1973, Études radioautographique des retroactions centrales des corticosteroides 3H chez le rat et le cobaye, Neuroendocrinologie de l’Axe Corticotrope (Brain-Adrenal Interactions) Les Colloques de l’Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (P. Dell, ed.), pp. 79–94, INSERM, Paris.Google Scholar
  331. Weisz, J., and Philrorr, J., 1971, Uptake and metabolism of testosterone by the brain of the newborn rat, in: Influence of Hormones on the Nervous System: Proceedings of the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology, Brooklyn 1970, pp. 282–295, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  332. Whalen, R. E., and Edwards, D. A., 1969, Effects of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate on mating behaviour and seminal vesicle tissue in male rats, Endocrinology 84: 155–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Whalen, R. E., and Gorzalka, B. B., 1972, The effects of progesterone and its metabolites on the induction of sexual receptivity in rats, Horm. Behay. 3: 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Whalen, R. E., and Gorzalka, B. B., 1973, Effects of an estrogen antagonist on behaviour and on estrogen retention in neural and peripheral target tissues, Physiol. Behay. 10: 35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Whalen, R. E., and Hardy, D. F., 1970, Induction of receptivity in female rats and cats with estrogen and testosterone, Physiol. Behay. 5: 529–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Whalen, R. E., and Luttge, W. G., 1971a, Differential localization of progesterone uptake in brain: Role of sex, estrogen pretreatment and adrenalectomy, Brain Res. 33: 147–155.Google Scholar
  337. Whalen, R. E., and Luttge, W. G., 1971b, Role of the adrenal in the preferential accumulation of progestin by mesencephalic structures, Steroids 18: 141–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Whalen, R. E., and Luttge, W. G., 1971c, Testosterone, androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone: Effects on mating behaviour of male rats, Horm. Behay. 2: 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Whalen, R. E., and Rezek, D. L., 1972, Localization of androgenic metabolites in the brain of rats administered testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, Steroids 20: 717–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Whalen, R. E., Luttge, W. G., and Green, R., 1969, Effects of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate on the uptake of I,2-’H testosterone in neural and peripheral tissues of the castrate male rat, Endocrinology 84: 217–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Whalen, R. E., Luttge, W. G., and Gorzalka, B. B., 1971, Neonatal androgenization and the development of estrogen responsivity in male and female rats, Horm. Behay. 2: 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Whalen, R. E., Battie, C., and Luttge, W. G., 1972, Anti-estrogen inhibition of androgen induced sexual receptivity in rats, Behay. Biol. 7: 311–320.Google Scholar
  343. Whitsett, J. H., Bronson, F. H., Peters, P. J., and Hamilton, T. H., 1972, Neonatal organization of aggression in mice: Correlation of critical period with uptake of hormone, Horm. Behay. 3: 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Wilson, F. E., 1970, The tubero-infundibular neuron region of the hypothalamus: A focus of testosterone sensitivity in male tree sparrows (Spizella arborea), in: Aspects of Neuro-endocrinology ( W. Bargmann and B. Scharrer, eds.), pp. 274–286, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  345. Wilson, J. D., and Gloyna, R. E., 1970, The intranuclear metabolism of testosterone in the accessory organs of reproduction, Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 26: 309–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Wilson, J. D., Bruchovsky, N., and Chatfield, J. N., 1969, Intranuclear localization of testosterone-1,2-’H in rat prostate, in: Progress in Endocrinology: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Endocrinology, Mexico 1968, pp. 17–23, Excerpta Medica Foundation, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  347. Wooley, D. E., Holinka, C. F., and Timiras, D. E., 1969, Changes in 3H-estradiol distribution with development in the rat, Endocrinology 84: 157–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Wyss, K. H., Karsznia, K., Heinrichs, W. L., and Herrmann, W. L., 1968, Inhibition of uterine receptor binding of estradiol by antiestrogens (clomiphene and CL-868), J. Clin. Endocrinol. 28: 1824–1828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Zigmond, R. E., 1971, Anatomical and chemical specificity of gonadal hormone retention in the rat brain, Thesis, Rockefeller University, New York.Google Scholar
  350. Zigmond, R. E., and Mackay, A. V. P., 1974, Dissociation of stimulatory and synthetic phases in the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase, Nature 247: 112–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Zigmond, R. E., and Mcewen, B. S., 1970, Selective retention of estradiol by brain cell nuclei in specific regions of the ovariectomized rat, J. Neurochem. 17: 889–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Zigmond, R. E., Stern, J. M., and Mcewen, B. S., 1972a, Retention of radioactivity by brain cell nuclei in the ring dove after injection of ‘H-testosterone, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 18: 450–453.Google Scholar
  353. Zigmond, R. E., Nottebohm, F., and Pfaff, D. W., 1972b, Distribution of androgen-concentrating cells in the brain of the chaffinch, in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Endocrinology, Washington 1972, Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam (abst.).Google Scholar
  354. Zigmond, R. E., Nottebohm, F., and Pfaff, D. W., 1973, Androgen-concentrating cells in the midbrain of a songbird, Science 179: 1005–1007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Zigmond, R. E., Mackay, A. V. P., and Iversen, L. L., 1974, Minimum duration of trans-synaptic stimulation required for the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase by reserpine in the rat superior cervical ganglion, J. Neurochem. 23: 355–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Zucker, I., 1966a, Effects of an antiandrogen on the mating behaviour of male guinea pigs and rats, J. Endocrinol. 35: 209–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Zucker, I., 1966b, Facilitatory and inhibitory effects of progesterone on sexual responses of spayed guinea pigs, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 62: 376–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Zucker, I., 1967a, Progesterone in the experimental control of the behavioural sex cycle in the female rat, J. Endocrinol. 38: 269–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Zucker, I., 1967b, Actions of progesterone in the control of sexual receptivity of the spayed female rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 63: 313–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Zucker, I., 1968, Biphasic effects of progesterone on sexual receptivity in the female guinea pig, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 65: 472–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Zucker, I., and Goy, R. W., 1967, Sexual receptivity in the guinea pig: Inhibitory and facilitatory actions of progesterone and related compounds, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 64: 378–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard E. Zigmond
    • 1
  1. 1.M.R.C. Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit, Medical SchoolCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations