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Hypothalamic Hypophysiotropic Hormones

  • Wylie Vale
  • Catherine Rivier
Part of the Handbook of Psychopharmacology book series (HBKPS, volume 5)

Abstract

A large body of experimental evidence supports the key role played by hypothalamic neurosecretory cells in coordinating the activities of the central nervous and endocrine systems. The nonapeptides vasopressin and oxytocin, synthesized in nerve cell bodies of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, travel by axoplasmic flow within tracts terminating in the neurohypophysis, from which they are secreted into the general circulation in response to the appropriate hypothalamic inputs (Sachs et al., 1969). Other hypothalamic hormones, the hypophysiotropic releasing and release inhibiting factors, exert a general influence on the homeostasis of the organism via their effects on the adenohypophysis. The portal vessel chemotransmitter theory states that the hypothalamus, in response to various neural and blood-borne signals, secretes factors or hormones which reach the adenohypophysis via the hypothalamic—hypophyseal portal system (Green and Harris, 1947; Friedgood, 1936). The vessels of the primary capillary plexus of this portal system are found in the median eminence of the hypothalamus; these vessels coalesce into veins which pass down the pituitary stalk to the adenohypophysis, where they disperse into a secondary capillary plexus supplying the various secretory cell types of the adenohypophysis. The demonstration of hypophysiotropic activities attributed to factors in hypothalamic extracts represented a critical part of the evidence supporting this theory.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Pituitary Cell Growth Hormone Secretion Pituitary Hormone Thyrotropin Release Hormone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wylie Vale
    • 1
  • Catherine Rivier
    • 1
  1. 1.The Salk InstituteNeuroendocrinology LaboratoryLa JollaUSA

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