Advertisement

Uptake Processes for Biogenic Amines

  • Leslie L. Iversen
Part of the Handbook of Psychopharmacology book series (HBKPS, volume 3)

Abstract

In recent years, it has become apparent that neurons have associated with them specific transport systems for the particular transmitter which they manufacture and release. Thus neurons that release norepinephrine (NE) possess a specific transport system capable of transporting NE from the external medium into the neurons. Similar uptake systems for dopamine and 5-HT are associated with neurons containing these transmitters (Iversen, 1967, 1970, 1971, 1973; Snyder et al., 1970). In cholinergic neurons, there is an uptake system for the precursor substance choline (Snyder et al., 1973). Apart from the transport of biogenic amines into the neurons themselves, other mechanisms exist to mediate the transport of these amines across the membranes of various nonneuronal cells which are associated with synapses using amine transmitters. Furthermore, within the neuronal cytoplasm there are other uptake systems to transfer the amines from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, which act as concentrated amine storage reservoirs. The existence of these numerous amine transport systems is perhaps not surprising, since the biogenic amines are highly polar substances which do not readily penetrate biological membranes by simple diffusion.

Keywords

Biogenic Amine Uptake System Nictitate Membrane Adrenergic Nerve Adrenergic Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aghajanian, G. K., and Bloom, F. E., 1967, Localization of tritiated serotonin in rat brain by electron microscopic autoradiography, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 156: 23–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghajanian, G. K., and Bloom, F. E., 19676, Electron microscopic localization of tritiated norepinephrine in rat brain, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 156: 407–416.Google Scholar
  3. Avakian, O. V., and Gillespie, J. S., 1968, Uptake of noradrenaline by adrenergic nerves, smooth muscle and connective tissue in isolated perfused arteries and its correlation with the vasoconstrictor response, Brit. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 32: 168–184.Google Scholar
  4. Axelrod, J., and Inscoe, J. K., 1963, The uptake and binding of circulating serotonin and the effect of drugs, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 141: 161–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Axelrod, J., Weil-Malherbe, H., and Tomchick, R., 1959, The physiological disposition of H3-epinephrine and its metabolite metanephrine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 127: 251–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baumgarten, H. G., Bjorklund, A., Lachenmeyer, L., Nobin, A., and Stenevi, U., 1971, Long-lasting selective depletion of brain serotonin by 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine, Acta Physiol. Scand., Suppl. 373.Google Scholar
  7. Baumgarten, H. G., Evetts, K. D., Holman, R. S., Iversen, L. L., Vogt, M., and Wilson, G., 1972, Effects of 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine on monoaminergic neurones in the central nervous system of the rat, J. Neurochem. 19: 1587–1597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berti, F., and Shore, P. A., 1967, A kinetic analysis of drugs that inhibit the adrenergic neuronal membrane amine pump, Biochem. Pharmacol. 16: 2091–2094.Google Scholar
  9. Bevan, J. A., and Verity, M. A., 1967, Sympathetic nerve-free vascular muscle, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 157: 117–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Birks, R., and Macintosh, F. C., 1961, Acetylcholine metabolism of a sympathetic ganglion, Canad. J. Biochem. Physiol. 39: 787–827.Google Scholar
  11. Blackburn, K. J., French, P. C., and Merrills, R. J., 1967, 5-Hydroxytryptamine uptake by rat brain in vitro, Life Sci. 6: 1653–1663.Google Scholar
  12. Bogdanski, D. F., and Brodie, B. B., 1966, Role of sodium and potassium ions in storage of norepinephrine by sympathetic nerve endings, Life Sci. 5: 1563–1569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bogdanski, D. F., and Brodie, B. B., 1969, The effects of inorganic ions on the storage and uptake of3H-norepinephrine by rat heart slices, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 165: 181–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bogdanski, D. F., Tissari, A. H., and Brodie, B. B., 1968, Role of sodium, potassium, ouabain and reserpine in uptake, storage and metabolism of biogenic amines in synaptosomes, Life Sci. 7: 419–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bogdanski, D. F., Tissari, A. H., and Brodie, B. B., 1970, Mechanism of transport and storage of biogenic amines, III. Effects of sodium and potassium on kinetics of 5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine transport by rabbit synaptosomes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 219: 189–199.Google Scholar
  16. Born, G. V. R., and Gillson, R. E., 1959, Studies on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine by blood platelets, J. Physiol. 146: 472–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Born, G. V. R., Juengjaroen, K., and Michal, F., 1972, Relative activities on and uptake by human blood platelets of 5-hydroxytryptamine and several analogues, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 44: 117–139.Google Scholar
  18. Boullin, D.]., Costa, E., and Brodie, B. B., 1967, Evidence that blockade of adrenergic receptors causes overflow of norepinephrine in cat’s colon after nerve stimulation, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 157: 125–134.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, G. L., 1965, The release and rate of the transmitter liberated by adrenergic nerves, Proc. Roy. Soc. Loud. Ser. B 162: 1–19.Google Scholar
  20. Brown, G. L., and Gillespie, J. S., 1957, The output of sympathetic transmitter from the spleen of the cat, J. Physiol. 138: 81–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Budd, G. C., and Salpeter, M. M., 1969, The distribution of labelled norepinephrine within sympathetic nerve terminals studied with electron microscope autoradiography, J. Cell Biol. 41: 21–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Burdman, J. A., 1968, Uptake of H-catecholamines by chick embryo sympathetic ganglia in tissue culture, J. Neurochem. 15: 1321–1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Burgen, A. S. V., and Iversen, L. L., 1965, The inhibition of noradrenaline uptake by sympathomimetic amines in the rat isolated heart, Brit. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 25: 34–49.Google Scholar
  24. Burn, J. H., 1932, The action of tyramine and ephedrine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 46: 75–95.Google Scholar
  25. Burnstock, G., McLean, J. R., and Wright, M., 1971, Noradrenaline uptake by non- innervated smooth muscle, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 43: 180–189.Google Scholar
  26. Burnstock, G., McCulloch, M. W., Story, D. F., and Wright, M. E., 1972, Factors affecting the extraneuronal inactivation of noradrenaline in cardiac and smooth muscle, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 46: 243–253.Google Scholar
  27. Callingham, B. A., 1967, The effects of imipramine and related compounds on the uptake of noradrenaline into sympathetic nerve endings, in: First International Symposium on Antidepressant Drugs, pp. 35–43, Excerpta Medica International Congress Series. No. 122, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  28. Callingham, B. A., and Burgen, A. S. V., 1966, The uptake of isoprenaline and noradrenaline by the perfused rat heart, Mol. Pharmacol. 2: 37–42.Google Scholar
  29. Campbell, I. C., and Todrick, A., 1973, On the pharmacology and biochemistry of the amine uptake mechanism in human blood platelets, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 49: 279–287.Google Scholar
  30. Carlsson, A., 1970, Structural specificity for inhibition of 14C-5-hydroxytryptamine uptake by cerebral slices, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 22: 729–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Carlsson, A., Hillarp, N. A., and Waldeck, B., 1963, Analysis of the Mg++ ATP dependent storage mechanisms in the amine granules of the adrenal medulla, Acta Physiol. Scand. 59:Suppl. 215.Google Scholar
  32. Carmichael, F. J., and Israel, Y., 1973, In vitro inhibitory effects of narcotic analgesics and other psychotropic drugs on the active uptake of norepinephrine in mouse brain tissue, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 186: 253–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chase, T. N., Breese, G. R., Carpenter, D. O., Scanberg, S. M., and Kopin, I. J., 1968, Stimulation-induced release of serotonin, Advan. Pharmacol. 6A: 351–364.Google Scholar
  34. Chidsey, C. A., Kahler, R. L., Kelminson, L., and Braunwald, E., 1963, Uptake and metabolism of tritiated norepinephrine in the isolated canine heart, Circ. Res. 12: 220–227.Google Scholar
  35. Clarke, D. E., Jones, C. J., and Linley, P. A., 1969, Histochemical fluorescence studies on noradrenaline accumulation by Uptake2 in the isolated rat heart, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 37: 1–9.Google Scholar
  36. Colburn, R. W., Goodwin, F. K., Murphy, D. L., Bunney, W. E., and Davis, J. M., 1968, Quantitative studies of norepinephrine uptake by synaptosomes, Biochem. Pharmacol. 17: 957–964.Google Scholar
  37. Coyle, J. T., and Snyder, S. H., 1969, Catecholamine uptake by synaptosomes in homogenates of rat brain: Stereospecificity in different areas, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 170: 221–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Creese, R., and Taylor, D. B., 1967, Entry of labelled carbachol in brain slices of the rat and the action of d-tubocurarine and strychnine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 157: 406–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Crout, J. R., 1964, The uptake and release of:iH-norepinephrine by the guinea pig heart in vivo, Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 248: 85–98.Google Scholar
  40. Csaky, T. Z., 1965, Transport through biological membranes, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 27: 415–450.Google Scholar
  41. Dahlstrom, A., Fuxe, K., and Hillarp, N. A., 1965, Site of action of reserpine, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 22: 277–292.Google Scholar
  42. da Prada, M., and Pletscher, A., 1969, Differential uptake of biogenic amines by isolated 5-hydroxytryptamine organelles of blood platelets, Life Sci. 8: 65–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dengler, H. J., Michaelson, I. A., Spiegel, H. E., and Titus, E., 1962, The uptake of labelled norepinephrine by isolated brain and other tissues of the cat, Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 1: 23–28.Google Scholar
  44. Draskoczy, P. R., and Trendelenburg, U., 1968, The uptake of and ¿-norepinephrine by the isolated perfused rabbit heart in relation to the stereospecificity of the sensitizing action of cocaine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 159: 66–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Draskoczy, P. R., and Trendelenburg, U., 1970, Intraneuronal and extraneuronal accumulation of sympathomimetic amines in the isolated nictitating membrane of the cat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 174: 290–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Eccleston, D., Thoa, N. B., and Axelrod, J., 1968, Inhibition by drugs of the accumulation in vitro of 5-hydroxytryptamine in guinea pig vas deferens, Nature 217: 846–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ehinger, B., and Sporrong, B., 1968, Neuronal and extraneuronal localisation of noradrenaline in the rat heart after perfusion at high concentration, Experientia 24: 265–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Eisenfeld, A. J., Axelrod, J., and Krakoff, L., 1966, Inhibition of the extraneuronal accumulation of norepinephrine by adrenergic blocking agents, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 156: 107–113.Google Scholar
  49. Eisenfeld, A. J., Landsberg, L., and Axelrod, J., 1967, Effect of drugs on the accumulation and metabolism of extraneuronal norepinephrine in the rat heart, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 158: 378–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Enero, M. A., Langer, S. Z., Rothlin, R. P., and Stefano, F. J. E., 1972, Role of the a-adrenoceptor in regulating noradrenaline overflow by nerve stimulation, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 44: 672–688.Google Scholar
  51. Eranko, O., and Jansson, S. E., 1967, Uptake of monoamines by mouse peritoneal cells in vitro, Acta Physiol. Scand. 70: 449–450.Google Scholar
  52. Esterhuizen, A. C., Graham, J. D. P., Lever, J. D., and Spriggs, T. L. B., 1968, Catecholamines and acetylcholinesterase distribution in relation to noradrenaline release: An enzyme histochemical and autoradiographic study on the innervation of the cat nictitating muscle, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 32: 46–56.Google Scholar
  53. Farnebo, L. O., and Hamberger, B., 1971, Drug-induced changes in the release of 3H- noradrenaline from field stimulated rat iris, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 43: 97–106.Google Scholar
  54. Farnebo, L. O., and Malmfors, T., 1969, Histochemical studies on the uptake of noradrenaline and a-methylnoradrenaline in the perfused rat heart, Europ. J. Pharmacol. 5: 313–320.Google Scholar
  55. Ferris, R. M., Tang, F. L. M., and Maxwell, R. A., 1972, A comparison of the capacity of isomers of amphetamine, deoxypipradol and methylphenidate to inhibit the uptake of tritiated catecholamines into rat cerebral cortex slices, synaptosomal preparations of rat cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and striatum and into adrenergic nerves of rabbit aorta, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 181: 407–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ferry, C. B., 1967, The autonomic nervous system, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 7: 185–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fischer, J. E., Kopin, I. J., and Axelrod, J., 1965, Evidence for extraneuronal binding of norepinephrine,/. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 147: 181–185.Google Scholar
  58. Foster, R. W., 1967, The potentiation of the responses to noradrenaline and isoprenaline of the guinea pig isolated tracheal chain preparation by desipramine, phentolamine, guanethidine, metanephrine and cooling, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 31: 466–482.Google Scholar
  59. Foster, R. W., 1968, A correlation between inhibition of the uptake of 3H from (±)-3H- noradrenaline and potentiation of the responses to (—)-noradrenaline in the guinea pig isolated trachea, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 33: 357–367.Google Scholar
  60. Foster, R. W., 1969, An uptake of radioactivity from (±)-3H-isoprenaline and its inhibition by drugs which potentiate the responses to (—)-isoprenaline in the guinea pig isolated trachea, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 35: 418–427.Google Scholar
  61. Fozard, J. R., 1971, Effects of progesterone on cardiovascular responses to amines and to sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 41: 187–197.Google Scholar
  62. Furano, A. V., and Green, J. P., 1964, The uptake of biogenic amines by mast cells in the rat, J. Physiol. 170: 263–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Fuxe, K., Hokfelt, T., Ritzen, M., and Ungerstedt, U., 1968, Studies on uptake of intraventricularly administered tritiated noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine with combined fluorescence histochemical and autoradiographic techniques, Histochemie 16: 186–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Giachetti, A., and Shore, P. A., 1966, Studies in vitro of amine uptake mechanisms in heart, Biochem. Pharmacol. 15: 607–614.Google Scholar
  65. Gillespie, J. S., 1968, The role of receptors in adrenergic uptake, in: Adrenergic Neurotransmission (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and M. O’Connor, Eds.), pp. 61–72, CIBA Foundation Study Group No. 33, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  66. Gillespie, J. S., 1973, Uptakeof noradrenaline by smooth muscle, Brit. Med. Bull. 29: 136–141.Google Scholar
  67. Gillespie, J. S., and Kirpekar, S. M., 1965, The activation of infused noradrenaline by the cat spleen, J. Physiol. 176: 205–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gillespie, J. S., and Kirpekar, S. M., 1966, The histological localization of noradrenaline in the cat’s spleen, J. Physiol. 187: 69–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gillespie, J. S., and Muir, T. C., 1970, Species and tissue variation in extraneuronal and neuronal accumulation of noradrenaline, J. Physiol. 206: 591–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gillespie, J. S., and Towart, R., 1973, Uptake kinetics and ion requirements for ex-traneuronal uptake of noradrenaline by arterial smooth muscle and collagen, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 47: 556–567.Google Scholar
  71. Gillespie, J. S., Hamilton, D. N. H., and Hosie, R. J. A., 1970, The extraneuronal uptake and localization of noradrenaline in the cat spleen and the effect on this of some drugs of cold and of denervation, J. Physiol. 206: 563–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gillis, C. N., and Paton, D. M., 1966, Effects of hypothermia and anoxia on retention of noradrenaline by the cat perfused heart, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 26: 426–434.Google Scholar
  73. Gillis, C. N., and Paton, D. M., 1967, Cation dependence of sympathetic transmitter retention by slices of rat ventricles, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 29: 309–318.Google Scholar
  74. Gillis, C. N., and Schneider, F. H., 1967, Frequency-dependent potentiation by various drugs of the chronotropic response of isolated cat atria to sympathetic nerve stimulation, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 30: 541–553.Google Scholar
  75. Glowinski, J., and Axelrod, J., 1966, Effects of drugs on the disposition of 3H-norepinephrine in the rat brain, Pharmacol. Rev. 18: 775–786.Google Scholar
  76. Glowinski, J., Axelrod, J., Kopin, I. J., and Wurtman, R. J., 1964, Physiological disposition of 3H-norepinephrine in the developing rat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 146: 48–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Green, R. D., and Miller, J. W., 1966, Evidence for the active transport of epinephrine and norepinephrine by the uterus of the rat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 152: 42–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Guyenet, P., Lefresne, P., Rossier, J., Beaujouan, J. C., and Glowinski, J., 1973, Inhibition by hemicholinium-3 of l4C-acetylcholine synthesis and 3H-choline high affinity uptake in rat striatal synaptosomes, Mol. Pharmacol. 9: 630–639.Google Scholar
  79. Haefely, W., Hürlimann, A., and Theonen, H., 1964, A quantitative study of the effect of cocaine on the response of the cat nictitating membrane to nerve stimulation and to injected noradrenaline, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 22: 5–21.Google Scholar
  80. Hamberger, B., 1967, Reserpine-resident uptake of catecholamines in isolated tissue of the rat, Acta Physiol. Scand. 71: Suppl. 295.Google Scholar
  81. Hamberger, B., Malmfors, T., Norberg, K. A., and Sachs, C., 1964, Uptake and accumulation of catecholamines in peripheral adrenergic neurons of reserpinized animals, studied with a histochemical method, Biochem. Pharmacol. 13: 841–844.Google Scholar
  82. Hamberger, B., Norberg, K. A., and Olson, L., 1967, Extraneuronal binding of catecholamines and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) in salivary glands, Acta Physiol. Scand. 69: 1–12.Google Scholar
  83. Harris, J. E., and Baldessarini, R. J., 1973, Uptake of catecholamines by homogenates of rat corpus striatum and cerebral cortex: Effects of amphetamine analogues, Neuropharmacology 12: 669–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Heikkila, R., Cohen, G., and Dembiec, D., 1971, Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids: Uptake by rat brain homogenates and inhibition of catecholamine uptake, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 179: 250–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hellmann, G., Hertting, G., and Peskar, B., 1971, Uptake kinetics and metabolism of 7-3H-dopamine in the isolated perfused rat heart, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 41: 256–269.Google Scholar
  86. Hendley, E. D., and Snyder, S. H., 1968, Relationship between the action of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in the noradrenaline uptake system and their antidepressant effects, Nature 220: 1330–1331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hendley, E. D., and Snyder, S. H., 1972, Stereoselectivity of catecholamine uptake in noradrenergic and dopaminergic peripheral organs, Europ. J. Pharmacol. 10: 56–66.Google Scholar
  88. Hertting, G., 1965, Effects of drugs and sympathetic denervation on noradrenaline uptake and binding in animal tissues, in: Pharmacology of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Transmission ( G. Koelle, W. Douglas and A. Carlsson, eds.), pp. 277–288, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  89. Hertting, G., and Schiefthaler, T., 1964, The effect of stellate ganglion excision on the catecholamine content and the uptake of 3H-norepinephrine in the heart of the cat, Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 3: 65–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hertting, G., Axelrod, J., and Whitby, L. G., 1961a, Effect of drugs on the uptake and metabolism of H3-norepinephrine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 134: 146–153.Google Scholar
  91. Hertting, G., Axelrod, J., Kopin, I. J., and Whitby, L. G., 19616, Lack of uptake of catecholamines after chronic denervation of sympathetic nerves, Nature 189: 66.Google Scholar
  92. Hertting, G., Suko, J., Widhalms, S., and Harbich, I., 1967, Ueber den Mechanismus der Potenzierung der Katecholaminwirkung nach chronisch postganglionärer sympathischer Denervierung, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmakol. Exp. Pathol. 257: 40–54.Google Scholar
  93. Horn, A. S., 1973a, Structure-activity relations for the inhibition of catecholamine uptake into synaptosomes from noradrenaline and dopaminergic neurones in rat brain homogenates, Brit. J. Pharmacol 47: 332–338.Google Scholar
  94. Horn, A. S., 19736, Structure-activity relations for the inhibition of 5-HT uptake into rat hypothalamic homogenates by serotonin and tryptamine analogues, J. Neurochem. 21: 883–888.Google Scholar
  95. Horn, A. S., and Snyder, S. H., 1972, Steric requirements for catecholamine uptake by rat brain synaptosomes: Studies with rigid analogs of amphetamine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 180: 523–530.Google Scholar
  96. Horn, A. S., and Trace, R. C. A. M., 1974, Structure-activity relations for the inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake by tricyclic antidepressants into synaptosomes from serotoninergic neurones in rat brain homogenates, Brit. J. Pharmacol., in press.Google Scholar
  97. Horn, A. S., Coyle, J. T., and Snyder, S. H., 1971, Catecholamine uptake by synaptosomes from rat brain: Structure-activity relationships of drugs with differential effects on dopamine and norepinephrine neurons, Mol. Pharmacol. 7: 66–80.Google Scholar
  98. Horn, A. S., Baumgarten, H. G., and Schlossberger, H. G., 1973, Inhibition of the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine into rat brain homogenates by various hydroxylated tryptamines, J. Neurochem. 21: 233–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Horn, A. S., Cuello, A. C., and Miller, R. J., 1974, Dopamine in the mesolimbic system of the rat brain: Endogenous levels and the effects of drugs on the uptake mechanism and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity, J. Neurochem. 22: 265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hornykiewicz, 1973, Dopamine in the basal ganglia, Brit. Med. Bull. 29: 172–178.Google Scholar
  101. Hughes, J., 1972, Evaluation of mechanisms controlling the release and inactivation of the adrenergic transmitter in the rabbit portal vein and vas deferens, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 44: 472–491.Google Scholar
  102. Hughes, F. B., and Brodie, B. B., 1959, The mechanism of serotonin and catecholamine uptake by platelets, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 127: 96–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Ignarro, L. J., and Shideman, F. E., 1968, The requirement of sympathetic innervation for the active transport of norepinephrine by the rat heart, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 159:59– 65.Google Scholar
  104. Inouye, A., and Tanaka, I., 1964, Effect of tyramine, reserpine and cocaine on the noradrenaline release and uptake in the perfused rabbit kidney, Acta Physiol. Scand. 62: 356–363.Google Scholar
  105. Isaac, L., and Goth, A., 1967, The mechanism of the potentiation of norepinephrine by antihistaminics, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 156: 463–468.Google Scholar
  106. Iversen, L. L., 1963, The uptake of noradrenaline by the isolated perfused rat heart, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 21: 523–537.Google Scholar
  107. Iversen, L. L., 1965a, The inhibition of noradrenaline uptake by drugs, Advan. Drug Res. 2: 5–23.Google Scholar
  108. Iversen, L. L., 19656, The uptake of catecholamines at high perfusion concentrations in the isolated rat heart: A novel catecholamine uptake process, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 25: 18–33.Google Scholar
  109. Iversen, L. L., 1967, The Uptake and Storage of Noradrenaline in Sympathetic Nerves, Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  110. Iversen, L. L., 1968, Characteristics of noradrenaline uptake in the iris/ciliary body and other peripheral tissues of the rat, Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 259: 179.Google Scholar
  111. Iversen, L. L., 1970, Neuronal uptake processes for amines and amino acids, in: Biochemistry of Simple Neuronal Models (E. Costa and E. Giacobini, Eds.), pp. 109–132, Vol. 2 of Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  112. Iversen, L. L., 1971, Role of transmitter uptake mechanisms in synaptic neurotransmission, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 41: 571–591.Google Scholar
  113. Iversen, L. L., 1972, Methods involved in studies of the uptake of biogenic amines, in: The Thyroid and Biogenic Amines ( T. Rail and T. Kopin, eds.), pp. 569–603, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  114. Iversen, L. L., 1973, Catecholamine uptake processes, Brit. Med. Bull. 29: 130–135.Google Scholar
  115. Iversen, L. L., and Kravitz, E. A., 1966, Sodium dependence of transmitter uptake at adrenergic nerve terminals, Mol. Pharmacol. 2: 360–362.Google Scholar
  116. Iversen, L. L., and Langer, S. Z., 1969, Effects of phenobenzamine on the uptake and metabolism of noradrenaline in the rat heart and vas deferens, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 37: 627–637.Google Scholar
  117. Iversen, L. L., and Salt, P. J., 1970, Inhibition of catecholamine Uptake2 by steroids in the isolated rat heart, Brit. J. Pharmacol. Chemother 40: 528–530.Google Scholar
  118. Iversen, L. L., and Salt, P. J., 1972, Inhibition of the extraneuronal uptake of catecholamine in the isolated rat heart by cholesterol, Nature New Biol. 238: 91–92.Google Scholar
  119. Iversen, L. L., and Whitby, L. G., 1962, Retention of injected catecholamines by the mouse, Brit. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 19: 355–364.Google Scholar
  120. Iversen, L. L., Glowinski, J., and Axelrod, J., 1965, The uptake and storage of norepinephrine in the reserpine-pretreated rat heart, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 150: 173–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Iversen, L. L., Glowinski, J., and Axelrod, J., 1966, The physiological disposition and metabolism of norepinephrine in immunosympathectomized animals, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 151: 273–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Iversen, L. L., DeChamplain, J., Glowinski, J., and Axelrod, J., 1967, Uptake storage and metabolism of norepinephrine in tissues of the developing rat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 157: 509–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Iversen, L. L., Jarrott, B., and Simmonds, M. A., 1971, Differences in the uptake, storage and metabolism of (+)- and (-noradrenaline, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 43: 845–855.Google Scholar
  124. Iversen, L. L., Salt, P. J., and Wilson, H. A., 1972, Inhibition of catecholamine uptake in the isolated rat heart by haloalkylamines related to phenoxybenzamine, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 46: 647–657.Google Scholar
  125. Jacobowitz, D., and Brus, R., 1971, A study of the extraneuronal uptake of norepinephrine in the perfused heart of the guinea pig, Europ. J. Pharmacol. 15: 274–284.Google Scholar
  126. Jaim-Etcheverry, G., and Zieher, L. M., 1968, Cytochemistry of 5-hydroxytryptamine at the electron microscope level. II. Localization in the autonomic nerves of rat pineal gland, Z. Zellforsch. 86: 393–400.Google Scholar
  127. Jaim-Etcheverry, G., and Zieher, L. M., 1969, Ultrastructural cytochemistry and pharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine in adrenergic nerve endings. I. Localization of exogenous 5- hydroxytryptamine in the autonomic nerves of the rat vas deferens, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 166: 264–271.Google Scholar
  128. Jarrott, B., 1970, Uptake and metabolism of 3H-noradrenaline by the perfused hearts of various species, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 38: 810–821.Google Scholar
  129. Jonasson, J., Rosengren, E., and Waldeck, B., 1964, On the effects of some pharmacologically active amines on the uptake of arylalkylamines by adrenal medullary granules, Acta Physiol. Scand. 60: 136–140.Google Scholar
  130. Kalisker, A., Rutledge, C. O., and Perkins, J. P., 1973, Effect of nerve degeneration by 6- hydroxydopamine on catecholamine-stimulated adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate formation in rat cerebral cortex, Mol. Pharmacol. 9: 619–629.Google Scholar
  131. Kalsner, S., 1969a, Mechanism of hydrocortisone potentiation of responses to epinephrine and norepinephrine in rabbit aorta, Circ. Res. 24: 383–395.Google Scholar
  132. Kalsner, S., 19696, Steroid potentiation of responses to sympathomimetic amines in aortic strips, Brit. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 36: 582–593.Google Scholar
  133. Kalsner, S., and Nickerson, M., 1969, Disposition of norepinephrine and epinephrine in vascular tissue, determined by the technique of oil immersion, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 165: 152–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kannengiesser, M. H., Hunt, P., and Raynaud, J. P., 1973, An in vitro model for the study of psychotropic drugs and as a criterion of antidepressant activity, Biochem. Pharmacol. 22: 73–84.Google Scholar
  135. Kaumann, A. J., 1972, Potentiation of the effects of isoprenaline and noradrenaline by hydrocortisone in cat heart muscle, Naunyn–Schmiedebergs Arch. 273: 134–153.Google Scholar
  136. Kirpekar, S. M., and Cervoni, P., 1963, Effect of cocaine, phenoxybenzamine and phen- tolamine on the catecholamine output from spleen and adrenal medulla, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 142: 59–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kirpekar, S. M., and Puig, M., 1971, Effect of flow-stop on noradrenaline release from normal spleens and spleens treated with cocaine, phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 43: 359–369.Google Scholar
  138. Kirpekar, S. M., and Wakade, A. R., 1970, Effect of /?-haloalkylamines and ephedrine on noradrenaline release from the intact spleen of the cat, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 39: 533–541.Google Scholar
  139. Kirshner, N., 1962, Uptake of catecholamine by a particulate fraction of the adrenal medulla, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 2311–2317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kirshner, N., Holloway, C., Smith, W. J., and Kirshner, A. G., 1966, Uptake and storage of catecholamines, in: Mechanisms of Release of Biogenic Amines ( U.S. von Euler, S. Rosell, and B. Unvas, eds.), pp. 109–123, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  141. Kopin, I. J., 1968, False adrenergic transmitters, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 8: 377–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Kopin, I. J., Hertting, G., and Gordon, E. K., 1962, Fate of norepinephrine-H3 in the isolated perfused rat heart, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 138: 34–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kopin, I. J., Gordon, E. K., and Horst, W. D., 1965, Studies of uptake of l-norepinephrine- C14, Biochem. Pharmacol. 14: 753–760.Google Scholar
  144. Kramer, S. G., Potts, A. M., and Mangnall, Y., 1971, Dopamine: a retinal neurotransmitter. II. Autoradiographic localization of 3H-dopamine in the retina, Invest. Ophthalmol, 10: 617–624.Google Scholar
  145. Kuhar, M. J., 1973, Neurotransmitter uptake: A tool in identifying neurotransmitter-specific pathways, Life Sci. 13: 1623–1634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kuhar, M. J., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1973, Selective accumulation of 3H-serotonin by nerve terminals of raphe neurones: An autoradiographic study, Nature New Biol. 241: 187–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Kuhar, M. J., Roth, R. H., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1972, Synaptosomes from forebrains of rats with midbrain raphe lesions: Selective reduction of serotonin uptake,/. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 181: 36–45.Google Scholar
  148. Kuhar, M. J., Sethy, V. H., Roth, R. H., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1973, Choline: Selective accumulation by central cholinergic neurones, J. Neurochem. 20: 581–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Langer, S. Z., 1970, The metabolism of 3H-noradrenaline released by electrical stimulation from the isolated nictitating membrane of the cat and from the vas deferens of the rat. J. Physiol. 208: 516–546.Google Scholar
  150. Langer, S. Z., and Trendelenburg, U., 1969, The effect of a saturable uptake mechanism on the slopes of dose-response curves for sympathomimetic amines and on the shifts of dose-response curves produced by a competitive antagonist, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 167: 117–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Langer, S. Z., Draskoczy, P. R., and Trendelenburg, U., 1967, Time course of the development of supersensitivity to various amines in the nictitating membrane of the pithed cat after denervation or decentralization, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 157:255– 273.Google Scholar
  152. Liang, C. C., and Quastel, J. H., 1969a, Uptake of acetylcholine in rat brain cortex slices, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18: 1169–1185.Google Scholar
  153. Liang, C. C., and Quastel, J. H., 19696, Effects of drugs on the uptake of acetylcholine in rat brain cortex slices, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18: 1187–1194.Google Scholar
  154. Lichtensteiger, W., Mutzner, U., and Langemann, H., 1967, Uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan by neurons of the central nervous system normally containing catecholamines, J. Neurochem. 14: 489–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lightman, S., and Iversen, L. L., 1969, Role of Uptake2 in the extraneuronal uptake and metabolism of catecholamines in the isolated rat heart Brit. J. Pharmacol. 37: 638–649.Google Scholar
  156. Lindmar, R., and Muscholl, E., 1964, Die Wirkung von Plarmaka auf die Elimination von Noradrenalin aus der Perfusionsflussigkeit und die Noradrenalin-Aufnahme in das isolierte Herz, Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 247: 469–492.Google Scholar
  157. Lingjaerde, O., 1971, Uptake of serotonin in blood platelets in vitro, I. The effects of chloride, Acta Physiol. Scand. 81: 75–83.Google Scholar
  158. Locke, S., Cohen, G., and Dembiec, D., 1973, Uptake and accumulation of 3H-6,7- dihydroxytetrahydroisoquinoline by peripheral sympathetic nerve in vivo, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 187: 56–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Lundborg, P., 1966, Uptake of metaraminol by the adrenal medullary granules, Acta Physiol. Scand. 67: 423–429.Google Scholar
  160. Lundborg, P., 1968, Studies on the uptake and subcellular distribution of catecholamines and their a-methylated analogues, Acta Physiol. Scand. 72: Suppl. 302.Google Scholar
  161. Macmillan, W. H., 1959, A hypothesis concerning the effect of cocaine on the action of sympathomimetic amines, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 14: 385–391.Google Scholar
  162. Maickel, R. P., Beaven, M. A., and Brodie, B. B., 1963, Implications of uptake and storage of norepinephrine by sympathetic nerve endings, Life Sci. 2: 953–958.Google Scholar
  163. Malmfors, T., 1965, Studies on adrenergic nerves, Acta Physiol. Scand. 64: Suppl. 248.Google Scholar
  164. Malmfors, T., 1968, Histochemical studies of adrenergic neurotransmission, in: Adrenergic Neurotransmission (G. E. W. Wolstenholme and M. O’Connor, Eds.), pp. 26-36, CIBA Foundation Study Group No. 33, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  165. Malmfors, T., and Sachs, C., 1968, Degeneration of adrenergic nerves produced by 6-hydroxydopamine, Europ. J. Pharmacol. 3: 89–92.Google Scholar
  166. Marchbanks, R. M., 1968, The uptake of l4C-choline into synaptosomes in vitro, Biochem. J. 110: 533–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Marks, B. H., Samorajski, T., and Webster, E. J., 1962, Radioautographic localization of norepinephrine-H3 in the tissues of mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 138: 376–381.Google Scholar
  168. Maxwell, R. A., Wastila, W. B., and Eckhardt, S. B., 1966, Some factors determining the response of rabbit aortic strips to d-norepinephrine-7-H3 hydrochloride and the influence of cocaine, guanethidine and methylphenidate on these factors, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 151: 253–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Maxwell, R. A., Keenan, P. D., Chaplin, E., Roth, B., and Eckhardt, S. B., 1969, Molecular features affecting the potency of tricyclic antidepressants and structurally related compounds as inhibitors of the uptake of tritiated norepinephrine by rabbit aortic strips, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 166: 320–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Maynert, E. W., and Isaac, L., 1968, Uptake and binding of serotonin by the platelet and its granules, Advan. Pharmacol. 6A: 113–122.Google Scholar
  171. Muscholl, E., 1960, Die Hemmung der Noradrenalin-Aufnahme des Herzen durch Reserpin und die Wirkung von Tyramin, Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 240: 243–241.Google Scholar
  172. Muscholl, E., 1961, Effect of cocaine and related drugs on the uptake of noradrenaline by heart and spleen, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 16: 352–359.Google Scholar
  173. Muscholl, E., 1966, Autonomic nervous system: Newer mechanisms of adrenergic blockade, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 6: 107–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Muscholl, E., and Weber, E., 1965, Die Hemmung der Aufnahme von a-Methylnoradrenalin in das Herz durch sympathomimetische Amine, Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 252: 134–143.Google Scholar
  175. Mussachio, J. M., Kopin, I. J., and Weise, V. K., 1965, Subcellular distribution of some sympathomimetic amines and their /?-hydroxylated derivatives in the rat heart, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 148: 22–28.Google Scholar
  176. Nicol, C. J. M., and Rae, R. M., 1972, Inhibition of accumulation of adrenaline and noradrenaline in arterial smooth muscle by steroids, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 44: 361–362 P.Google Scholar
  177. O’Donnell, S. R., and Saar, N., 1973, A histochemical study of extraneuronal accumulation of noradrenaline in the guinea pig trachea, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 49: 267–278.Google Scholar
  178. Owman, C., 1964, Sympathetic nerves probably storing two types of monoamines in the rat pineal gland, Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 2: 105–112.Google Scholar
  179. Patil, P. N., Lapidus, J. B., and Tye, A., 1967, Steric aspects of adrenergic drugs. I. Comparative effects of dl-isomers and desoxy derivatives, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 155: 1–12.Google Scholar
  180. Paton, D. M., 1968, Cation and metabolic requirements for retention of metaraminol by rat uterin horn, Brit. J. Pharmacol 33: 277–286.Google Scholar
  181. Philippu, A., Palm, D., and Schumann, H. J., 1965, Effect of segontin and reserpine on isolated medullary granules, Nature 205: 183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Pletscher, A., 1968, Metabolism transfer and storage of 5-hydroxytryptamine in blood platelets, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 32: 1–16.Google Scholar
  183. Pluchino, S., and Trendelenburg, U., 1968, The influence of denervation and of decentralization on the alpha and beta effects of isoproterenol on the nictitating membrane of the pithed cat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 163: 257–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Polak, R. L., 1969, The influence of drugs on the uptake of acetylcholine by slices of rat cerebral cortex, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 36: 144–152.Google Scholar
  185. Polak, R. L., and Meeuws, M. M., 1966, The influence of atropine on the release and uptake of acetylcholine by the isolated cerebral cortex of the rat, Biochem. Pharmacol. 15:989– 992.Google Scholar
  186. Potter, L. T., 1966, Storage of norepinephrine in sympathetic nerves, Pharmacol. Rev. 18: 439–451.Google Scholar
  187. Potter, L. T., 1967, Role of intraneuronal vesicles in the synthesis, storage and release of noradrenaline, Circ. Res., 21: 13–24 (Suppl. 3).Google Scholar
  188. Potter, L. T., 1968, in: The Interaction of Drugs and Subcellular Components (G. Campbell, ed.), p. 293, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  189. Potter, L. T., Cooper, T., Willman, V. L., and Wolfe, D. E., 1965, Synthesis binding and metabolism of norepinephrine in normal and transplanted dog hearts, Circ. Res. 16: 468–481.Google Scholar
  190. Raab, W., and Gigee, W., 1955, Specific avidity of heart muscle to absorb and store epinephrine and norepinephrine, Circ. Res. 3: 553–558.Google Scholar
  191. Reivich, M., and Glowinski, J., 1967, An autoradiographic study of the distribution of 14C-norepinephrine in the brain of the rat, Brain 90: 633–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Ritzen, M., 1967, Mast cells and 5-hydroxytryptamine, Acta Physiol. Scand. 70: 42–53.Google Scholar
  193. Roffler-Tarlov, S., and Langer, S. Z., 1971, The fate of 3H-norepinephrine released from isolated atria and vas deferens: Effect of field stimulation, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 179: 186–197.Google Scholar
  194. Rosell, S., Kopin, I. J., and Axelrod, J., 1963, Fate of 3H-norepinephrine in skeletal muscle before and following sympathetic stimulation, Am. J. Physiol. 205: 317–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Ross, S. B., and Renyi, A. L., 1965, Blocking action of sympathomimetic amines on the uptake of tritiated noradrenaline by mouse cerebral cortex tissues in vitro, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 21: 226–239.Google Scholar
  196. Ross, S. B., and Renyi, A. L., 1967a, Inhibition of the uptake of tritiated catecholamines by antidepressant and related agents, Europ. J. Pharmacol. 2: 181–186.Google Scholar
  197. Ross, S. B., and Renyi, A. L., 19676, Accumulation of tritiated 5-hydroxytryptamine in brain slices, Life Sci. 6: 1407–1415.Google Scholar
  198. Ross, S. B., Renyi, A. L. and Brunfelter, B., 1968, Cocaine-sensitive uptake of sympathomimetic amines in nerve tissue, J. Pharm. Pharmac., 20: 283–288.Google Scholar
  199. Ross, S. B., Renyi, A. L., and Ogren, S. O., 1972, Inhibition of the uptake of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine by chlorphentermine and chlorimipramine, Europ. J. Pharmacol. 17: 107–112.Google Scholar
  200. Sachs, C., 1970, Noradrenaline uptake mechanisms in the mouse atrium, Acta Physiol. Scand., Suppl. 341.Google Scholar
  201. Salt, P. J., 1972, Inhibition of noradrenaline Uptake2 in the isolated rat heart by steroids, clonidine and methoxylated phenylethylamines, Europ. J. Pharmacol. 20: 329 340.Google Scholar
  202. Schuberth, J., and Sundwall, A., 1967, Effects of some drugs on the uptake of acetylcholine in cortex slices of mouse brain, J. Neurochem. 14: 807–812.Google Scholar
  203. Schuberth, J., and Sundwall, A., 1968, Differences in the subcellular localization of choline, acetylcholine and atropine taken up by mouse brain slices in vitro, Acta Physiol. Scand. 72: 65–71.Google Scholar
  204. Schuberth, J., Sundwall, A., Sorbo, B., and Lindell, J. A., 1966, Uptake of choline by mouse brain slices, J. Neurochem. 13: 347–352.Google Scholar
  205. Schumann, H. J., and Philippu, A., 1962, Release of catechol amines from isolated medullary granules by sympathomimetic amines, Nature 193: 890–891.Google Scholar
  206. Shaskan, E. G., and Snyder, S. H., 1970, Kinetics of serotonin accumulation into slices from rat brain: Relationship to catecholamine uptake,/. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 175: 404–418.Google Scholar
  207. Sigg, E. B., Soffer, L., and Gyermek, L., 1963, Influence of imipramine and related psychoactive agents on the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine and catecholamines on the cat nictitating membrane, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 142: 13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Sjoqvist, F., Taylor, P. W., Jr., and Titus, E., 1967, The effects of immunosympathectomy on the retention and metabolism of noradrenaline, Acta Physiol. Scand. 69: 13–22.Google Scholar
  209. Smith, C. B., Trendelenburg, U., Langer, S. Z., and Tsai, T. H., 1966, Regulation of retention of norepinephrine-H3 to the norepinephrine content of the nictitating membrane of the spinal cat during development of denervation supersensitivity, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 151: 87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Sneddon, J. M., 1969, Sodium-dependent accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine by rat blood platelets, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 37: 680–688.Google Scholar
  211. Sneddon, J. M., 1973, Blood platelets as a model for monoamine-containing neurones, in: Progress in Neurobiology, Vol. 1 (G. A. Kerbutand J. W. Philliseds.), pp. 153–198, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  212. Snyder, S. H., and Coyle, J. T., 1969, Regional differences in β-norepinephrine and 3H-dopamine uptake into rat brain homogenates, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 165: 78–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Snyder, S. H., Green, A. I., and Hendley, E. D., 1968, Kinetics of 3H-norepinephrine accumulation into slices from different regions of the rat brain, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 164: 90–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Snyder, S. H., Kuhar, M. J., Green, A. I., Coyle, J. T., and Shaskan, E. G., 1970, Uptake and subcellular localization of neurotransmitters in brain, Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 13: 127–158.Google Scholar
  215. Snyder, S. H., Yamamura, H. I., Pert, C. B., Logan, W. J., and Bennett, J. P., 1973, Neuronal uptake of neurotransmitters and their precursors: Studies with “transmitter” amino acids and choline, in: New Concepts in Neurotransmitter Regulation ( A. J. Mandell, ed.), pp. 195–222, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  216. Stacey, R. S., 1961, Uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine by platelets, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 16: 284–295.Google Scholar
  217. Stafford, A., 1963, Potentiation of some catechol amines by phenoxybenzamine, guanethidine and cocaine, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 21: 361–367.Google Scholar
  218. Starke, K., 1972, Alpha sympathomimetic inhibition of adrenergic and cholinergic transmission in the rabbit heart, Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 274: 18–45.Google Scholar
  219. Stjarne, L., 1964, Studies of catecholamine uptake, storage and release mechanisms, Acta Physiol. Scand. 62: Suppl. 228.Google Scholar
  220. Stjarne, L., and von Euler, U. S., 1965, Stereospecificity of amine uptake mechanisms in nerve granules, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 150: 335–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Stromblad, B. C. R., and Nickerson, M., 1961, Accumulation of epinephrines and norepinephrine by some rat tissues, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 134: 154–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Taugner, G., 1971, The membrane of catecholamine storage vesicles of adrenal medulla: Catecholamine fluxes and ATPase activity, Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 270: 392–406.Google Scholar
  223. Taugner, G., 1972, The membrane of catecholamine storage vesicles of adrenal medulla: Uptake and release of noradrenaline in relation to the pH and the concentration and steric configuration of amine present in the medium, Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 274: 299–314.Google Scholar
  224. Thoenen, H., 1969, Bildung und funktionelle Bedeutung adrenerger Ersatztransmitter, Exp. Med. Pathol. Klin. No. 27.Google Scholar
  225. Thoenen, H., and Tranzer, J. P., 1968, Chemical sympathectomy by selective destruction of adrenergic nerve endings with 6-hydroxydopamine, Arch. Pharmak. Exp. Pathol. 261: 271–288.Google Scholar
  226. Thoenen, H., Hurlimann, A., and Haffely, W., 1964, The effect of sympathetic nerve stimulation on volume, vascular resistance and norepinephrine output in the isolated perfused spleen of the cat and its modification by cocaine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 143: 57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Thoenen, H., Hurlimann, A., and Haefely, W., 1966, Wirkungen von Phenoxybenzamin, Phentolamin und Azepetin auf adrenergische Synapsen der Katzenmilz: Blockierung der a-adrenergischen Rezeptoren und Hemmung der Wiederaufnahne von neural freigesetz- tem Noradrenaline, Helv. Physiol. Acto 22: 148–161.Google Scholar
  228. Thoenen, H., Hurlimann, A., and Haefely, W., 1964c, Mode of action of imipramine and 5-(3-methylaminopropyliden)-dibenzo-[a, β]-cyclohept[l,3,5]trien hydrochloride (Ro4- 6011), a new antidepressant drug, on peripheral adrenergic mechanisms, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 144: 405–414.Google Scholar
  229. Thoenen, H., Hurlimann, A., and Haefely, W., 1968, Mechanism of amphetamine accumulation in the isolated perfused heart of the rat, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 20: 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Thornburg, J. E., and Moore, K. E., 1973, Dopamine and norepinephrine uptake by rat brain synaptosomes: Relative potencies of I- and β-amphetamine and amantadine, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 5: 81–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Tissari, A. H., and Bogdanski, D. F., 1971, Biogenic amine transport, VI. Comparison of effects of ouabain and K+ deficiency on the transport of 5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine by synaptosomes, Pharmacology 5: 225–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Todrick, A., and Tait, A. C., 1969, The inhibition of human platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake by tricyclic antidepressive drugs: The relation between structure and potency, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 21: 751–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Tranzer, J. P., da Prada, M., and Pletscher, A., 1968, Electron microscopic studies of the storage sites of 5-hydroxytryptamine in blood platelets, Advan. Pharmacol. 6A: 125–128.Google Scholar
  234. Trendelenburg, U., 1963, Supersensitivity and subsensitivity to sympathomimetic amines, Pharmacol. Rev. 15: 225–275.Google Scholar
  235. Trendelenburg, U., 1966, Mechanisms of supersensitivity and subsensitivity to sympathomimetic amines, Pharmacol. Rev. 18: 629–640.Google Scholar
  236. Trendelenburg, U., 1973, Factors influencing the concentration of catecholamines at the receptors, in: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. XXXIII, pp. 721–761, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  237. Trendelenburg, U., Muskus, A., Fleming, W. M., and Gomez, B., 1962, Effect of cocaine, denervation and decentralization on the response of the nictitating membrane to various sympathomimetic amines, J. Pharmacol. Exp.Ther. 138: 181–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Trendelenburg, U., Draskoczy, P. R., and Pluchino, S., 1969, The density of innervation of the cat’s nictitating membrane as a factor influencing the sensitivity of the isolated preparation to /-norepinephrine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 166: 14–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Trendelenburg, U., Hohn, D., Graefe, K. H.,and Pluchine, S., 1971, The influence of block of catechol-O-methyl transferase on the sensitivity of isolated organs to catecholamines, Arch. Pharmacol. 271: 59–92.Google Scholar
  240. Tye, A., Patil, P. N., and Lapidus, J. B., 1967, Steric aspects of adrenergic drugs, III. Sensitization by cocaine to isomers of sympathomimetic amines, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 155: 24–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Uretsky, N. J., and Iversen, L. L., 1970, Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on catecholamine containing neurones in the rat brain, J. Neurochem. 17: 269–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. von Euler, U. S., and Lishajko, F., 1963, Catecholamine release and uptake in isolated adrenergic nerve granules, Acta Physiol. Scand. 57: 468–480.Google Scholar
  243. Varma, D. R., and McCullough, H. N., 1969, Dissociation of the supersensitivity to norepinephrine caused by cocaine from inhibition of H3-norepinephrine uptake in cold stored smooth muscle, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 166: 24–36.Google Scholar
  244. Wakade, A. R., and Furchgott, R. F., 1968, Metabolic requirements for the uptake and storage of norepinephrine by the isolated left atrium of the guinea pig, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 163: 123–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Waud, D. R., 1969, A quantitative model for the effect of a saturable uptake on the slope of the dose-response curve,/. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 167: 140–142.Google Scholar
  246. Whitby, L. G., Axelrod, J., and Weil-Malherbe, H., 1961, The fate of Hs-norepinephrine in animals,/. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 132: 193–201.Google Scholar
  247. White, T. D., and Keen, P., 1970, The role of internal and external Na+ and K+ on the uptake of 3H-noradrenaline by synaptosomes prepared from rat brain, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 196: 285–295.Google Scholar
  248. White, T. D., and Keen, P., 1971, Effects of inhibitors of (Na+ +K+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase on the uptake of norepinephrine by synaptosomes, Mol. Pharmacol. 7: 40–45.Google Scholar
  249. White, T. D., and Paton, D. M., 1972, Effects of external Na+ and K+ on the initial rates of noradrenaline uptake by synaptosomes prepared from rat brain, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 266: 116–127.Google Scholar
  250. Whittaker, V. P., Dowdall, M. J., and Boyne, A. F., 1972, The storage and release of acetylcholine by cholinergic nerve terminals: Recent results with non-mammalian preparations, Biochem. Soc. Symp. 36: 49–68.Google Scholar
  251. Wolfe, D. E., and Potter, L. T., 1963, Localization of norepinephrine in the atrial myocardium, Anat. Rec. 145: 301.Google Scholar
  252. Wolfe, D. E., Potter, L. T., Richardson, K. C., and Axelrod, J., 1962, Localizing tritiated norepinephrine in sympathetic axons by electron micrograph autoradiography, Science 138: 440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Wong, D. T., Horng, J. S., and Fuller, R. W., 1973, Kinetics of serotonin accumulation into synaptosomes of rat brain—effects of amphetamine and chloroamphetamines, Biochem. Pharmacol. 22: 311–322.Google Scholar
  254. Yamamura, H. I., and Snyder, S. H., 1973, High affinity transport of choline into synaptosomes of rat brain, J. Neurochem. 21: 1355–1374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Zaimis, E., Berk, L., and Callingham, B., 1965, Morphological, biochemical and functional changes in the sympathetic nervous system of rats treated with NGF-antiserum, Nature 206: 1221–1222.Google Scholar
  256. Zigmond, M. J., Chalmers, J. P., Simpson, J. R., and Wurtman, R. J., 1971, Effect of lateral hypothalamic lesions on uptake of norepinephrine by brain homogenates, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 179: 20–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie L. Iversen
    • 1
  1. 1.M.R.C. Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit, Department of PharmacologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations