Observation of Electronic Spectra in Glass and Ceramic Surfaces
ESCA, an acronym for Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, is best described as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electronic spectra, obtained from ESCA, provide information as to the kinds of atoms present, their valence state and coordination number as well as being a direct measure of the shape of the valence bond. Sampled depth varies from 4 Å, for heavy elements such as gold, to 100 Å for complex molecules such as lead stearate. The emission of electrons is strongly dependent on the difference between the energy of exciting radiation and the binding energy of the emitted electron. This technique has been reviewed by others1,2.
KeywordsCobalt Boron Catalysis Selenium Molybdenum
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