Advertisement

Catecholamines in Regulation of Motor Function

  • K. G. Lloyd
  • O. Hornykiewicz

Abstract

The function of the catecholamines, dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA), in the control of movement encompasses a large field of physiology and pathology. However, in the examination of CNS function direct investigation of the “normal” state is difficult, if not impossible, and the information available is often the result of the examination of pathological or druginduced conditions. In the study of movement disorders, two syndromes are prominent: Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. It is from the study of these two syndromes (with emphasis on the former) that the present concepts of catecholamines and motor behavior have evolved. From these studies animal models for the central control of movement have been developed.

Keywords

Locomotor Activity Motor Function Substantia Nigra Caudate Nucleus Stereotyped Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ajuriaguerra, J. de, Constantinidis, J., Eisenring, J. J., Yanniotis, G., and Tissot, R., 1972, Behavior disorders and L-dopa therapy in parkinson’s Syndrome, in: Parkinson’s Disease, Vol. 1 ( J. Siegfried, ed.), pp. 201–217, Hans Huber, Bern.Google Scholar
  2. Andén, N.-E., 1967, Physiology and pharmacology of the nigro-neostriatal dopamine neurons, in: Progress in Neurogenetics ( A. Barbeau and J. R. Brunette, eds.), pp. 265–271, Excerpta Med., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  3. Andén, N.-E., 1970, Effects of amphetamine and some other drugs on central catecholamine mechanism, in: Amphetamines and Related Compounds ( Andén, N.-E., eds.), pp. 447–462, Raven Press.Google Scholar
  4. Andén, N.-E., and Stock, G., 1973, Effect of clozapine on the turnover of dopamine in the corpus striatum and in the limbic system, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 25: 346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andén, N.-E., Roos, B.-E., and Werdinius, B., 1964, Effects of chlorpromazine, haloperidol and reserpine on the levels of phenolic acids in rabbit corpus striatum, Life Sci. 3: 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andén, N.-E., Rubenson, A., Fuxe, K., and Hökfelt, T., 1967, Evidence for dopamine receptor stimulation by Apomorphine, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 19: 627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andén, N.-E., Larsson, K., and Steg, G., 1971, The influence of the nigro-neostriatal dopamine pathway on spinal motoneuron activity, Acta Physiol. Scand. 82: 268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andén, N.-E., Bédard, P., Fuxe, K., and Ungerstedt, U., 1972, Early and selective increase in brain dopamine levels after axotomy, Experientia 28: 300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arvidsson, J., Roos, B.-E., and Steg, G., 1966, Reciprocal effects on a-and y-motoneurons of drugs influencing monoaminergic and cholinergic transmission, Acta Physiol. Scand. 67: 298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barbeau, A., 1969, L-Dopa therapy in parkinson’s disease: A critical review of nine years experience. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 101: 791.Google Scholar
  11. Barbeau, A., Chase, T. N., and Paulson, G. W., (eds.), 1973, Huntington’s chorea, in: Advances in Neurology, Vol. 1, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Barnes, C. D., and Pompeiano, 1971, The interaction of brain stem adrenergic systems with VIII“’ nerve stimulation of the spinal cord, Neuropharmacology 19: 437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barolin, G. S., Bernheimer, H., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1964, Seitenverschiedenes Verhalten des Dopamin (3-Hydroxytyramin) in Gehirn eines Falles von Hemiparkinson. Schweiz. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 94: 241.Google Scholar
  14. Bartholini, G., and Pletscher, A., 1969, Enhancement of tyrosine hydroxylation within the brain by cholorpromazine, Experientia 25: 919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bartholini, G., and Pletscher, A., 1972, Drugs affecting monoamines in the basal ganglia in: Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 6, (E. Costa, L. L. Iverson, and R. Paoletti, eds.), pp. 135–148, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Bartholini, G., Haefely, W., Jalfre, M., Keller, H. H., and Pletscher, A., 1972, Effects of clozapine on cerebral catecholaminergic neuronal systems, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 46: 736.Google Scholar
  17. Bédard, P., Larochelle, L., Poirier, L. J., and Sourkes, T. L., 1970, Reversible effect of L-dopa on tremor and catatonia induced by a-Methyl-p-tyrosine, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 48: 82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bernheimer, H., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1973, Brain amines in Huntington’s chorea, in: Advances in Neurology, Vol. 1 ( A. Barbeau, T. N. Chase, and G. W. Paulson, eds.), pp. 525–531, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Bernheimer, H., Birkamyer, W., Hornykiewicz, O., Jellinger, K., and Seitelberger, F., 1973Google Scholar
  20. Brain dopamine and the syndromes of Parkinson and Huntington, J. Neurol. Sci. 20:415.Google Scholar
  21. Birkmayer, W., 1969, The Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine effect in extrapyramidal disorders. Wien. Klin. Wochschr. 81: 10.Google Scholar
  22. Blasckho, H., and Chrusciel. T. L.. 1969, The decarboxylation of amino acids related to tyrosine and their awakening action in reserpine-treated mice, J. Physiol. 151: 272.Google Scholar
  23. Bunney, B. S., Walters, J. R., Roth, R. H. and Aghajanian, G. K., 1973, Dopaminergic neurons: Effects of antipsychotic drugs and amphetamines on single cell activity, J. Pharm.. Pharmacol. 185: 560.Google Scholar
  24. Butcher, L. L., and Engel, J., 1969, Peripheral factors in the mediation of the effects of L-dopa on locomotor activity, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 26: 614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Caine, D. B., 1970, Parkinsonism, Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  26. Caine, D. B., and Reid, J. L., 1972, Antiparkinsonian drugs: Pharmacological and therapeutic aspects, Drugs 4: 49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlsson, A., 1970, Amphetamine and brain catecholamines, in: Amphetamines and Related Compounds ( E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 289–300, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Carlsson, A., Lindquist, M., and Magnusson, T., 1957, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists, Nature 180: 1200.Google Scholar
  29. Cools, A. R., 1973, The Caudate Nucleus and Neurochemical Control of Behavior, Brakkenstein, Nijmegen.Google Scholar
  30. Crane, G. E., 1972, Pseudoparkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia, Arch. Neurol. 27: 426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dahlström, A., and Fuze, K., 1965, Evidence for the existence of monoamine neurons in the central nervous system. II. Experimentally induced changes in the intraneuronal amine levels of bulbospinal neurone systems, Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 247: 1.Google Scholar
  32. DaPrada, M., and Pletscher, A., 1966, On the mechanism of chlorpromazine-induced changes of cerebral homovanillic acid, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 18: 628.Google Scholar
  33. Davidson, L., Lloyd, K. G., Dankova, J., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1971, L-dopa treatment in Parkinson’s disease: Effect on dopamine and related substances in discrete brain regions, Experientia 27: 1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Degwitz, R., 1969, Extrapyramidal motor disorders following long-term treatment with neuroleptic drugs, in: Psychotropic Drugs and Dysfunctions of the Basal Ganglia (G. E. Crane and R. Gardner, eds.), Public Health Service Publ. 1938, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  35. Duvoisin, R., 1972, Clinical diagnosis of the dyskinesias, Med. Clin. N. Am. 56: 1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Duvoisin, R., Barrett, R., Schear, M., Hoehn, M. and Yahr, M., 1969, The use of L-dopa in Parkinsonism, in: Third Symposium on Parkinson’s Disease ( F. J. Gillingham and I. M. L. Donaldson, eds.), pp. 185–192, Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  37. Fibiger, H. C., 1973, Behavioral pharmacology of d-amphetamine: Some metabolic and pharmacological considerations, in: Frontiers in Catecholamine Research ( F. Usdin and S. H. Snyder, eds.), pp. 933–937, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Fog, R., 1972, On Stereotype and Catalepsy: Studies on the Effect of Amphetamines and Neuroleptics in Rats, Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  39. Fog, R., Randrup, A., and Pakkenberg, H., 1970, Lesions in corpus striatum and cortex of rat brains and the effect of pharmacologically induced stereotyped, aggressive and cataleptic behavior, Psychopharmacologia 18: 246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Forssberg, H., and Grillner, S., 1973, The locomotion of the acute spinal cat injected with cionidine iv, Brain Res. 50: 184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gerstenbrand, F., Pateisky, K., and Prosenz, P., 1963, Erfahrungen mit L-dopa in der Therapie des Parkinsonismus, Psychiat. Neurol. 146: 246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goldstein, M., Anagnoste, B., Owen, W. S., and Battista, A. S., 1966, The effects of ventromedial tegmental lesions on the biosynthesis of catecholamines in the striatum, Life Sci. 5: 2171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goldstein, M., Battista, A. F., Ohmoto, T., Anagnoste, B., and Fuxe, K., 1973, Tremor and involuntary movements in monkeys: Effects of L-dopa and of a dopamine receptor stimulating agent, Science 179: 816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Granit, R., 1970, The Basis of Motor Control, Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  45. Greenblatt, D. J., Shader, R. I., and DiMascio, A., 1970, Extrapyramidal effects, in: Psychotropic Drug Side Effects ( R. I. Shader and A. DiMascio, eds.), pp. 92–106, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  46. Hökfelt, T., and Ungerstedt, U., 1973, Specificity of 6-hydroxydopamine induced degeneration of central monoamine neurones: An electron and fluorescent microscopic study with special reference to intracerebral injection and the striatal dopamine system, Brain Res. 60: 269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hornykiewicz, O., 1966a, Dopamine and brain function, Pharmacol. Rev. 18: 925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hornykiewicz, O., I966b, Metabolism of brain dopamine in human Parkinsonism: Neurochemical and clinical aspects, in: Biochemistry and Pharmacology of the Basal Ganglia, (E. Costa, L. J. Côté, and M. D. Yahr, eds.) pp. 171–181, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Hornykiewicz, O., 1974, The mechanisms of action of L-dopa in Parkinson’s disease, Life Sci. 15: 1249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Iversen, S. D., 1971, The effect of surgical lesions to frontal cortex and substantia nigra on amphetamine responses in rats, Brain Res. 31: 295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Keller, H. H., Bartholini, G., and Pletscher, A., 1973, Increase of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylethyleneglycol in rat brain by neuroleptic drugs, European J. Pharmacol. 23: 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Klawans, H. L., 1968, The pharmacology of Parkinsonism, Diseases Nervous System 29: 805.Google Scholar
  53. Klawans, H. L., 1973, The pharmacology of tardive dyskinesias, Am. J. Psychiat. 130: 82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Korczyn, A. D., 1973, pathophysiology of drug-induced dyskinesias, Neuropharmacology 11: 601.Google Scholar
  55. Lloyd, K. G., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1972, Dopamine uptake into striatal synaptosomes of normal and Parkinsonian patients, Fifth Intern. Cong. Pharmacol. (abstr.).Google Scholar
  56. Lloyd, K. G., Davidson, L., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1973, Metabolism of levodopa in the human brain, in: Advances in Neurology, Vol. 3 ( D. B. Caine, eds.), pp. 173–188, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Lloyd, K. G., Davidson, L., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1974, The biochemistry of parkinsonism: Effects of levodopa treatment, (in preparation).Google Scholar
  58. Markham, C. H., 1971, The choreoathetoid movement disorders induced by L-dopa, in: Monoamines Noyaux Gris Centraux et Syndrome de Parkinson ( J. de Ajuriaguerra and G. Gauthier, eds.), pp. 485–490, Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  59. Marsden, C. A., and Guldberg, H. C., 1973, The role of monoamines in rotation induced by amphetamine after nigral, raphe and mesencephalic reticular lesions in the rat brain, Neuropharmacology 12: 195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mones, R. J., Elizan, T. S. and Siegel, G. J., 1971, Analysis of L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in 51 patients with parkinsonism, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. 34: 668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Naylor, R. J., and Olley, J. E., 1972, Modification of the behavioral changes induced by amphetamine in the rat by lesions in the caudate nucleus, the caudate-putamen and globus pallidus, Neuropharmacology 11: 91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nyback, H., and Sedvall, G., 1970, Further studies on the accumulation and disappearance of catecholamines formed from tyrosine-“C in mouse brain. Effect of some phenothiazine analogues, European J. Pharmacol. 10: 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Postma, J. U., 1972, Haloperidol in dopa-induced chorea-athetosis, Psychiat. Neurol. Neurochir. 75: 69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Randrup, A., and Munkvad, I., 1970, Biochemical, anatomical and psychological investigations of stereotyped behavior induced by amphetamine, in: Amphetamines and Related Compounds ( E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 695–713, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Ringel, S. P., Guthrie, M., and Klawans, H. L., Jr., 1973, Current treatment of Huntington’s chorea, in: Advances in Neurology, Vol. 1 ( A. Barbeau, T. N. Chase, and G. W. Paulson, eds.), pp. 797–801, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  66. Rubovits, R., Patel, B. C., and Klawans, H. L., 1973, Effect of prolonged chlorpromazine pretreatment on the threshold for amphetamine stereotype: A model for tardive dyskinesias, in: Advances in Neurology, Vol. 1 ( A. Barbeau, T. N. Chase, and G. W. Paulson, eds.), pp. 671–679, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Sassin, J. F., Taub, S., and Weitzman, E. D., 1972, Hyperkinesia and changes in behavior produced in normal monkeys by L-dopa, Neurology 22: 1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Sourkes, T. L., and Poirier, L. J., 1966, Neurochemical basis of tremor and other disorders of movement, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 94: 53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Steg, G., 1972, Pathophysiological aspects in Parkinson’s syndrome, Acta Neurol. Scand. 48: Suppl. 51, pp. 139–150.Google Scholar
  70. Ungerstedt, U., 1971, Use of intracerebral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine as a tool for morphological and functional studies on central catecholamine neurons, in: 6-Hydroxydopamine and Catecholamine Neurons ( T. Malmfors and H. Thoenen, eds.), pp. 315–332, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  71. Ungerstedt, U., Avemo, A., Ljungberg, T. and Ranje, C., 1973, Animal models of Parkinson-ism, in: Advances in Neurology, Vol. 3 ( D. B. Caine, ed.), pp. 257–271, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. G. Lloyd
    • 1
  • O. Hornykiewicz
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychopharmacologyClarke Institute of PsychiatryTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations