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Neurotoxicity of Different Penicillins and the Effect of Diazepam and Phenytoin on Penicillin-Induced Convulsions

  • T. R. Weihrauch
  • H. Köhler
  • D. Höffler
  • H. Rieger
  • J. Krieglstein
Part of the Chemotherapy book series (CT, volume 4)

Abstract

Since 1946 more than 80 cases of peniciIlin-encephalopathy have been published (2). In animal models neurotoxic reactions and generalized convulsions have been induced by infusion of different penicillins in high doses (1). In previous studies (1,2,3) we could demonstrate in rabbits, that benzylpeni-cillin and several semisynthetic penicillins have quite different effects on the EEG, when given in equimolar doses. Blood levels were determined regularly and a curve was obtained as fig. l shows. The intervals of first appearance of EEG-changes are also indicated.Fig. 2 demonstrates the typical EEG-patterns developing during the penicillin infusion in the conscious rabbit. The changes consisted of monophasic (A), biphasic (B),and triphasic spikes (C). Furthermore spike-wave-complexes (D) and polyspikes (E) could be observed, the latter being accompanied by myoclonic jerks. In fig.3 the typical sequence of EEG-changes during an experiment is shown.

Keywords

Partition Coefficient Hydrophobic Character Myoclonic Jerk Equimolar Dose Ictal Discharge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    WEIHRAUCH, T.R., SCHMIDT, W., HÖFFLER, D., KRIEGLSTEIN, J.: The neurotoxic effect of benzylpenicillin and ampicillin studied in the rabbit. Arzneimittel -Forsch.(Drug res.) 23, 317 (1974a)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    WEIHRAUCH, T.R., PRIOR, H.J., HÖFFLER, D., KRIEGLSTEIN, J.: Über die Neurotoxizität von Carbenicillin. Klin.Wschr. 52,842 (1974b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    WEIHRAUCH, T.R., KÖHLER, H., HÖFFLER, D., KRIEGLSTEIN, J.: Cerebral toxicity of penicillins in relation to their hydrophobic character. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol.(in press)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    ANGELERI, F., GIAQUINTO, S., MARCHESI, G.F.: Temporal distribution of interictal and ictal discharges from penicillin foci in cats. In:Synchronization of EEG activity in epilepsies (Petsche, H. and Brazier, M.A.B., Ed.), Springer Wien/New York 1972, p.221–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. R. Weihrauch
    • 1
  • H. Köhler
    • 1
  • D. Höffler
    • 1
  • H. Rieger
    • 1
  • J. Krieglstein
    • 1
  1. 1.1. Medizinische Klinik, Neuro-Psychiatrische Klinik and Pharmakolog Instit.University MainzWest-Germany

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