Combined Buoyancy and Flow Direction Effects on Saturated Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Liquid Nitrogen
It is well known that the maximum heat flux possible for a nucleate-boiling internal flow system may be markedly influenced by the various system parameters. A good analysis and literature review of this critical heat flux problem is presented by Tong , with emphasis on the importance of each individual parameter. In his discussion, he includes flow direction with respect to the gravity force as a possible significant parameter but then reports this to be insignificant by referring to Barnett . The latter conducted tests at pressures of 37.9 and 136.0 atm with a water flow system and reported no effect of flow direction on the boiling crisis. However, Macbeth  and Papell et al.  have reported the existence of gravity-directed effects.
KeywordsHeat Flux Test Section Inlet Velocity Critical Heat Flux Uniform Heat Flux
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