Combined Buoyancy and Flow Direction Effects on Saturated Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Liquid Nitrogen

  • S. S. Papell
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 18)


It is well known that the maximum heat flux possible for a nucleate-boiling internal flow system may be markedly influenced by the various system parameters. A good analysis and literature review of this critical heat flux problem is presented by Tong [1], with emphasis on the importance of each individual parameter. In his discussion, he includes flow direction with respect to the gravity force as a possible significant parameter but then reports this to be insignificant by referring to Barnett [2]. The latter conducted tests at pressures of 37.9 and 136.0 atm with a water flow system and reported no effect of flow direction on the boiling crisis. However, Macbeth [3] and Papell et al. [4] have reported the existence of gravity-directed effects.


Heat Flux Test Section Inlet Velocity Critical Heat Flux Uniform Heat Flux 
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  1. 1.
    L. S. Tong, Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow, Wiley, New York (1965).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. G. Barnett, “An Investigation into the Validity of Certain Hypotheses Implied by Various Burnout Correlations,” Rept. AEEW-R-214, U. K. Atomic Energy Authority, June 1963.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. V. Macbeth, “Burn-Out Analysis. Part 5. Examination of Published World Data for Rod Bundles,” Rept. AEEW-R-358, U. K. Atomic Energy Authority, June 1964.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. S. Papell, R. J. Simoneau, and D. D. Brown, “Buoyancy Effects on Critical Heat Flux of Forced Convective Boiling in Vertical Flow,” NASA TN D-3672, 1966.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Y. Pokhvalov, I. V. Kronin, and S. V. Yermakov, Heat Transfer-Soviet Res., 3 (1): 23 (1971).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Papell
    • 1
  1. 1.NASA Lewis Research CenterClevelandUSA

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