Concentric Pulse Tube Analysis and Design
The original pulse tube investigations by Gifford and Longsworth  showed that pulse tube refrigeration provides a practical method for achieving low temperatures through a heat transfer phenomenon described as surface heat pumping. Their work led to a physical interpretation of the phenomenon and established the Fourier number as the critical parameter.
KeywordsSlug Flow Bottom Temperature Pulse Tube Porous Plug OFHC Copper
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