Cryogenics below Liquid Hydrogen Temperature

  • G. Gamota
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 18)


The birth of cryogenics below liquid hydrogen temperature began inconspicuously enough 64 years ago in Leiden when Kamerlingh Onnes first liquefied liquid helium.† Much has occurred since then. What began as only a laboratory experiment and curiosity is now big business. Many people no longer consider low temperatures a curiosity but apply them to their everyday needs. This presentation will consider systems below liquid hydrogen temperature or, more properly, liquid helium temperature and below.


Liquid Helium Dilution Refrigerator Helium Isotope Power Transmission Line Josephson Effect 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Gamota
    • 1
  1. 1.Bell LaboratoriesMurray HillUSA

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