Pressure Drop Considerations in the Transfer of Fluids

  • K. D. Timmerhaus
  • R. P. Sugden
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 10)


Large-scale transfer of cryogenic fluids has become a necessity for the furtherance of our space age. Of special importance is a better understanding of the fluid flow characteristics of cryogens flowing in long transfer lines which are subjected to various modes of heat leak. Even when the resultant heat leak is kept to a minimum, it may initiate two-phase flow during transfer. The net effect of the two-phase flow is to increase the pressure drop of the cryogen per unit length of transfer line. The increased pressure drop in turn will necessitate either a larger pump if the fluid is to be pumped or a higher pressure for the pressurant gas used to transfer the fluid. If neither is available, the mass rate of flow in the line is reduced below the design rate. Depending upon the location of the transfer line, this reduction in flow may only cause a delay in the filling procedure or it may make the difference between success or failure in the launching of a space vehicle or missile. This paper analyzes the available pressure drop data for three refrigerants, Freon-11, Freon-12 and Freon-22, and liquid hydrogen, and suggests modified means of correlating this data to simplify estimations of pressure drop in new designs of transfer lines for cryogens.


Reynolds Number Pressure Drop Friction Factor Transfer Line Vapor Quality 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. D. Timmerhaus
    • 1
  • R. P. Sugden
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ColoradoBoulderUSA

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