Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Thermal and Helium Lift-Pumping Recirculation Systems
Geysering is a process by which rapid vapor formation within liquid-filled vertical columns causes rapid expulsion of all or portions of the contained liquid into an overhead container. Geysering associated with space vehicle cryogenic systems is attributed to heat flow into a cryogenic suction line which is attached to a propellant tank of greater diameter. Restricted convective boundary layers in the line allow the liquid to reach local saturation temperature. Formation of vapor in the suction line causes liquid displacement into the larger diameter tank, thereby reducing the effective hydrostatic head. Reduction of hydrostatic head causes additional vapor generation which rapidly displaces more liquid into the tank. Whenever liquid refills the suction line after a geyser, detrimental pressure surge or “water hammer” frequently occurs.
KeywordsConvection Enthalpy Helium Boiling Riser
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.P. Griffith, “Geysering in Liquid Filled Lines,” ASME, 62-HT-39 (1962).Google Scholar
- 2.S. K. Morgan and H. F. Brady, in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 7, Plenum Press, New York (1962), p. 206.Google Scholar
- 3.E. R. G. Eckert, The Transfer of Heat and Mass, 1st ed., International Textbook Company, Scranton, Pennsylvania (1960).Google Scholar
- 4.W. O. Randolph and J. L. Vaniman, “Subcooling of Cryogenic Liquids by Injection of Noncondensing Gas,” MTP-S and M-P-61–19.Google Scholar
- 5.J. D. Nicklin, “The Air-Lift Pump: Theory and Optimization,” Trans. Inst. Chem. Engrs. 41 (1963).Google Scholar
- 6.G. I. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. APP 200 (1950).Google Scholar
- 7.J. A. Clark, P. S. Larsen, W. O. Randolph, and J. L. Vaniman, in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 8, Plenum Press, New York (1963), p. 507.Google Scholar
- 9.A. F. Schmidt, “Experimental Investigation of Liquid-Hydrogen Cooling by Helium Gas Injection,” NASA Order Nos. H-11110 and H-12350 (August 16, 1962).Google Scholar