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Detection of Density Variations in Flowing Two-Phase Hydrogen

  • W. L. Willis
  • J. R. Smith
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 10)

Abstract

Liquid hydrogen is heated by a nuclear reactor and expelled as a hot gas to provide thrust in the Kiwi nuclear engine. The possibility of liquid hydrogen reaching the reactor core during start-up was of interest to design engineers. Since thermodynamic equilibrium is not probable during this period, pressure and temperature measurements are not adequate and direct measurement of density is necessary. Requirements included the following:
  1. 1.

    The sensor had to fit into spaces available in the reactor without excessive disturbance of flow patterns.

     
  2. 2.

    Frequency response of about 2000 cps was required to detect small droplets since a well-dispersed two-phase condition was anticipated.

     
  3. 3.

    Reactor design required the connection of the sensor to the associated electronics with from 8 to 10 ft of coaxial cable.

     
  4. 4.

    The system had to be capable of remote operation and provide a signal compatible with available recording facilities.

     

Keywords

Primary Element Reactor Core Coaxial Cable Annular Flow Liquid Hydrogen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    J. W. H. Chi and A. M. Vetere, “Two-Phase Flow during Transient Boiling of Hydrogen and Determination of Nonequilibrium Vapor Fractions,” WANL-SP-002 (June 5, 1963).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. H. Sharbaugh and M. W. Lippitt, Jr., ARS J. 294 (March 1961).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. R. Killiam and J. O. Simpson, in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 5, Plenum Press, New York (1959), p. 505.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. L. Willis
    • 1
  • J. R. Smith
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Los Alamos Scientific LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaLos AlamosUSA
  2. 2.Aerojet-General Corp.AzusaUSA

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