Heat Transfer to Boiling Liquid Nitrogen and Hydrogen Flowing Axially Through Narrow Annular Passages

  • R. J. Richards
  • R. F. Robbins
  • R. B. Jacobs
  • D. C. Holten
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 3)


The purpose of the investigations described here was to obtain information concerning the maximum heat dissipation of boiling nitrogen and hydrogen flowing through narrow channels. The sponsoring agency had two uses for this information:
  1. 1)
    To provide a check for the theory of Sydoriak and Roberts.1 In a paper by them, a theoretical approach to the problem of heat transfer in a frictionless flow evaporator was presented. The resulting equation related Q (the power input to the boiling liquid) to various properties in the following manner:
    $$ \lambda _{t - }^Y = {\alpha ^Y}(t - )Z_{t - }^Y$$
    • A = cross-sectional area of passage

    • λ = latent heat of boiling liquid

    • ρL = density of liquid

    • αG = density of vapor boil-off

    • g = gravitational acceleration

    • f = mass fraction vapor leaving evaporator

    • Z = pressure drop across evaporator

    Experimental data taken by Sydoriak and Roberts agreed with this equation within 30 per cent for hydrogen and 5 per cent for nitrogen.
  2. 2)

    To provide a check on the LASL experimental data. The studies by Sydoriak and Roberts were not extensive; it was felt that a thorough investigation might provide more reliable predictions of maximum heat dissipation by boiling cryogenic liquids.



Pressure Drop Test Section Natural Convection Power Input Orifice Plate 
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  1. 1.
    S. G. Sydoriak and J. R. Roberts, J. Appl. Phys., p. 143, February 1957.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. R. Leroy and J. A. Roberts, UCRL-1894, University of California, Berkeley, California (1952).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. A. Bromley, Chem. Eng. Prog., 46, No. 5, 221 (1950).Google Scholar
  4. 1.
    J. H. Perry, Chemical Engineers Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, New York (1950).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, Inc., New York 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Richards
    • 1
  • R. F. Robbins
    • 1
  • R. B. Jacobs
    • 1
  • D. C. Holten
    • 1
  1. 1.CEL National Bureau of StandardsBoulderUSA

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