The Source of Choline for Acetylcholine Synthesis

  • G. B. Ansell
  • S. Spanner
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 24)


When the first meeting of the series on Cholinergic Mechanisms was held in Skokloster (1970) few pharmacologists or biochemists working on the cholinergic system had given much thought to the source of Ch for ACh synthesis. Nor had much thought been given to the relationship of the Ch of ACh to that of other compounds in nervous tissue. It would be no exaggeration to say that the study of the ramifications of Ch metabolism is now a minor industry. A recent excellent review on the source of Ch for ACh synthesis has 151 references (26) and investigations now range from the minutiae of Ch transport to the use of Ch therapy in the tardive dyskinesias. This short account will deal only with the central nervous system.


Tardive Dyskinesia Cholinergic Mechanism High Affinity Uptake Acetylcholine Synthesis Cholinergic Terminal 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abe, T., Haga, T. and Kurokawa, M. (1973): Biochem. J. 136:731–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abra, R.M. and Quinn, P.J. (1975): Biochim. Biophys. Acta 380:436–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aquilonius, S.-M., Ceder, G., Lying-Tunell, U., Malmlund, H.O. and Schuberth, J. (1975): Brain Res. 99:430–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ansell, G.B. and Spanner, S. (1968): Biochem. J. 110:201–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ansell, G.B. and Spanner, S. (1971): Biochem. J. 122:741–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ansell, G.B. and Scanner, S. (1975): In: Cholinergic Mechanisms, (Ed.) P.G. Waser, Raven Press, New York, pp. 117–129.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ansell, G.B. and Spanner, S. (1975): Biochem. Pharmacol. 24:1719–1723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arienti, G., Brunetti, M., Gaiti, A., Orlando, P. and Porcellati, G. (1976): Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 72:63–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barker, L.A. and Mittag, T.W. (1975): J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 192:86–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhatnagar, S.P. and MacIntosh, F. C. (1967): Canad. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 45:249–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chakrin, L.W. and Whittaker, V.P. (1969): Biochem. J. 113:97–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cheney, D. L., Costa, E., Hanin, I., Racagni, G. and Trabucchi, M. (1975): In: Cholinergic Mechanisms, (Ed.) P. G. Waser, Raven Press, New York, pp. 217–228.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choi, R. L., Freeman, J. J. and Jenden, D. J. (1975): J. Neurochem. 24:735–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohen, E.L. and Wurtman, R.J. (1975): Life Sci. 26:1095–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cohen, E.L. and Wurtman, R.J. (1976): Science 191:561–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cooper, M.F. and Webster, G.R. (1970): J. Neurochem. 17:1543–1554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cooper, P.H. and Hawthorne, J.N. (1975): Biochem. J. 150:537–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Crossland, J. and Merrick, A.J. (1954): J. Physiol. (Lond.) 125:56–66.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dawson, R.M. C. (1955): Biochem. J. 60:325–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Diamond, I. (1971): Arch. Neurol. 24:333–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Diamond, I. and Milfay, D. (1972): J. Neurochem. 19:1899–1909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dowdall, M.J., Barker, L.A. and Whittaker, V. P. (1972): Biochem. J. 130:1081–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dross, K. (1975): J. Neurochem. 24:701–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dross, K. and Kewitz, H. (1972): N.-S. Arch. Pharmacol. 274:91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eade, I., Hebb, C. and Mann, S. P. (1973): J. Neurochem. 20:1499–1502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Freeman, J.J. and Jenden, D.J. (1976): Life Sci. 19:949–962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gaiti, A., De Medio, G.E., Brunetti, M., Amaducci, L. and Porcellati, G. (1974): J. Neurochem. 23:1153–1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gatt, S. (1968): Biochim. Biophys. Acta 159:304–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gatt, S. (1976): Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 68:235–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gomez, M.V., Domino, E.F., Santiago, J. C. and Sellinger, O. Z. (1971): Neurobiology 1:103–114.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goracci, G., Blomstrand, C., Arienti, G., Hamberger, L.A. and Procellati, G. (1973): J. Neurochem. 20:1167–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Haubrich, D.R., Wang, P.F.L., Clody, D.E. and Wedeking, P. W. (1975): Life Sci. 17:975–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Illingworth, D.R. and Portman, O.W. (1972): Biochem. J. 130:557–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kewitz, H., Dross, K. and Pleul, O. (1973): In: Central Nervous System — Studies on Metabolic Regulation and Function, (Eds.) E. Genazzani and H. Herken, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 21–32.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kewitz, H. and Pleul, O. (1976): Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 73:2181–2185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Klemperer, F.W., Miller, J.M. and Hill, C.J. (1949): J. Biol. Chem. 180:281–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kuhar, M.J., Sethy, V.H., Roth, R. H. and Aghajanian, G.K. (1973): J. Neurochem. 20:581–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Leibovitz-Ben Gershan, Z., Kobiler, I. and Gatt, S. (1972): J. Biol. Chem. 247:6840–6847.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leibowitz, Z. and Gatt, S. (1968): Biochim. Biophys. Acta 164:439–441.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    McCaman, R.E. and Cook, K. (1966): J. Biol. Chem. 241:3390–3394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mann, S.P. (1975): Experientia 31:1256–1257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Miller, E.K. and Dawson, R.M. C. (1972): Biochem. J. 126:805–821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rehbinder, D. and Greenberg, D.M. (1965): Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 109:110–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Riley, R.F. (1944): J. Biol. Chem. 153:535–549.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saito, M. and Kanfer, J. (1975): Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 169:318–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schuberth, J., Sparf, B. and Sundwall, A. (1969): J. Neurochem. 16:695–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Spanner, S. and Ansell, G.B. (1977): Biochem. Soc. Trans. 5:164–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Spanner, S., Hall, R. C. and Ansell, G.B. (1976): Biochem. J. 154:133–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sparf, B. (1973): Acta Physiol. Scand. (Suppl.) 397:95–107.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stavinoha, W.B. and Weintraub, S.T. (1974): Science 183:964–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Strickland, K.P., Thompson, R.H.S. and Webster, G.R. (1956): J. Neurol. Neurosurg, Psychiat. 19:12–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Webster, G.R., Marples, E.A. and Thompson, R.H.S. (1957): Biochem. J. 65:374–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Woelk, H., Goracci, G., Gaiti, A. and Porcellati, G. (1973): H.-S. Z. Physiol. Chem. 354:729–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Woelk, H., Peiler-Ichikawa, K., Binaglia, L., Goracci, G. and Porcellati, G. (1974): H.-S. Z. Physiol. Chem. 355:1535–1542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Woelk, H. and Porcellati, G. (1973): H.-S. Z. Physiol. Chem. 354:90–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Yamamura, H. I. and Snyder, S. H. (1973): J. Neurochem. 21:1355–1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. B. Ansell
    • 1
  • S. Spanner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology (Preclinical)University of Birmingham Medical SchoolEngland

Personalised recommendations