The Electromotor System of Torpedo as a Model Cholinergic System

  • V. P. Whittaker
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 24)


Textbooks of physiology in the latter part of the 19th century were not complete without an extensive chapter on the electric organs of electric fish, especially the best known ones, those of Torpedo spp. and Malopterurus, examples of bioelectricity par excellence. Beautiful monographs were also written at that time, notably one by the Berlin professor, Gustav Fritsch (13), in which the work of earlier authors was combined with many original observations to produce a surprising amount of detailed information on the histology, embryology and comparative anatomy of these species. The development of the electrocytes from myoblasts and therefore the close relationship between the neuromuscular junction and the electromotor synapse were understood as well as the available techniques permitted.


Synaptic Vesicle Specific Radioactivity Electric Organ Synaptic Vesicle Protein Vesicle Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Babel-Guerin, E. (1974): J. Neurochem. 23:525–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barker, L.A., Dowdall, M.J. and Whittaker, V.P. (1972): Biochem. J. 130:1063–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berl, S., Puszkin, S. and Niklas, M.J. (1973): Science 179:441–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breer, H. (1977): H.-S. Zeit. (in press).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dowdall, M.J. and Zimmermann, H. (1974): Brain Res. 71:160–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dowdall, M.J., Boyne, A.F. and Whittaker, V.P. (1974): Biochem. J. 140:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dowdall, M.J., Fox, G., Wachtier, K., Whittaker, V.P. and Zimmermann, H. (1975): Cold Spring Harbor Symp. 40:65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feldberg, W. and Fessard, A. (1942): J. Physiol. 101:200–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fessard, A. (1958): In: Traite de Zoologie. Vol. 13 (Ed.) P.P. Grasse, Masson, Paris, pp. 1143–1238.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fiore, L. and Whittaker, V.P. (1975): 5th Intl. Meet. Int. Soc. Neurochem, Abst., Barcelona, pp. 130.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fonnum, F. (1969): Biochem. J. 115:465–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fox, G.Q., Tashiro, T., Wachtier, K. and Whittaker, V.P. (1977). H.-S. Zeit. (in press).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fritsch, G. (1890): Die elektrischen Fische, von Veit, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grundfest, H. (1957): Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol. 7:1–85.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heuser, J.E. and Reese, T.S. (1973): J. Cell Biol. 57:315–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hosie, R.J.A. (1965): Biochem. J. 96:404–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Israel, M., Gautron, J. and Lesbats, B. (1970): J. Neurochem. 17:1441–1450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Keynes, R.D. (1976): J. Physiol. 263:56–58P.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Luft, J.H. (1958): Exp. Cell Res. (Suppl.) 5:158–182.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    MacIntosh, F. C. and Collier, B. (1976): Heffter-Heubners Handbook exp. Pharmakol. Ergw. 42:99–228.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mathewson, R., Wachtel, A. and Grundfest, H. (1959): In: Bioelectrogenesis, (Eds.) C. Chagas and A. Paes de Carvalho, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 25–33.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nachmansohn, D. and Lederer, E. (1939): Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. (Paris) 21:797–808.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nagy, A., Baker, R.R., Morris, S.J. and Whittaker, V.P. (1976): Brain Res. 109:285–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pearse, B.M.F. (1976): Proc. Nat.Acad. Svi. USA 73:1255–1257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sheridan, M.N. and Whittaker, V.P. (1964): J. Physiol. 175:25–26P.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sheridan, M.N., Whittaker, V.P. and Israel, M. (1966): Z. Zellforsch. 74:291–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stadler, H. and Tashiro, T. (1977): H.-S. Zeit. (in press).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stadler, H., Ohsawa, K. and Whittaker, V.P. (1976): 10th Int. Congr. Biochem, Abst., Hamburg, p. 564.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Whittaker, V.P. and Sheridan, M.N. (1965): J. Neurochem. 12:363–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Whittaker, V.P. and Zimmermann, H. (1976): In: Biochemical and Biophysical Perspectives in Marine Biology. Vol.3. (Eds.) D. C. Malins and J.R. Sargent, Academic Press, London, pp. 67–116.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Whittaker, V.P., Dowdall, M.J., Dowe, G.H. C., Facino, R.M. and Scotto, J. (1974): Brain Res. 75:115–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Whittaker, V.P., Essman, W.B. and Dowe, G.H. C. (1972): Biochem. J. 128:833–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Whittaker, V.P., Fox, G. and Fiore, L. (1975): Exp. Brain Res. 24:22.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wilson, W.S., Schultz, R.A. and Cooper, J.R. (1973): J. Neurochem. 20:659–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zimmermann, H. (1976): Untersuchungen zum Mechanismus der cholinergen synaptischen Ubertragung im elektrischen Organ der Zitterrochen (Torpedo marmorata), Habilitationsschrift, Gottingen.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zimmermann, H. and Baker, R.R. (1975): Pflug Arch. (Suppl.) 359:R82.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zimmermann, H. and Dowdall, M.J. (1975): Exp. Brain Res. 24:22.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zimmermann, H. and Dowdall, M.J. (1975): 5th Int. Meet. int. Soc. Neurochem., Abst., Barcelona, p. 128.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zimmermann, H. and Dowdall, M.J. (1975): Exp. Brain Res. Suppl. 23:225.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zimmermann, H. and Whittaker, V.P. (1974): J. Neurochem. 22:435–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zimmermann, H. and Whittaker, V.P. (1974): J. Neurochem. 22:1109–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. P. Whittaker
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of NeurochemistryMax-Planck-Institute for Biophysical ChemistryGöttingenFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations