Advertisement

Cell Loss with Aging

  • Harold Brody
  • N. Vijayashankar
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 23)

Abstract

There have been several techniques developed to determine the number of cells in the central nervous system. Probably the simplest and the most common technique has been the ocular micrometric method. This was originally used by Hammerberg in 1895 and while other techniques may be mentioned, it is at the present time the most consistent and dependable. It involves examination of tissue with the aid of a micrometer disc inserted into the ocular of a compound microscope. Cells which fall within the squares of the disc may then be counted and total counts made as well as graphs showing relative populations within any portion of the section. This is most useful in determining cell numbers within a brain stem nuclear structure since it is possible in serial section counting to obtain an impression of the cell population at any specific point. By examination in several planes, one may obtain a 3-dimensional impression of the nucleus, and to compare specific sites within the nucleus in a number of brain specimens when the nucleus is of similar size. Direct optical examination of tissue by the investigator also makes possible a differentiation of neurons from glial cells and discriminates fairly easily when there is an overlapping of cells.

Keywords

Cerebral Cortex Purkinje Cell Aging Brain Senile Dementia Inferior Olive 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brody, H. Organization of cerebral cortex. III. A study of aging in the human cerebral cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 102:511–556, 1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brody, H. Structural changes in the aging nervous system. In: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology. (Ed. Blumenthal, H.), Karger, Basel/Munchen, 1970.Google Scholar
  3. Buskirk, van, E.C. The seventh nerve complex. J. Comp. Neurol. 82: 303–335, 1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Causley, D. and Young, J.Z. Counting and sizing of particles with flying spot microscope. Nature 4479:453–454, 1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colon, E. J. The elderly brain. A quantitative analysis of cerebral cortex in two cases. Psychiat. Neurol. Neurochir. 75:261–270, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. DeLorenzi, E. Constenza numerica delle cellule del Purkinje in individui di varia eta. Bull, Soc. ital. biol. sper. 6:80–82, 1931.Google Scholar
  7. Dornfield, E. J., Slater, D.W. and Scheffe, H. A method for accurate determination of volume and cell numbers in small organs. Anat. Reco 82:255–259, 1942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Economo, C. and Koskinas, G. Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen. Leipsig, 1925.Google Scholar
  9. Ellis, R. S. A preliminary quantitative study of Purkinje cells in normal, subnormal and senescent human cerebella. J. Comp. Neurol. 30:229–252, 1919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellis, R. S. Norms for some structural changes in the human cerebellum from birth to old age. J. Comp. Neurol. 32:1–33, 1920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feldman, M. Dendritic changes in aging rat brain. In: Aging Brain and Senile Dementia. (Eds. K. Nandy and I. Sherwin), Plenum Press, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  12. Hall, T. C., Miller, A.K.H. and Corsellis, J.A.N. Variations in the human Purkinje cell population according to age and sex. Neuropath. Appl. Neurobiol. 1:267–292, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hodge, C. F. Changes in ganglion cells from birth to senile death. Observations on man and honey bee. J. Physiol. 17:129–134, 1894.Google Scholar
  14. Hyden, H. The Neuron. In: The Cell. (Eds. J. Brachet and A.E. Mirsky), Academic Press, New York, 1960.Google Scholar
  15. Inukai, T. On the loss of Purkinje cells with advancing age from cerebellar cortex of Albino rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 45:1–31, 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Konigsmark, B. W. and Murphy, E. A. Neuronal populations in the human brain. Nature 228:1335, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Landfield, P. W., Rose, G., Sandles, L., Wohlstadter, T. C. and Lynch, G. Patterns of astroglial hypertrophy and neural degeneration in the hippocampus of aged, memory deficient rats. J. Geront. 32:3–12, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Maleci, O. Sul rapporto numerico tra 1e cellule dei nuclei di origine e 1e fibre di nervi motor encefalici dell’uomo, con osservazioni sulle differenze qualitative delle dette fibre. Arch. Ital. Annt. Embriol. 35:559–583, 1936.Google Scholar
  19. Monagle, R. D. and Brody, H. The effects of age upon the main nucleus of the inferior olive in the human. J. Comp. Neurol. 155:61–66, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morest, D. K. The differentiation of cerebral dendrites. A study of the post-migratory neuroblast in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgeschichte 128:271–289, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nurnberger, I. I. Direct enumeration of cells of the brain. In: Biology of Neuroglia. (Ed. Windle, W.F.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, 1958.Google Scholar
  22. Ryzen, M. A microphotometric method of cell examination within the cerebral cortex of man. J. Comp. Neurol. 104:233–245, 1956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Scheibel, M. E. and Scheibel, A.B. Differential changes with aging in old and new cortices. In: Aging Brain and Senile Dementia. (Eds. K. Nandy and I. Sherwin), Plenum Press, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  24. Shefer, V. G. Absolute number of neurons and thickness of cerebral cortex during aging, senile and vascular dementia and Pick’s and Alzheimer Disease. Neurosci. Beh. Physiol. 6:319–324, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tomlinson, B. E. Some quantitative cerebral findings in normal and demented old people. In: Neurobiology of Aging. (Eds. R. O. Terry and S. Gershon), Raven Press, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. Vijayashankar, N. and Brody, H. Neuronal population of human abducens nucleus. Anat. Record 169(2):447, 1971.Google Scholar
  27. Vijayashankar, N. and Brody, H. A study of aging in the human abducens nucleus. J. of Comp. Neurol., 1977a, in press. Vijayashankar, N. and Brody, H. Aging in the human brainstem: A study of the nucleus of the trochlear nerve. Acta Anatomica, 1977b, in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold Brody
    • 1
  • N. Vijayashankar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomical Sciences School of MedicineState University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations