Drug-Produced Cues and States: Some Theoretical and Methodological Inferences

  • C. F. Colpaert
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 22)


A major position in the field of Drug Discrimination (DD) and State-Dependent (StD) learning is that the learning phenomena referred to by these terms would pertain to a single property of drugs and require the operation of one type of physiological mechanisms. Acceptance of this concept is very widespread, and the following statements exemplify the position in a most explicit way: “Indeed, the whole field of studies under the heading ‘state-dependent learning’ seems to me to be no more and no less than examples of control of behavior by drugs as discriminative stimuli.” (Dews, 1975); “... that state-dependent (i.e. discriminative stimulus) properties... of drugs...” (Kuhn et al., 197 6).


Discriminative Stimulus Stimulus Property Extinction Trial Drug Discrimination Solvent Injection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barry H.: Classification of drugs according to their discriminate effects in rats. Fed.Proc. 33: 1814–1824, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barry Ш, H. and Krimmer, E.C.: Discriminative stimulus effects of chlordiazepoxide related to general sedation. Communication at the Sixth International Congress of Pharmacology, Abstract no. 623, 1975.Google Scholar
  3. Colpaert, F.C.: Minireview. Narcotic cue and narcotic state. Life Sci. (in press), 1976.Google Scholar
  4. Colpaert, F.C., Lal, H., Niemegeers, C.J.E. and Jans-Sen, P.A.J.: Investigations on drug produced and subjectively experienced discriminative stimuli. 1. The fentanyl cue, a tool to investigate subjectively experienced narcotic drug actions. Life Sci. 16: 705–716, 1975a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colpaert, F.C.: Apomorphine as a discriminative stimulus, and its antagonism by haloperidol. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 32: 383–386, 1975b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colpaert, F.C., Niemegeers, C.J.E. and Janssen, P.A. J.: Differential response control by isopropamide: a peripherally induced discriminative cue. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 34: 381–384, 1975c.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Colpaert, F.C., Niemegeers, C.J.E. and Janssen, P. A. J.: Theoretical and methodological considerations on drug discrimination learning. Psychopharmacologia 46: 169–177, 1976a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colpaert, F.C., Kuyps, J.J.M.D., Niemegeers, C.J.E. and Janssen, P. A. J.: Discriminative stimulus properties of fentanyl and morphine: tolerance and dependence. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (in press), 1976b.Google Scholar
  9. Colpaert, F.C., Niemegeers, C.J.E. and Janssen, P. A. J.: The narcotic discriminative stimulus complex: relation to analgesic activity. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 28: 183–187, 1976c.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colpaert, F.C., Desmedt, L.K.C. and Janssen, P.A.J.: Discriminative stimulus properties of benzodiazepines, barbiturates and pharmacologically related drugs: relation to some intrinsic and anticonvulsant effects. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 37: 113–123, 1976d.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colpaert, F.C., Niemegeers, C.J.E. and Janssen, P.A.J.: Fentanyl and apomorphine: asymmetrical generalization of discriminative stimulus properties. Neuropharmacology (in press), 1976e.Google Scholar
  12. Colpaert, F.C., Kuyps, J.J.M.D., Niemegeers, C.J.E. and Janssen, P. A. J.: Discriminative stimulus properties of a low dl- amphetamine dose. Archs. Int. Pharmaсо -dyn.Ther. (in press), 1976f.Google Scholar
  13. Colpaert, F.C., Niemegeers, C.J.E., Kuyps, J.J.M.D. and Janssen, P.A. J.: Narcotic cue and narcotic state: differential involvement of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine. Neuropharmacology (in press), 1976g.Google Scholar
  14. Colpaert, F.C., Van Bever, W.F.M. and Leysen, J.E.M.F.: Apomorphine: chemistry, pharmacology, biochemistry. Int.Rev. Neurobiol. 19: (in press), 1976h.Google Scholar
  15. Dews, P.B.: Are the techniques and results of studies of self-administration of drugs useful in other areas of psychobio-logy? Pharmacol. Rev. 27, 545–548, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Doty, R.W. and Rutledge, L. T.: “Generalization” between cortically and peripherally applied stimuli eliciting conditioned reflexes. J. Neurophysiol. 22:428–435, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Grilly, D.M.: Effects of prior experience on differential learning under amphetamine. Psychopharmacologia 43: 271–277, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heise, G. A.: Discrete trial analysis of drug action. Fed.Proc. 34: 1898–1903, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hirschhorn, I.D. and Rose Crans, J. A.: Morphine and tetrahydrocannabinol: tolerance to the stimulus effects. Psychopharmacologia 36: 243–253, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Janssen, P.A. J., Niemegeers, C.J.E. and Dony, J.G.: The inhibitory effect of fentanyl (R 4263) and other morphine -like analgesics on the warm water-induced tail withdrawal reflex. Arzneim.-Forsch. 13:502–507, 1963.Google Scholar
  21. Kuhn, D.M., Greenberg, I. and Appel, J. В.: Stimulus properties of the narcotic antagonist pentazocine: similarity to morphine and antagonism by naloxone. J. Pharmacol.Exp. Ther. 196: 121–127, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Migler, B. and Millenson, J.R.: Analysis of response rates during stimulus generalization. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 12: 81–87, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Overton, D.A.: State-dependent or “dissociated” learning produced with pentobarbital. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 57: 3–12, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Overton, D. A.: State-dependent learning produced by depressant and atropine-like drugs. Psychopharmacologia 10: 6–31, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Overton, D.A.: Dissociated learning in drug states (state dependent learning). In Psychopharmacology. A review of progress 1957–1967, ed. by D. H. Efron, J.O. Cole, J. Levine and J.R. Wittenborn, pp. 918–930, Public Health Service Publication No. 1836, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D. C., 1968.Google Scholar
  26. Overton, D.A.: Discriminative control of behavior by drug states. In Stimulus properties of drugs, ed. by T. Thompson and R. Pickens, pp; 87–110, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  27. Overton, D. A.: Experimental methods for the study of state-dependent learning. Fed.Proc. 33:1800–1813, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ray, B.A. and Sidman, M.: Reinforcement schedules and stimulus control. In The theory of reinforcement schedules, ed. by W.N. Schoenfeld, pp. 187–214, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1970.Google Scholar
  29. Rilling, M., Caplan, H. J., Howard, R.C. and Brown, C. H.: Inhibitory stimulus control following errorless discrimination learning. J.Exp. Anal. Behav. 24:121–133, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Roffman, M. and Lal, H.: Role of brain amines in learning associated with “amphetamine-state”. Psychopharmacologia 25: 195–204, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rosecrans, J.A., Goodloe, M.H., Bennett, G.J. and Hirschhorn, I.D.: Morphine as a discriminative cue: effects of amine depletors and naloxone. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 21, 252–256, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schechter, M.D. and Rosecrans, J. A.: D-amphetamine as a discriminative cue: drugs with similar stimulus properties. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 21: 212–216, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Winter, J.С.: A comparison of the stimulus properties of mescaline and 2, 3, 4-trimethoxyphenylethylamine. J.Pharmacol. Exp.Ther. 185: 101–107, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Winter, J.C.: The effects of 3, 4 -dimethoxyphenylethylamine in rats trained with mescaline as a discriminative stimulus. J. Pharma col. Exp.Ther. 189:741–747, 1974.Google Scholar
  35. Winter, J.C.: The stimulus properties of morphine and ethanol. Psychopharmacologia 44: 209–214, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Woodard, W.T. and Bitter Man, M.E.: A discrete-trials/fixed-interval method of discrimination training. Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 6: 389–392, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. F. Colpaert
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. PharmacologyJanssen Pharmaceutica Research LaboratoriesBeerseBelgium

Personalised recommendations