The Comparative Psychotogenic Effects of L-Dopa and ET-495

  • Burton Angrist
  • Gregory Sathananthan
  • Baron Shopsin
  • Sam Gershon
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 21)


The ability of amphetamine and methylphenidate to cause a schizophreniform psychosis in non-schizophrenic individuals is one of the bases for the hypothesized relationship between dopaminergic hyperactivity and some psychotic states (Connell, 1958; Griffith, Cavanaugh, and Oates, 1970; Angrist and Gershon, 1970; Spensley and Rockwell, 1972; Bell, 1973). The demonstration that these same drugs caused florid exacerbation of symptomatology when administered to schizophrenics (Janowsky, El-Yousef, Davis, and Sekerke, 1973; Janowsky and Davis, 1974) gave impetus to this concept. However, amphetamine and methylphenidate clearly affect both norepinephrine and dopamine (Lewander, 1974; Scheel-Krüger, 1971; Ferris, Tang, and Maxwell, 1972) thereby making it difficult to specifically implicate dopaminergic mechanisms in their psychotogenic effects with certainty.


Brief Psychiatric Rate Scales Auditory Hallucination Emotional Lability Paranoid Ideation Formal Thought Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Angrist, B.M. and Gershon, S.: The phenomenology of experimentally induced amphetamine psychosis. Preliminary observations, Biol. Psychiat. 2, 95–107 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell, D.S.: The experimental reproduction of amphetamine psychosis, Archs gen. Psychiat. 29, 35–40 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Connell, P.H.: Amphetamine Psychosis. Maudsley Monographs No. 5. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  4. Corrodi, H., Fuxe, K., and Ungerstedt, U.: Evidence for a new type of dopamine receptor stimulating agent, J. Pharm. Pharmac. 23, 989–991 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Creese, I.: Behavioral evidence of dopamine receptor stimulation by piribedil (ET-495) and its metabolite S 584, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 28, 55–58 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dunkley, B., Sanghvi, I., Friedman, E., and Gershon, S.: Comparison of behavioral and cardiovascular effects of L-DOPA and 5-HTP in conscious dogs, Psychopharmacologia 26, 161–172 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Everett, G.M. and Borcherding, J.W.: L-DOPA: Effect on concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in brains of mice, Science 168, 849–850 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferris, R.M., Tang, F.L.M., and Maxwell, R.A.: A comparison of the capacities of isomers of amphetamine, deoxypiperadol and methylphenidate to inhibit the uptake of tritiated catechol-amines into rat cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and striatum and into adrenergic nerves of the rabbit aorta, J. Pharmac. exp. Ther. 181, 407–416 (1972).Google Scholar
  9. Friedman, E. and Gershon, S.: L-DOPA: Centrally mediated emission of seminal fluid in male rats, Life Sci. 11, 435–440 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fuxe, K., Agnate, L.F., Corrodi, H., Everitt, B.J., Hökfelt, T., Lofstrom, J., and Ungerstedt, U.: Action of dopamine receptor agonists in forebrain and hypothalamus: Rotational behavior, ovulation and dopamine turnover, Adv. Neurol. 9, 223–242 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Garattini, S., Barreggi, S., Marc, V., Calderini, G., and Marsella, P.L.: Effects of piribedil on noradrenaline and MOPEG-SO4 levels in the rat brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 28, 214–216 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goldstein, M., Battista, A.F., Ohmoto, T., Anagnoste, B., and Fuxe, K.: Tremor and involuntary movements in monkeys: Effects of L-DOPA and of a dopamine receptor stimulating agent, Science 179, 816–817 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Griffith, J.J., Cavanaugh, J., and Oates, J.: Psychosis induced by the administration of d-amphetamine to human volunteers. In: Psychotomimetic Drugs. Efron, D.H., Ed., pp. 287–294. New York: Raven Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  14. Janowsky, D.S. and Davis, J.M.: Dopamine, psychomotor stimulants and schizophrenia: Effects of methylphenidate and the stereoisomers of amphetamine in schizophrenics. In: Neuropsychopharmacology of Monoamines and Their Regulatory Enzymes. Usdin, E., Ed., pp. 317–323. New York: Raven Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  15. Janowsky, D.S., El-Yousef, M.K., Davis, J.M., and Sekerke, H.J.: Cholinergic antagonism of methylphenidate induced stereotyped behavior, Psychopharmacologia 27, 295–303 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Janowsky, D.S., El-Yousef, M.K., Davis, J.M., and Sekerke, H.J.: Provocation of schizophrenic symptoms by intravenous administration of methylphenidate, Archs gen. Psychiat. 28, 185–191 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Leiberman, A., Le Brun, Y., Dinkar, B., and Zolfaghari, M.: The use of a dopaminergic receptor stimulating agent (piribedil, ET-495) in parkinson’s disease. In: Neuropsychopharmacology of Monoamines and Their Regulatory Enzymes. Usdin, E., Ed., pp. 415–425. New York: Raven Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  18. Lewander, T.: Effect of chronic-treatment with central stimulants on brain monoamines and some behavioral and physiological functions in rats, guinea pigs and rabbits. In: Neuropsychopharmacology of Monoamines and Their Regulatory Enzymes. Usdin, E., Ed., pp. 221–239. New York.: Raven Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  19. Scheel-Krüger, J.: Comparative studies of various amphetamine analogues demonstrating different interactions with the metabolism of the catecholamines in the brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 14, 47–59 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Spensley, J. and Rockwell, D.A.: Psychosis during methylphenidate abuse, New Engl. J. Med. 286, 880–881 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burton Angrist
    • 1
  • Gregory Sathananthan
    • 1
  • Baron Shopsin
    • 1
  • Sam Gershon
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuropsychopharmacology Research Unit, Department of PsychiatryNew York University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations