Cholinergic Enzyme Activity in the Septum and Related Brain Areas in Deceased Mentally Normal, Chronic Schizophrenic and Organic Brain Syndrome Patients

  • Edward F. Domino
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 20)


The relationship between the activity of the cholinergic enzymes and mental illness is far from clear. However, we do know a lot concerning the neurochemistry of the cholinergic system. It is now well known that there are two major types of cholinesterases able to hydrolyze acetylcholine (ACh). One type “true” or acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) is found primarily in “cholinergic” neurons throughout the body, but also in non-neuronal tissues including red blood cells and the placenta. The other type “pseudo” or butyrylcholinesterase (ChE) is found throughout the body, especially in the brain and in the plasma.


AChE Activity Cholinesterase Activity Septal Area Organic Brain Syndrome Medial Amygdala 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bull, G., Hebb, C. and Rathovic, D. Choline acetyltransferase activity of human brain tissue during development and at maturity. J. Neurochem. 17 (1970) 1505–1516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Domino, E. F., Hudson, R. D. and Zografi, G. Substituted phenothiazines: Pharmacology and chemical structure. In Drugs Affecting the Central Nervous System, Berger, A., Ed., pp. 327–397, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1968.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Domino, E. F. and Krause, R. Cholinesterase activity and mental disease: A literature review. Michigan Mental Health Bulletin. 5 (1971) 3–18.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Domino, E. F. and Krause, R. Reexamination of red cell and plasma cholinesterase activity in drug-free chronic schizophrenic patients and normals. Biol. Psych. 4 (1972) 17–31.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Domino, E. F., Krause, R. R. and Bowers, J. Regional distribution of some enzymes involved with putative neurotransmitters in the human visual system. Brain Research, 58 (1973a) 179–189.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Domino, E. F., Krause, R. R. and Bowers, J. Various enzymes involved with putative neurotransmitters–regional distribution in the brain of deceased mentally normal, chronic schizophrenics or organic brain syndrome patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 29 (1973b) 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Domino, E. F., Krause, R. R., Thiessen, M. and Batsakis, J. G. Blood protein fraction comparisons of normal and chronic schizophrenic patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 32 (1975). 717–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Foldes, F. F., Zsigmond, E. K., Foldes, V. M. and Erdos, E. G. The distribution of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in the human brain. J. Neurochem., 9 (1962) 559–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heath, R. G. and Gallant, D. M. Activity of the human brain during emotional thought. In Role of Pleasure in Behavior, Heath, R. G., Eds., pp. 83–109, Hoeber Medical Division, Harper and Row Publishers, Inc., New York, 1964.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heath, R. G. and Krupp, I. M. Schizophrenia as a immunologic disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 16 (1967) 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krause, R. R. and Domino, E. F. Effects of acute and chronic chlorpromazine in vivo on red cell, plasma and brain cholinesterase. Res. Comm. Chem. Path. and Pharmacol, 1 (1970) 653–666.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krause, R. A. and Domino, E. F. Addendum to “Effects of acute and chronic chlorpromazine in vivo on red cell, plasma and brain cholinesterase. ” Res. Comm. Chem. Path. and Pharmacol., 2 (1971) 339–342.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L. and Randall, R. J. Protein management with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193 (1951) 265–275.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lucas, A. R., Krause, R. and Domino, E. F. Biological studies in childhood schizophrenia: Plasma and RBC cholinesterase activity. J. Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1 (1971) 72–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McCaman, R. E. and Hunt, J. M. Microdetermination of choline acetylase in nervous tissue. J. Neurochem., 12 (1965) 253–259.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schrier, B. K. and Shuster, L. A simplified radiochemical assay for choline acetyltransferase. J. Neurochem., 14 (1967) 977–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sem-Jacobsen, C. W., Petersen, M. C., Lazarte, J. A., Dodge, H. W., Jr. and Holman, C. B. Electroencephalic rhythms from the depths of the frontal lobe in 60 psychotic patients. EEG Clin. Neurophysiol., 7 (1955) 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sem-Jacobsen, C. W., J. A. and Holman, from the depths of lobes in man. EEG Petersen, M. C., Dodge, H. W., Jr., C. B. Electroencephalographic rhythms the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes in man. EEG Clin. Neurophysiol. 8 (1956) 263–278.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Siakotos, A. N., Filbert, M. and Hester, R. A specific radioisotopic assay for acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase in brain and plasma. Biochem. Med., 3 (1969) 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward F. Domino
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyThe Lafayette ClinicDetroitUSA
  2. 2.The University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations