Environments of Dysfunction: The Relevance of Primate Animal Models

  • Helen L. Morrison
  • William T. McKinneyJr.
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI)


It has long been known that the environment plays a role in both the production and alleviation of patterns of aberrant behavior. The way in which organisms adapt to their milieux and the processes by which this occurs are concerns shared by most scientists. Developmental psychology, behavioral genetics, psychiatry, ethology, neurophysiology, and systems theory are among the many specialties that contribute to our understanding of the genesis and maintenance of behavior. All have recognized that combinations of environmental stimuli or excesses or deficits of stimuli have behavioral consequences. This adjustment of the animal to internal and external pressures inherent in the demands of survival is reflected in its behavior. Comprehensive understanding of behavior will require both behavioral observation and studies of basic mechanisms involved in the behavior.


Social Behavior Rhesus Monkey Social Isolation Abnormal Behavior Isolation Rear 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akiskal, H. S., and McKinney, W. T. 1973. Depressive Disorders: Toward A Unified Hypothesis. Science 182:20–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiskal, H. S., and McKinney, W. T. 1975. Overview of Recent Research in Depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 32:285–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander, B. K. 1966. The Effects of Early Peer-Deprivation on Juvenile Behavior of Rhesus Monkeys. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, J. R., Schiltz, K. A., Ripp, C., Eisele, S. C., and Johnson, L. C. 1967. Laboratory Procedures. Regional Primate Research Center and Laboratory, Madison: University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  5. Arling, G. L., Ruppenthal, G. C., and Mitchell, G. D. 1969. Aggressive Behavior of the Eight Year Old Nulliparous Isolate Female Monkey. Anim. Behav. 17:109–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin, D. V., and Suomi, S. J. 1974. Reactions of Infant Monkeys to Social and Non-Social Stimuli. Folia Primatol. 22:307–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baysinger, C. M. 1975. Effects of Chlorpromazine on Rhesus Monkeys Reared in Social Isolation. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  8. Berkson, G., Mason, W. A., and Saxon, S. V. 1963. Situation and Stimulus Effects on Stereotyped Behaviors of Chimpanzees. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 56:786–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Birch, J. 1961. The Pertinence of Animal Investigations for Science of Human Behavior. Amer. J. Orthopsychiat. 31:267.Google Scholar
  10. Blomquist, A. J., and Harlow, H. F. 1961. The Infant Rhesus Monkey Program at the University of Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and Laboratory. (Association for Laboratory Animal Science.) Proc. Anim. Care Panel II, No. 2, 57–64.Google Scholar
  11. Boelkins, R. C. 1963. The Development of Social Behavior in the Infant Rhesus Monkey Following a Period of Social Isolation. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  12. Boelkins, R. C., and Heiser, J. F. 1970. Biological Bases of Aggression, pp. 15–52. In D. N. Daniels, M. F. Gilula, and F. M. Ochberg (eds.). Violence and the Struggle for Existence. Little Brown, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Bowden, D. M., and McKinney, W. T. 1972. Behavioral Effects of Peer Separation, Isolation and Reunion on Adolescent Male Rhesus Monkeys. Develop. Psychobiol. 5:353–362.Google Scholar
  14. Bowlby, J. 1958. The Nature of the Child’s Tie to His Mother. Intern. J. Psychoanal. 39:350–373.Google Scholar
  15. Bowlby, J. 1973. Attachment and Loss, Vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and Anger, p. 85. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Breese, G., and Taylor, T. D. 1970. Effect of 6-Hydroxydopamine on Brain Norepinephrine and Dopamine: Evidence for Selective Degeneration of Catecholamine Neurons. J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 174: 413–420.Google Scholar
  17. Breese, G. A., Smith, R. D., Meuller, R. A., Howard, J. L., Prange, A. J., Lipton, M. A., Young, L. D., McKinney, W. T., and Lewis, J. L. 1973. Induction of Adrenal Catecholamine Synthesizing Enzymes Following Mother-Infant Separation. Nature New Biol. 246:94–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Breese, G., Prange, A., McKinney, W., Lipton, M., Bowman, R., Howard, J., and Bushnel, P. 1972. Behavioral and Biochemical Effects of 6-Hydroxydopamine in Rhesus Monkeys. Symposium on Catecholamine Metabolism and Affective Disorders. American Psychiatric Association, Dallas, Texas.Google Scholar
  19. Broadhurst, P. L. 1953. Abnormal Animal Behavior, pp. 153–222. In J. Wortis (ed.). Basic Problems in Psychiatry. Grune and Stratton, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  20. Carpenter, C. A. 1942. Societies of Monkeys and Apes. Biol.Sympos. 8:177–204.Google Scholar
  21. Clark, D. L. 1968. Immediate and Delayed Effects of Early, Intermediate, and Late Social Isolation in the Rhesus Monkey. Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  22. Cross, H. A., and Harlow, H. F. 1965. Prolonged and Progressive Effects of Partial Isolation on the Behavior of Macaque Monkeys. J. Exp. Res. Per. 1:39–49.Google Scholar
  23. Cummins, M. S. 1973. Behavioral Stability of Rhesus Monkeys Following Differential Rearing. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  24. DeWeid, D. 1967. Chlorpromazine and Endocrine Function. Pharm. Rey. 19:2.Google Scholar
  25. Dilger, W. C. 1960. The Comparative Ethology of the African Parrot Genus Agapornis. Z. Tierpsychol. 17:649–685.Google Scholar
  26. Dollard, J., and Miller, N. E. 1950. Personality and Psychotherapy, p. 133. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Fabricius, E. 1962. Some Aspects of Imprinting in Birds. Sym.Zool. Soc. Lond. 8:139–148.Google Scholar
  28. Foley, J. P., Jr. 1934. First Year Development of a Rhesus Monkey(M. mulatta) Reared in Isolation. J. Genet. Psychol., 45: 39–105.Google Scholar
  29. Foley, J. P., Jr. 1935. Second Year Development of a Rhesus Monkey Reared in Isolation. J. Genet. Psychol. 47:39–105.Google Scholar
  30. Forgays, D. G., and Forgays, J. W. 1952. The Nature of the Effect of Free-Environmental Experience on the Rat. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 45:322–328.Google Scholar
  31. Fuller, J. L. 1967. Experimental Deprivation and Later Behavior. Science 158:1645–1652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fuller, J. L., and Clark, L. D. 1966. Genetic and Treatment Factors Modifying the Postisolation Syndrome in Dogs. J. Comp. Physiol.Psychol. 61:251–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldfarb, W. 1955. Emotional and Intellectual Consequences of Deprivation in Infancy: A Re-evaluation, pp. 105. In P. H. Hoch and J. Zubin (eds.). Psychopathology of Childhood. Grune and Stratton, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  34. Gluck, J. P., Harlow, H. F., and Schamily. A. 1973. Differential Effects of Early Enrichment and Deprivation on Learning in the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta). J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 84: 598–604.Google Scholar
  35. Harlow, H. F. 1958. The Nature of Love. Amer. Psychologist 13: 673–685.Google Scholar
  36. Harlow, H. F., and Harlow, M. K. 1971. Psychopathology in Monkeys, pp. 203–229. In H. D. Kimmel (ed.). Experimental Psychopathology: Recent Research and Theory. Academic Press, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  37. Harlow, H. F., and Novak, M. A. 1973. Psychopathological Perspectives. Perspect. Biol. Med. 16:461–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Harlow, H. F., and Suomi, S. J. 1970a. Nature of Love — Simplified. Amer. Psychologist 25:161–168.Google Scholar
  39. Harlow, H. F., and Suomi, S. J. 1970b. Induced Psychopathology in Monkeys. Engineer Sci. 33:8–14.Google Scholar
  40. Harlow, H. F., and Suomi, S. J. 1971. Social Recovery by Isolation Reared Monkeys. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 68:1534–1538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Harlow, H. F., and Zimmerman, R. R. 1959. Affectional Responses in the Infant Monkey. Science 130:421–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Harlow, H. F., Rowland, G. L., and Griffin, G. A. 1964. The Effect of Total Social Deprivation on the Development of Monkey Behavior. Psy. Res. Rep. 19:116–135.Google Scholar
  43. Harlow, H. F., Harlow, M. K., Dodsworth, R. O., and Arling, G. I. 1966. Maternal Behavior of Rhesus Monkeys Deprived of Mothering and Peer Associations in Infancy. Pro嬠Amer. Phil. Soc. 110:58–66.Google Scholar
  44. Harlow, H. F., Schiltz, K. A., and Harlow, M. K. 1969. Effects of Social Isolation on the Learning Performance of Rhesus Monkeys, p. 25. In C. R. Carpenter (ed.). Proc. 2nd Int. Con. Primat., Vol. 1. Karger, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Harlow, H. F., Suomi, S. J., and McKinney, W. T. 1970. Experimental Depression in Monkeys. Mainly Monkeys 1:6–12.Google Scholar
  46. Harlow, M. K. 1971. Nuclear Family Apparatus. Behav. Res. Meth. Instru. 3:301–304.Google Scholar
  47. Heath, R. G. 1972. Electroencephalographic Studies in Isolation-Reared Monkeys With Behavioral Impairment. Dis. Nerv. Syst. 33:157–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hebb, D. O. 1947. Spontaneous Neurosis in Chimpanzees. Psychosom. Med. 9:3–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hebb, D. O. 1949. Organization of Behavior. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Hebb, D. O., and Thompson, W. R. 1954. The Social Significance of Animal Studies, pp. 532–561. In G. Lindzey (ed.). Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. 1, Theory and Method. Addison-Wesley, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  51. Hess, E. H. 1959. Imprinting. Science 130:133–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hinde, R. A. 1974. Biological Basis of Human Social Behavior. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Hinde, R. A., and Spencer-Booth, Y. 1971. Effects of Brief Separation From Mother on Rhesus Monkeys. Science 173:111–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hinde, R. A., Thorpe, W. H., and Vince, M. A. 1956. The Following Response of Young Coots and Moorhens. Behavior 9:214–242.Google Scholar
  55. Hofer, M. A. 1972. Physiological and Behavioral Processes in Early Maternal Separation. In CIBA Symposium, No. 8, Physiology, Emotion and Psychosomatic Illness. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  56. Hofer, M. A. 1975. Studies on How Early Maternal Separation Produces Behavioral Changes in Young Rats. Psychosom. Med. 3: 245–264.Google Scholar
  57. Hollos, M., and Cowan, P. A. 1973. Social Isolation and Cognitive Development: Logical Operations and Role-Taking Abilities in Three Norwegian Social Settings. Child Dev. 44:630–641.Google Scholar
  58. Jaynes, J. 1958. Imprinting: The Interaction of Learned and Innate Behavior: IV. Generalization and Emergent Discrimination. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 51:238–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jennings, K. 1975. People Versus Object Orientation, Social Behavior and Intellectual Abilities in Preschool Children. Dev. Psychol. 11:511–519.Google Scholar
  60. Kaufman, I. C, and Rosenblum, L. A. 1967. The Reaction to Separation in Infant Monkeys: Anaclitic Depression and Conservation-Withdrawal. Psychosom. Med. 29:648–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kling, A. 1968. Amygdalectomy in Free Ranging Vervet. Read before the Psychiatric Research Society, New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  62. Koe, B. K., and Weissman, A. p-Chlorophenylalanine: A Specific Depleter of Brain Serotonin. J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 154:499-516.Google Scholar
  63. Konrad, K. W., and Bagshaw, M. 1970. Effect of Novel Stimuli on Cats Reared in a Restricted Environment. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 70:157–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kraemer, G., McKinney, W. T., Breese, G., and Howard, J. 1975. Effects of 6-Hydroxydopamine in the Rhesus Monkey. Paper presented at American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting, Anaheim, California.Google Scholar
  65. Kubie, L. A. 1939. The Experimental Induction of Neurotic Reactions in Man. Yale J. Biol. Med. 11:541–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Levy, D. M. 1952. Animal Psychology in Its Relation to Psychiatry. In F. Alexander (ed.). Dynamic Psychiatry. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  67. Lewis, J. L., and McKinney, W. T. 1975. Mother-Infant Separation in Rhesus Monkeys: A Reconsideration. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. In press.Google Scholar
  68. Lewis, J. L., and McKinney, W. T. 1975. The Effect of Electrically Induced Convulsions on the Behavior of Normal and Abnormal Rhesus Monkeys. In preparation.Google Scholar
  69. Lewis, M., and Rosenblum, L. A. 1974. The Effect of the Infant on Its Caregiver. The Origins of Behavior, Vol. 1. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Lorenz, K. 1935. Der Kumpan in der Umwelt des Vogels. J. f. Ornith. 83:137–213.Google Scholar
  71. Lorenz, K. 1971. Studies in Animal and Human Behavior, Vol. 2. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  72. McCulloch, T. L., and Haslerud, G. M. 1939. Affective Responses of an Infant Chimpanzee Reared in Isolation from Its Kind. J. Comp. Psychol. 28:437–445.Google Scholar
  73. McKinney, W. T. 1974a. Animal Model of Depression: Current Status of the Field. In J. Westermeyer (ed.). Anthropology and Mental Health. Mouton Publishers, The Hague.Google Scholar
  74. McKinney, W. T. 1974b. Animal Models in Psychiatry. Perspec. Biol. Med. 17:529–541.Google Scholar
  75. McKinney, W. T. 1974c. Primate Social Isolation. Psychiatric Implications. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 31:422–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. McKinney, W. T. 1975. Psychoanalysis Revisited in Terms of Experimental Primatology. In E. T. Adelson (ed.). Sexuality and Psychoanalysis. Brunner Mazel, New York.Google Scholar
  77. McKinney, W. T., and Bunney, W. E. 1969. Animal Model of Depression: Review of Evidence Implications for Research. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 21: 240–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McKinney, W. T., Eising, R. G., Moran, E. C, Suomi, S. J., and Harlow, H. F. 1971. Effects of Reserpine on the Social Behavior of Rhesus Monkeys. Dis. Nerv. Syst. 32:735–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McKinney, W. T., Suomi, S. J., and Harlow, H. F. 1971. Depression in Primates. Am. J. Psychiat. 127:1313–1320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. McKinney, W. T., Suomi, S. J., and Harlow, H. F. 1972a. Vertical Chamber Confinement of Juvenile Age Rhesus Monkeys. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 26:223–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. McKinney, W. T., Suomi, S. J., and Harlow, H. F. 1972b. Repetitive Peer Separations of Juvenile Age Rhesus Monkeys. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 27:200–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. McKinney, W. T., Kliese, K. A., Suomi, S. J., and Moran, E. C. 1973a. Can Psychopathology Be Reinduced in Rhesus Monkeys? An Experimental Investigation of Behavioral Sensitization. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 29:630–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McKinney, W. T., Suomi, S. J., and Harlow, H. F. 1973b. New Models of Separation and Depression in Rhesus Monkeys, pp. 53-66. In J. P. Scott and E. C. Senay (eds.). Separation and Depression. Washington, AAAS Publication Number 94.Google Scholar
  84. McKinney, W. T., Young, L. D., Suomi, S. J., and Davis, J. M. 1973c. Chlorpromazine Treatment of Disturbed Monkeys. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 29:490–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. McKinney, W. T., Suomi, S. J., Mersky, I. A., and Miller, R. Parachlorophenylalanine and Rhesus Monkeys. In preparation.Google Scholar
  86. Maickel, R., Braumstein, M. C, McGlynn, M., Snodgrass, W. R., and Webb, R. W. 1974. Behavioral, Biochemical and Pharmacological Effects of Chronic Dosage of Phenothiazine Tranquilizers in Rats. Adv. Biochem. Psychopharm. 9:593–602.Google Scholar
  87. Mason, J. W., and Brady, J. V. 1965. The Sensitivity of Psychoendocrine Systems to Social and Physical Environment, pp. 4–23. In P. H. Liederman and D. Schapiro (eds.). Psychobiological Approaches to Social Behavior. Tavistock, London.Google Scholar
  88. Mason, W. A. 1963. The effects of Environmental Restriction on the Social Development of Rhesus Monkeys, pp. 161–173. In C. H. Southwick (ed.). Primate Social Behavior. Van Nostrand, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  89. Mason, W. A. 1965. The Social Behavior of Monkeys and Apes, pp. 514–543. In I. Devore (ed.). Primate Behavior. Holt, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Mason, W. A. 1968a. Early Social Deprivation in the Nonhuman Primates. Implications for Human Behavior, pp. 70–100. In D. C. Glass (ed.). Environmental Influences. Rockefeller University and Russell Sage Foundation, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Mason, W. A. 1968b. Scope and Potential of Primate Research, pp. 198–213. In J. H. Masserman (ed.). Science and Psychoanalysis, Vol. XII, Animal and Human. Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  92. Meldrum, B. S., Chir, B., Horton, R. W., and Toseland, P. A. 1975. A Primate Model for Testing Anticonvulsant Drugs. Arch. Neurol. 32:289–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Miller, R. E., Caul, W. F., and Mersky, I. A. 1967. Communication of Affect Between Feral and Socially Isolated Monkeys. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 7:231–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Miller, R. E., Caul, W. F., and Mersky, I. A. 1971. Patterns of Eating and Drinking in Socially Isolated Rhesus Monkeys. Physiol. Behav. 7:127–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mirsky, I. A. 1968. Communication of Affects in Monkeys, pp. 129–137. In D. C. Glass (ed.). Environmental Influences. Rockefeller University Press and Russell Sage Foundation, New York.Google Scholar
  96. Mitchell, G. D. 1970. Abnormal Behavior in Primates, pp. 196–249. In L. Rosenblum (ed.). Primate Behavior. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Mitchell, G. D., and Clark, D. L. 1968. Long-Term Effects of Social Isolation in Nonsocially Adapted Rhesus Monkeys. J. Genet. Psychol. 113:117–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Mitchell, G. D., Raymond, E. J., Ruppenthal, G. C., and Harlow, H. F. 1966. Long-Term Effects of Total Social Isolation Upon Behavior of Rhesus Monkeys. Psychol. Rep. 18:567–580.Google Scholar
  99. Morrison, H. L., and McKinney, W. T. 1976. Models of Human Psychopathology: Experimental Approaches in Primates. In A. Frazer and A. Winokur (eds.). Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology. Spectrum, New York. In press.Google Scholar
  100. Mussen, P. H., and Conger, J. J. 1956. Child Development and Personality, pp. 137–138. Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Newberne, P. M. 1975. Animal Models for Investigation of Latent Effects of Malnutrition. Am. J. Dis. Child. 129:574–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nissen, H. W., Chow, K. L., and Semmes, J. 1951. Effects of Restricted Opportunity for Tactual, Kinesthetic and Manipulative Experience on the Behavior of Chimpanzees. Amer. J. Psychol. 64:485–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Noble, A. B., McKinney, W. T., and Mohr, C. 1975. Diazepam Treatment of Socially Isolated Monkeys. Paper presented at American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting, Anaheim, California.Google Scholar
  104. Novak, M. A. 1975. Social Recovery of Monkeys Isolated for the First Year of Life. II. Test of Therapy. In Preparation.Google Scholar
  105. Novak, M. A., and Harlow, H. F. 1975. Social Recovery of Monkeys Isolated for the First Year of Life. I. Rehabilitation and Therapy. Dev. Psychol. 11:453–564.Google Scholar
  106. O’Connor, N. 1968. Children in Restricted Environments, p. 530. In G. Newton and S. Levine (eds.). Early Experience and Behavior. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  107. Prince, J. 1967. The Dominance Hierarchy and the Evolution of Mental Illness. Lancet 2:243–246.Google Scholar
  108. Rall, D. P. 1969. Animal Models for Pharmacotherapeutic Studies. In Animal Models for Biomedical Research. Fed. Proc. 32: 125–132.Google Scholar
  109. Redmond, D. E., Maas, J. W., Kling, A., Graham, C. W., and Dekirmenjian, H. 1971. Social Behavior of Monkeys Selectively Depleted of Monoamines. Science 174:428–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Riesen, A. H. 1950. Arrested Vision. Sci. Amer. 183:16–19.Google Scholar
  111. Riesen, A. H. 1965. Effects of Early Deprivation of Photic Stimulation, pp. 61–85. In S. F. Osler and R. E. Cooke (eds.). The Biosocial Basis of Mental Retardation. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  112. Riesen, A. H. 1975. The Sensory Environment in Growth and Development, pp. 1–6. In A. H. Riesen (ed.). The Developmental Neuropsychology of Sensory Deprivation. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  113. Reiss, B. F. 1954. The Effect of Altered Environment and of Age on Mother-Young Relationships Among Animals. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 57:606–610.Google Scholar
  114. Ribble, M. A. 1943. The Rights of Infants. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  115. Robertson, T., and Bowlby, J. 1952. Responses of Young Children to Separation From Their Mothers. Cours du Centre International de 1’ Enfance, 2: 131–142.Google Scholar
  116. Rosenblum, L. A., and Kaufman, I. C. 1968. Variation in Infant Development and Response to Maternal Loss in Monkeys. Am. J. Ortho. psychiat. 38:418–426.Google Scholar
  117. Rowland, G. L. 1964. The Effects of Total Social Isolation Upon Learning and Social Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  118. Ruppenthal, G. C., Harlow, M. K., Eisele, C. D., Harlow, H. F., and Suomi, S. J. 1974. Development of Peer Interactions of Monkeys Reared in a Nuclear Family Environment. Child Dev. 45: 670–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sackett, G. P. 1966. Development of Preference for Differentially Complex Patterns by Infant Monkeys. Psychonon. Sci. 6:441–442.Google Scholar
  120. Sackett, G. P. 1968a. Abnormal Behavior in Laboratory Reared Rhesus Monkeys, pp. 293–331. In M. W. Fox (ed.). Abnormal Behavior in Animals. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  121. Sackett, G. P. 1968b. The Persistence of Abnormal Behavior in Monkeys Following Isolation Rearing. Int. Psychiat. Clin. 6: 3–37.Google Scholar
  122. Sackett, G. P. 1972. Prospects for Research on Schizophrenia. 3. Neurophysiology of Isolation Rearing in Primates. Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 10:388–392.Google Scholar
  123. Sackett, G. P., Porter, M., and Holmes, H. 1965. Choice Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys. Effect of Stimulation During the First Month of Life. Science 147:304–306.Google Scholar
  124. Sackett, G. P., Holm, R. A., and Landesman-Dwyer, S. 1975. Vulnerability for Abnormal Development: Pregnancy Outcomes and Sex Differences in Macaque Monkeys, pp. 59–76. In N. R. Ellis (ed.). Aberrant Development in Infancy. Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  125. Schanberg, S., Schildkraut, J., and Breese, G. 1968. Metabolism of Normetanephrine in Rat Brain: Identification of Conjugated 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol as Major Metabolite. Biochem. Pharm. 17:247–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Schildkraut, J. 1970. Neuropsychopharmacology and the Affective Disorders. Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  127. Seaman, S. F. 1975. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  128. Seay, B., and Harlow, H. F. 1965. Maternal Separation in the Rhesus Monkey. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 140:434–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Seay, B. M., Alexander, B. K., and Harlow, H. F. 1964. Maternal Behavior of Socially Deprived Rhesus Monkeys. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 69:345–354.Google Scholar
  130. Seitz, P. D. 1959. Infantile Experience and Adult Behavior in Animal Subjects. II. Age of Separation From the Mother and Adult Behavior in the Cat. Psychosom. Med. 21:353–378.Google Scholar
  131. Seligman, M. E. P., Maier, S. F., and Geer, J. 1968. The Alleviation of Learned Helplessness in the Dog. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 73:256–262.Google Scholar
  132. Senay, E. C. 1966. Toward an Animal Model of Depression: A Study of Separation Behavior in Dogs. J. Psychiat. Res. 4:65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Spector, S., Sjoerdsma, A., and Udenfriend, S. 1965. Blockage of Endogenous Norepinephrine Synthesis by Alpha-Methyl-Para-Tyrosine, An Inhibitor of Tyrosine Hydroxylase. J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 147:86–95.Google Scholar
  134. Spencer-Booth, Y., and Hinde, R. A. 1967. The Effects of Separating Rhesus Monkey Infants. J. Child Psychol. Psychiat. Allied Dis. 7:179–197.Google Scholar
  135. Spitz, R. A. 1946. Anaclitic Depression: An Inquiry Into the Genesis of Psychiatric Conditions in Early Childhood. II. Psy. Study of Child. 2:313–342.Google Scholar
  136. Suomi, S. J. 1973a. Surrogate Rehabilitation of Monkeys Reared in Total Social Isolation. J. Child Psychol. Psychiat. 14:71–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Suomi, S. J. 1973b. Repetitive Peer Separation of Young Monkeys. Effects of Vertical Chamber Confinement During Separations. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 81:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Suomi, S. J. 1974. Social Interactions of Monkeys Reared in a Nuclear Family Environment Versus Monkeys Reared With Mothers and Peers. Primates 15:311–320.Google Scholar
  139. Suomi, S. J., and Harlow, H. F. 1969. Apparatus Conceptualization for Psychopathological Research in Monkeys. Behav. Res. Meth. Instr. 1:1–12.Google Scholar
  140. Suomi, S. J., and Harlow, H. F. 1972. Social Rehabilitation of Isolate-Reared Monkeys. Dev. Psychol. 6:487–496.Google Scholar
  141. Suomi, S. J., Harlow, H. F., and Domeck, C. J. 1970. Effect of Repetitive Infant-Infant Separation of Young Monkeys. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 76:161–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Suomi, S. J., Harlow, H. F., and McKinney, W. T. 1972. Monkey Psychiatrists. Amer. J. Psychiat. 128:927–932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Suomi, S. J., Eisele, C. D., Grady, S. F., and Harlow, H. F. 1975. Depressive Behavior in Adult Monkeys Following Separation from Family Environment. Abnorm. Psy. In press.Google Scholar
  144. Thompson, W. R., and Melzack, R. 1956. Early Environment. Sci. Amer. 194:38–42.Google Scholar
  145. Thompson, W. R., and Solomon, L. M. 1954. Spontaneous Pattern Discrimination in the Rat. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 47:104–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Tinkelpaugh, O. L. 1928. The Self-Mutilation of a Male Macacus Rhesus Monkey. J. Mammal. 9:293–300.Google Scholar
  147. Waters, R. H., Rethlingshafer, D. A., and Caldwell, W. E. (eds.). 1960. Principles of Comparative Psychology, p. 437. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  148. White, N. F. (ed.). 1974. Ethology and Psychiatry, p. 257. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  149. Wildt, D. E., and Dukelow, W. R. 1974. The Nonhuman Primate as a Model for Human Twinning. Lab. Primate News 13:15–18.Google Scholar
  150. Winnicott, D. W. 1948. Pediatrics and Psychiatry. Brit. J. Med. Psychol. 21:229–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Yarrow, L. J., Rubenstein, J. L., Pedersen, F. A., and Jankowski, J. J. 1972. Dimensions of Early Stimulation and Their Differential Effects on Infant Development. Merr. Palm. Quart. 18:205.Google Scholar
  152. Yerkes, R. M. 1913. Comparative Psychology: A Question of Definitions. J. Phil. 10:580–582.Google Scholar
  153. Young, L. D., Suomi, S. J., Harlow, H. F., and McKinney, W. T. 1973. Early Stress and Later Response to Separation in Rhesus Monkeys. Am. J. Psychiat. 130:400–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Zubeck, J. P., Bayer, L., and Shepard, J. M. 1969. Relative Effects of Prolonged Social Isolation and Confinement: Behavioral and EEG Changes. J. Abnorm. Psychol., 74: 625–631.Google Scholar
  155. Zubeck, J. P., Hughes, G. R., and Shepard, J. M. 1971. A Comparison of the Effects of Prolonged Sensory Deprivation and Perceptual Deprivation. Can. J. Behav. Sci. 3:282–290.Google Scholar
  156. Zuckerman, S. 1932. The Social Life of Monkeys and Apes. Routlege, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen L. Morrison
    • 1
  • William T. McKinneyJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Wisconsin Medical SchoolMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations