The Morphology of the Developing Myelin Sheath

  • Alan Peters
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 8)


Myelinated axons are present in the peripheral and central nervous systems, and in both, the myelin sheaths have the form of segmented cylindrical tubes. The segments of the sheaths are the internodes and the intervals between them are the nodes of Ranvier.


Sciatic Nerve Schwann Cell Myelin Sheath Myelinated Axon Internodal Length 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, C.W.M., and Leibowitz, S., 1969, The general pathology of demyelinating disease, in “Structure and Function of Nervous Tissue”, vol. 3 (G.H. Bourne, ed.), P. 309, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  2. Baldzs, R., Brooksbank, B.W.L., Davison, A.N., Eayrs, J.T., and Wilson, D.A., 1969, The effect of neonatal thyroidectomy on myelination in the rat brain, Brain Res. 15: 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bass, N.H., Netsky, M.G., and Young, E., 1970, Effect of neonatal malnutrition on developing cerebrum. II. Microchemical and histologic study of myelin formation in the rat, Arch. Neurol. 23: 303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benton, J.W., Moser, H.W., Dodge, P.R., and Carr. S., 1966, Modification of the schedule of myelination in the rat in early nutritional deprivation, Pediatrics 38: 801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blinzinger, K., Anzil, A.P., and Müller, W., 1972, Myelinated nerve cell perikaryon in mouse spinal cord, Z. Zellforsch. 128: 135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blunt, M.J., Baldwin, F., and Wendell-Smith, C.P., 1972, Gliogenesis and myelination in kitten optic nerve, Z. Zellforsch. 124: 293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bunge, R.P., 1968, Glial cells and the central myelin sheath, Physiol. Rev. 48: 197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Caley, D.W., 1967, Ultrastructural differences between central and peripheral myelin sheath formation in the rat, Anat. Rec. 157: 223.Google Scholar
  9. Causey, G., 1960, The Cell of Schwann, Livingston, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  10. Clos, J., and Legrand, J., 1970, Influence de la déficience thyroidienne et de la sous alimentation sur la croissance et la myelinisation des fibres nerveuses du nerf sciatic chez le jeune rat blanc. Étude au microscope electronique, Brain Res. 22: 285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Constantino-Ceccarini, E., and Morell, P., 1971, Quaking mouse: In vitro studies of brain sphingolipid biosynthesis, Brain Res. 29: 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cravioto, H., 1965, The role of Schwann cells in the development of human peripheral nerves. An electron microscopic study, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 12: 634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elfvin, L.G., 1968, The structure and composition of motor, ensory, and autonomic nerves and nerve fibers, in “Structure and Function of Nervous Tissue”, vol. 1 (G.H. Bourne, ed.), p. 325, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  14. Fraher, J.P., 1972, A quantitative study of anterior root fibres during early myelination, J. Anat. 112: 99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Friede, R.L., and Miyagishi, T., 1972, Adjustment of the myelin sheath to changes in axon caliber, Anat. Rec. 172: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Friede, R.L., and Samorajski, T., 1968, Myelin formation in the sciatic nerve of the rat. A quantitative electron microscopic, histochemical and radioactive study, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 27: 546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gamble, H.J., 1966, Further electron microscope studies of human foetal peripheral nerves, J. Anat. 100: 487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hamburgh, M., and Bornstein, M.R., 1970, Myelin synthesis in two demyelinating mutations in mice, Exp. Neurol. 28: 471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hedley-Whyte, E.T., and Meuser, C.S., 1971, The effect of under-nutrition on myelination of rat sciatic nerve, Lab. Invest. 24: 156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hedley-Whyte, E.T., Rawlins, F.A., Salpeter, M.M., and Uzman, B.G., 1969, Distribution of cholesterol-l,2-H3 during maturation of mouse peripheral nerve, Lab. Invest. 21: 536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hendelman, W.T., and Bunge, R.P., 1969, Radioautographic studies of choline incorporation into peripheral nerve myelin, J. Cell Biol. 40: 190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Herschkowitz, N., Vassella, F., and Bischoff, A., 1971, Myelin differences in the central and peripheral nervous systems in the “jimpy” mouse, J. Neurochem. 18: 1361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hildebrand, C., 1971, Ultrastructural and light-microscopic studies of the developing feline spinal cord white matter. II. Cell death and myelin sheath disintegration in the early postnatal period, Acta. physiol. scand. Suppl. 364: 109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hirano, A., 1968, A confirmation of the oligodendroglial origin of myelin in the adult rat, J. Cell Biol. 38: 637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hirano, A., 1972, The pathology of the central myelinated axon, in “The Structure and Function of Nervous Tissue”, vol. 5 (G.H Bourne, ed.), p. 73, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  26. Hirano, A., and Dembitzer, H.M., 1967, A structural analysis of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system, J. Cell Biol. 34: 555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hirano, A., Zimmerman, H.M., and Levine, S., 1966, Myelin in the central nervous system as observed in experimentally induced edema in the rat, J. Cell Biol. 31: 397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kelton, D., and Rauch, H., 1962, Myelination and myelin degeneration in the central nervous system of dilute lethal mice, Exp. Neurol. 6: 252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knobler, R.I., and Stempak, J.G., 1972, Serial section analysis of myelin development in the central nervous system of the albino rat: An electron microscopical study of early axonal ensheathment, in “Neurobiological Aspects of Maturation and Aging” (D.H. Ford, ed.), Progress in Brain Research, Elsevier Press.Google Scholar
  30. Lampert, P.W., 1968, Fine structural changes of myelin sheaths in the central nervous system, in “Structure and Function of Nervous Tissue”, vol. 1 (G.H. Bourne, ed.), p. 187, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  31. Mandel, P., 1971, Pathology: Mutants, in “Myelin” (L.C. Morasch, R.S. Bear and F.O. Schmitt, eds.), Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 9: 486.Google Scholar
  32. Matthews, M.A., 1968, An electron microscopic study of the relationship between axon diameter and the initiation of myelin production in the peripheral nervous system, Anat. Rec. 161: 337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matthews, M.A., and Duncan, D., 1971, A quantitative study of morphological changes accompanying the initiation and progress of myelin production in the dorsal funiculus of the rat spinal cord, J. comp. Neurol. 142: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McFarland, D.E., and Friede, R.L., 1971, Number of fibres per sheath cell and internodal length in cat cranial nerves, J. Anat. 109: 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Meier, H., and MacPike, A.D., 1970, A neurological mutation (msd) of the mouse causing a deficiency of myelin synthesis, Exp. Brain Res. 10: 512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Metuzals, J., 1965, Ultrastructure of the nodes of Ranvier and their surrounding structures in the central nervous system. Z. Zellforsch. 65: 719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Napolitano, L.M., and Scallen, T.J., 1969, Observations on the fine structure of peripheral nerve myelin, Anat. Rec. 163: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ochoa, J., 1971, The sural nerve of the human foetus: Electron microscope observations and counts of axons, J. Anat. 108: 231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Peters, A., 1966, The node of Ranvier in the central nervous system, Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 51: 229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Peters, A., 1968, The morphology of axons of the central nervous system, in “Structure and Function of Nervous Tissue”, vol. 1 (G.H. Bourne, ed.), p. 142, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  41. Peters, A., Palay, S.L., and Webster, H. de F., 1970, The Fine Structure of the Nervous System. The Cells and Their Processes, Harper and Row, New York, Evanston and London.Google Scholar
  42. Peters, A., and Proskauer, C.C., 1969, The ratio between myelin segments and oligodendrocytes in the optic nerve of the adult rat, Anat. Rec. 163: 243.Google Scholar
  43. Peters, A., and Vaughn, J.E., 1970, Morphology and development of they myelin sheath, in “Myelination” (A.N. Davison and A. Peters, eds.), p. 3, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.Google Scholar
  44. Peterson, R.G., and Pease, D.C., 1972, Myelin embedded in polymerized glutaraldehyde-urea, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 41: 115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pomerat, C.M., Hendelman, W.J., Raiborn, C.W., and Massey, J.F., 1967, Dynamic activities of nervous tissue in vitro, in “The Neuron” (H. Hydén, ed.), p. 119, Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam, London, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Rawlins, F.A. and Uzman, B.G., 1970a, Retardation of peripheral nerve myelination in mice treated with inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. A quantitative electron microscopic study, J. Cell Biol, 47: 505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rawlins, F.A., and Uzman, B. G., 1970b, Effect of AY-9944. A cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, on peripheral nerve myelination, Lab. Invest. 23: 184.Google Scholar
  48. Revel, J.P., and Hamilton, D.W., 1969, The double nature of the intermediate dense line in peripheral nerve myelin, Anat. Rec. 163: 7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Samorajski, T., and Friede, R.L., 1968, A quantitative electron microscopic study of myelination in the pyramidal tract of rat, J. Comp. Neurol. 134: 323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Samorajski, T., Friede, R.L., and Reimer, P.R., 1970, Hypomyelination in the quaking mouse. A model for the analysis of disturbed myelin formation, J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 29: 507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Speidel, C.C., 1964, In vitro studies of myelinated nerve fibers, in “International Review of Cytology”, vol. 16 (G.H. Bourne and J.F. Danielli, eds.), p. 173, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  52. Stempak, J.G., and Knobler, R.L., 1972, Bidirectionality in the tongue processes of the oligodendroglial cell investment of axons in the albino rat, Am. J. Anat. 135: 287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Uzman, B.G., and Smith, M.E., 1971, Myelin stability and turnover. Chemical aspects, in “Myelin” (L.C. Mokrasch, R.S. Bear and F.O. Schmitt, eds.), Neurosciences Res. Prog. Bull. 9: 477.Google Scholar
  54. Webster, H. de F., 1971, The geometry of peripheral myelin sheaths during their formation and growth in rat sciatic nerves, J. Cell Biol. 48: 348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Webster, H. de F., and Billings, S.M., 1972, Myelinated nerve fibers in Xenopus tadpoles: In vivo observations and fine structure, J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 31: 102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wisniewski, H., and Morell, P., 1971, Quaking mouse: Ultrastructural evidence for arrest of myelinogenesis, Brain Res. 29: 63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Peters
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations