Further Studies on Memory Formation in the Goldfish

  • Bernard W. Agranoff
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 4)


The concept of consolidation, or fixation, of memory is historically linked to the effects of disruptive agents on the brain and their interpretation. For example, retrograde amnesia seen in man following physical trauma has been interpreted to indicate that permanent memory normally forms following a learning experience. This idea was subsequently expanded by evidence for a temporal gradient of growing insusceptibility to disruption of newly-formed memory in both man and in experimental animals. Agents producing convulsions and unconsciousness, such as electroconvulsive shock, were reported to produce varying degrees of performance decrement as a function of the time of their administration. The question remained whether some unitary or multiple process of memory fixation existed or alternatively, whether the various disruptive agents had noxious properties that interfered with registration, storage or retrieval of behavioral information.


Memory Formation Optic Tectum Retrograde Amnesia Orotic Acid Electroconvulsive Shock 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard W. Agranoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Mental Health Research InstituteThe University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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