Comparison of the Effects of Electrical Stimulation and Iontophoretic Dopamine on Neurons of the Nigro-Neostriatal Pathway

  • John D. Connor
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 1)


The dense neuropil of the caudate nucleus is notable for its content of neurohumoral substances thought to be important in synaptic transmission. High concentrations of acetylcholine (MacIntosh 1941) and the enzymes required for its synthesis (Feldberg and Vogt 1948; Hebb and Silver 1956) and catabolism (Burgen and Chipman 1951) are found in this structure. The unusually large concentration of dopamine in the caudate and other basal ganglia prompted the initial suggestion that dopamine may have a physiologic function other than as a precursor for norepinephrine in some brain areas (Carlsson, Lindqvist, and Magnusson 1957). In addition, there are also relatively large concentrations of serotonin (Bogdanski, Weissbach, and Udenfriend 1957) and gamma-amino butyric acid (Baxter and Roberts 1960), and lower levels of norepinephrine (Vogt 1954) and histamine (McGeer 1964).


Electrical Stimulation Caudate Nucleus Spike Rate Dopamine Concentration Cholinergic Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albe-Fessard, D.; Raieva, S.; and Santiago, W. 1967. Sur les rélations entre substance noire et noyou caudé. J. Physiol. (Paris) 59:324.Google Scholar
  2. Andén, N. E.; Carlsson, A.; Dahlström, A.; Fuxe, K.; Hillarp, N. Å.; and Larsson, K. 1964. Demonstration and mapping out of nigro-neostriatal dopamine neurons. Life Sci. 3:523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andén, N. E.; Dahlström, A.; Fuxe, K.; Larsson, K.; Olson, L.; and Ungerstedt, U. 1966. Ascending monoamine neurons to the telen-cephalon and diencephalon. Acta Physiol. Scand. 67:313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, W. W.; Connor, J. D.; Rossi, G. V.; and Lalley, P. M. 1969. Production of tremor by intracaudate cholinergic agents and its suppression by locally administered catecholamines. In Progress in Neuro-Genetics, vol. 1. A. Barbeau and J.-R. Brunette (eds.). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica Foundation, p. 390.Google Scholar
  5. Barbeau, A. 1962. The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease: A new hypothesis. Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 87:802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baxter, C. F., and Roberts, E. 1960. Demonstration of thiosemi-carbazide-induced convulsions in rats with elevated brain levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 104:426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertler, Å., and Rosengren, E. 1959. Occurrence and distribution of dopamine in brain and other tissues. Experientia 15:10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloom, F. E.; Costa, E.; and Salmoiraghi, G. C. 1965. Anesthesia and the responsiveness of individual neurons of the caudate nucleus of the cat to acetylcholine, norepinephine and dopamine administered by microelectrophoresis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 159:244.Google Scholar
  9. Bogdanski, D. F.; Weissbach, H.; and Udenfriend, S. 1957. The distribution of serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, and monoamine oxidase in brain. J. Neurochem. 1:272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burgen, A. S. V., and Chipman, L. M. 1951. Cholinesterase and succinic dehydrogenase in the central nervous system of the dog. J. Physiol. (London) 114:296.Google Scholar
  11. Carlsson, A.; Lindqvist, M.; and Magnusson, T. 1957. 3,4-Dihydroxy-phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists. Nature 180:1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Connor, J. D. 1968. Caudate unit responses to nigral stimuli: Evidence for a possible nigro-neostriatal pathway. Science 160:899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Connor, J. D. 1970. Caudate nucleus neurones: Correlation of the effects of substantia nigra stimulation with iontophoretic dopa-mine. J. Physiol. (London) 208:691.Google Scholar
  14. Connor, J. D., and Neff, N. H. 1970. Dopamine concentrations in the caudate nucleus of the developing cat. Life Sci. 9(I):1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Connor, J. D.; Rossi, G. V.; and Baker, W. W. 1966a. Characteristics of tremor in cats following carbachol injections into the caudate nucleus. Exp. Neurol. 14:371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Connor, J. D.; Rossi, G. V.; and Baker, W. W. 1966b. Analysis of the tremor induced by injection of cholinergic agents into the caudate nucleus. Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 5:207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Connor, J. D.; Rossi, G. V.; and Baker, W. W. 1967. Antagonism of intra-caudate carbachol tremor by local injections of catechol-amines. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 155:545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Duvoisin, R. C. 1967. Cholinergic-anticholinergic antagonism in Parkinsonism. Arch. Neurol. 17:124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feldberg, W., and Vogt, M. 1948. Acetylcholine synthesis in different regions of the central nervous system. J. Physiol. (London) 107:372.Google Scholar
  20. Feltz, P., and MacKenzie, J. S. 1969. Properties of caudate unitary responses to repetitive nigral stimulation. Brain Res. 13:612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frigyesi, T. L., and Purpura, D. P. 1967. Electrophysiological analysis of reciprocal caudate-nigral relations. Brain Res. 6:440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hebb, C. O., and Silver, A. 1956. Choline acetylase in the central nervous system of man and some other mammals. J. Physiol. (London) 134:718.Google Scholar
  23. Herz, A., and Zieglgängsberger, W. 1966. Synaptic excitation in the corpus striatum inhibited by microelectrophoretically administered dopamine. Experienta 22:839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hornykiewicz, O. 1966. Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) and brain function. Pharmacol. Rev. 18:925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kling, A.; Finer, S.; and Gilmour, J. 1969. Regional development of acetylcholinesterase activity in the maternally reared and maternally deprived cat. Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 8:25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Macintosh, F. C. 1941. The distribution of acetylcholine in the peripheral and the central nervous system. J. Physiol. (London) 99:436.Google Scholar
  27. McGeer, P. L. 1964. The distribution of histamine in cat and human brain. In Comparative Neurochemistry. D. Richter (ed.), London: Pergamon Press, p. 387.Google Scholar
  28. McLennan, H., and York, D. H. 1966. Cholinergic mechanisms in the caudate nucleus. J. Physiol. (London)187:163.Google Scholar
  29. McLennan, H., and York, D. H. 1967. The action of dopamine on neurones of the caudate nucleus. J. Physiol. (London) 189:393.Google Scholar
  30. Poirier, L. J., and Sourkes, T. L. 1965. Influence of the substan-tia nigra on the catecholamine content of the striatum. Brain 88:181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Salmoiraghi, G. C., and Weight, F. 1967. Micromethods in neuro-pharmacology: An approach to the study of anesthetics. Anesthesiology 28:54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shute, C. C. D., and Lewis, P. R. 1963. Cholinesterase-containing systems of the brain of the rat. Nature 199:1160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Siegel, S. 1956. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  34. Sourkes, T. L., and Poirier, L. J. 1965. Influence of the substan-tia nigra on the concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine of the striatum. Nature 207:202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Theonen, H.; Haefely, W.; Gey, K. F.; and Rürlimann, A. 1967. Liberation of alpha-methyldopamine as a “false” sympathetic transmitter after pretreatment of cats with alpha-methyldopa and disul-firam. Naunyn Schmiedeberg Arch. Pharm. Exp. Path. 258:181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vogt, M. 1954. The concentration of sympathin in different parts of the central nervous system under normal conditions and after the administration of drugs. J. Physiol. (London) 123:451.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Connor
    • 1
  1. 1.The Milton S. Hershey Medical CenterPennsylvania State UniversityHersheyUSA

Personalised recommendations