Chemotherapy of Depression

  • Gerald L. Klerman
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 1)


It is now thirteen years since the simultaneous introduction in 1957 of iproniazid (Marsilid), the prototypic monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and imipramine (Tofranil), the prototypic tricyclic antidepressant. Since then, a large number of new compounds has been developed and introduced for therapeutic usage. Numerous symposiums have been held and a large number of papers have appeared about the clinical efficacy of these drugs and the biochemical bases of their actions. Nonetheless, considerable controversy continues. There are unresolved questions as to toxicity and as to therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, there is a lack of consensus as to the etiology and nosology of depressions, and whether specific patient types respond better to one or another treatment.


Depressed Patient Affective Disorder Antidepressant Drug Placebo Response Depressive Illness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, L. 1953. Treatment of Mental Disorder. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  2. Angst, J. 1961. A clinical analysis of the effects of Tofranil in depressions. Psychopharmacologia 2:381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson, R. M., and Ditman, K. S. 1965. Tranylcypromine: a review. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 6:631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayd, F. J. 1960. Amitriptyline (Elavil) therapy for depressive reactions. Psychosomatics 1:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baastrup, P. C., and Schou, M. 1967. Lithium as a prophylactic agent. Its effect against recurrent depressions and manic-depressive psychosis. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 16:162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bunney, W. E., Jr.; Goodwin, F. K.; Davis, J. M.; and Fawcett, J. A. 1968. A behavioral-biochemical study of lithium treatment. Amer. J. Psychiat. 125:499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Casey, J. F.; Hollister, L. E.; Klett, C. J.; Lasky, J. J.; and Caffey, E. M. 1961. Combined drug therapy of chronic schizophrenics. Controlled evaluation of placebo, dextroamphetamine, imipra-mine, isocarboxazid and trifluoperazine added to maintenance doses of chlorpromazine. Amer. J. Psychiat. 117:997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Connell, P. H. 1958. Amphetamine Psychoses. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Coppen, A. J. 1967. Depressed states and indolealkylamines. In Biological Role of Indolealkylamine Derivatives. Advances in Pharmacology Vol. 6, part b. E. Costa, S. Garattini, M. Sandier, and P. Shore (eds.). New York: Academic Press, p. 283.Google Scholar
  10. Dally, P. J., and Rohde, P. 1961. Comparison of antidepressant drugs in depressive illnesses. Lancet 1:18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis, J.; Schildkraut, J. J.; and Klerman, G. L. 1967. The clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. Presented at annual meeting of American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Published 1968, Drugs used in the treatment of depression. In Psychopharmacology, A Review of Progress 1957-1967. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 719.Google Scholar
  12. Friedman, A. S.; Granick, S.; Cohen, H. W.; and Cowitz, B. 1966. Imipramine (Tofranil) vs. placebo in hospitalized psychotic depressives (A comparison of patients’ self-ratings, psychiatrists’ ratings and psychological tests). J. Psychiat. Res. 4:13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. General Practitioner Research Group 1964. Dexamphetamine compared with inactive placebo in depression. Report of General Research Group. Practitioner 192:151.Google Scholar
  14. Gottlieb, J. S. 1949. The use of sodium amytal and benzedrine sulfate in the symptomatic treatment of depression. Bis. Nerv. Syst. 10:50.Google Scholar
  15. Greenblatt, M.; Grosser, G. H.; and Wechsler, H. 1962. A comparative study of selected antidepressants and EST. Amer. J. Psychiat. 119:144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Greenblatt, M.; Grosser, G. H.; and Wechsler, H. 1964. Differential response of hospitalized depressed patients to somatic therapy. Amer. J. Psychiat. 120:935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hare, E. H.; Dominian, J.; and Sharpe, L. 1962. Phenelzine and dexamphetamine in depressive illness. Brit. Med. J. 1:9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kiloh, L. G., and Garside, R. F. 1963. The independence of neurotic depression and endogenous depression. Brit. J. Psychiat. 109:451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Klein, D. F. 1964. Delineation of two drug-responsive anxiety syndromes. Psychopharmacologia 5:397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klerman, G. L., 1966. Modes of action of antidepressant drugs. Pharmaootherapy of Depression. J. Cole and J. R Wittenborn (eds.). Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, p. 134.Google Scholar
  21. Klerman, G. L. 1970. Clinical efficacy and actions of anti-psy-chotics. In The Clinical Handbook of Psyohopharmacology. A. DiMascio (ed.). New York: Science House.Google Scholar
  22. Klerman, G. L,, and Cole, J. O. 1965. Clinical pharmacology of imipramine and related antidepressant compounds. Pharm. Rev. 17:101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Klerman, G. L., and Paykel, E. S. 1970. Depressive pattern, social background and hospitalization. J. Nerv. Ment. Bis. 150:466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klerman, G. L.; Schildkrauet, J. J.; Hasenbush, L. L.; Greenblatt, M.; and Friend, D. 1963. Clinical experience with dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) in depression. J. Psychiat. Res. 1:289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kline, N. S., and Sacks, W. 1963. Relief of depression within one day using an MAO inhibitor and intravenous 5-HTP. Amer. J. Psyohiat. 120:274.Google Scholar
  26. Kline, N. S.; Sacks, W.; and Simpson, G. M. 1964. Further studies on one day treatment of depression with 5-HTP. Amer. J. Psychiat. 121:379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kopin, I. J. 1968. Identification of “true” and “false” transmitters. In Psychopharmacology, A Review of Progress 1957-1967. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 57.Google Scholar
  28. Lasagna, L. 1971. Decision processes in establishing the efficacy and safety of psychotropic drugs. Principles and Problems in Establishing the Efficacy of Psychotropic Drugs. Joint publication of ACNP and NIMH. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, in press.Google Scholar
  29. Legge, D., and Steinberg, H. 1962. Actions of a mixture of amphetamine and a barbiturate in man. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 18:490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lehmann, H. E. 1966. Non-MAO inhibitor antidepressants in clinical perspective. In Antidepressant Drugs of Non-MAO Inhibitor Type. Washington, D.C.; Public Health Service Publication, p. 122.Google Scholar
  31. Leonhard, K. 1966. Aufteilung der Endogenen Psychosen. Third Ed. Berlin.Google Scholar
  32. Litchfield, J. T. 1961. Forecasting drug effects in man from studies in laboratory animals. J.A.M.A. 177:34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McKinney, W. T., and Bunney, W. E. 1969. Animal model of depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 21:240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oswald, I., and Thacore, V. R. 1963. Amphetamine and phenmetrazine addiction. Physiological abnormalities in the abstinence syndrome. Brit. Med. J. 11:427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Overall, J. E. 1962. Dimensions of manifest depression. Psychiat. Res. 1:239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Overall, J. E.; Hollister, L. E.; and Pennington, V. 1966. Nosology of depression and differential response to drugs. J.A.M.A. 195:946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Overall, J. E.; Hollister, L.; Pokorny, A.; Casey, J. F.; and Katz, G. 1962. Drug therapy in depressions. Controlled evaluation of imipramine, isocarboxazid, dextroamphetamine-amobarbital, and placebo, Clin. Pharm. Ther. 3:16.Google Scholar
  38. Paykel, E.; Klerman, G. L.; and Prusoff, B. 1970. Treatment setting and clinical depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 22:11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Raskin, A.; Schulterbrandt, J. G.; Reatig, N.; and McKeon, J. J. 1970. Differential response to chlorpromazine, imipramine and placebo. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 23:164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Robin, A. A., and Wiseberg, S. 1958. A controlled trial of methyl-phenidate (Ritalin) in the treatment of depressive states. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 21:55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Robins, E., and Guze, S. B. 1971. Classification of affective disorders: the primary-secondary, the endogenous-reactive, and the neurotic-psychotic concepts. In Recent Advances in the Psycho-biology of the Depressive Illnesses. Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by NIMH. T. A. Williams, M. M. Katz, and J. A. Shield, Jr. (eds.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, in press.Google Scholar
  42. Rosenthal, S. H., and Klerman, G. L. 1966. Content and consistency in the endogenous depressive pattern. Brit. J. Psychiat. 112:471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schildkraut, J. J. 1970. Neuropharmacology and the Affective Disorders. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  44. Schou, M. 1968. Lithium in psychiatric therapy and prophylaxis. J. Psychiat. Res. 6:67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schwab, J. J.; Bialow, M.; and Brown, J. M. 1967. Sociocultural aspects of depression in medical patients II. Symptomatology and class variables. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 17:539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tonks, C. M.; Paykel, E. S.; and Klerman, G. L. 1970. Clinical depressions among Negroes. Amer. J. Psychiat. 127:3.Google Scholar
  47. Uhlenhuth, E. H., and Duncan, D. B. 1968. Subjective change with medical student therapists: II. Some determinants of change in psychoneurotic outpatients. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 18:532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. United Kingdom Multi-Hospital Trial 1965. Medical Research Council. Clinical trial of the treatment of depressive illness. Brit. Med. J. 1:881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Winokur, G., and Clayton, P. 1967. Family history studies: I. Two types of affective disorders separated according to genetic and clinical factors. In Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry, vol. 9. J. Wortis (ed.). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  50. Wittenborn, J. R.; Plante, M.; Burgess, F.; and Maurer, H. 1962. A comparison of imipramine, electroconvulsive therapy and placebo in the treatment of depression. J. Nerv. Ment. Bis. 135:131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wittenborn, J. R. 1968. Prediction of the individual’s response to antidepressant medication. In Psychopharmacology, A Review of Progress 1957-1967. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 749.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald L. Klerman
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard Medical SchoolMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations