Chemotherapy of Manic-Depressive Disorder

  • Baron Shopsin
  • Samuel Gershon
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 1)


The term “affective disorders” is used for a group of mental illnesses with a primary disturbance of affect, and comprising those behavior disorders characterized principally by increased or decreased activity and thought, expressive of a predominating mood of depression or elation.


Manic Episode Lithium Treatment Lithium Salt Prophylactic Effect Affective Psychos 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdulla, Y. H., and Hamadah, K. 1970. 3,5-Cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate in depression and mania. Lancet 1:378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akimoto, H. 1962. In Normothymics, “mood normalizers” by M. Schou. Brit. J. Psychiat. 109:803 (1963).Google Scholar
  3. Akimoto, H.; Nakakuki, M.; Honda, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; and Toyoda, J. 1961. Clinical evaluation of the effect of central stimulants, MAO inhibitors, and imipramine in the treatment of affective disorders. Proceedings of Third World Congress of Psychiatry 2:958.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, H., and Kristiansen, E. S. 1959. Tofranil treatment of endogenous depression. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 34:387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andreani, G.; Caselle, A.; and Martelli, G. 1958. Clinical and electrographic findings in the treatment of mania with lithium salts. G. Psichiat. Neuropat. 83:273.Google Scholar
  6. Angrist, B. M.; Gershon, S.; Levitan, S. J.; and Blumberg, A. G. 1968. Lithium induced “diabetes insipidus”-like syndrome. Compr. Psychiat. 11(no. 2):141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Angst, J. 1966. Zur Aetiologie und Nosologie Endogener Depressiver Psychosen. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p. 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angst, J.; Dittrich, A.; and Grof, P. 1969. Course of endogenous affective psychoses and its modification by prophylactic administration of imipramine and lithium. Int. Pharmacopsychiat. 2:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Angst, J.; Weis, P.; Grof, P.; Baastrup, P.; and Schou, M. 1970. Lithium prophylaxis in recurrent affective disorders. Brit. J. Psychiat. 116(no. 535):604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Angyal, L. 1967. Clinical experiences with the application of halopendol to mental patients. Ther. Hung. 15:155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Annell, A. I. 1969. Lithium in the treatment of children and adolescents. Acta Psyehiat. Scand. Suppl. 207:19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Araki, I.; Ito, M.; Kostyuk, P.; Oscarsson, O.; and Oshima, I. 1965. The effects of alkaline cations on the responses of cat spinal neurons and their removal from the cell. Proc. Roy. Soc. (Biol.) 162:319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aronoff, M. S., and Epstein, R. S. 1969. Lithium failure in mania: A clinical study. Read at annual meeting of American Psychiatric Association, Bal Harbor, Florida.Google Scholar
  14. Atkinson, R. M., and Ditman, K. S. 1965. Tranylcypromine: A review. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 6:631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ayd, F. J. 1958. Drug-induced depression: Fact or fallacy? New York J. Med. 58:354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ayd, F. J. 1961. Psychopathic reactions to antidepressant drugs. J. Neuropsychiat. 2:119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Baastrup, P. C. 1964. The use of lithium in manic-depressive psychosis. Compr. Psychiat. 5:396.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Baastrup, P. C. 1967. Report to symposium, Lithium and Goitre, Risskov, Denmark.Google Scholar
  19. Baastrup, P. C., and Schou, M. 1967. Lithium as a prophylactic agent. Its effect against recurrent depressions and manic-depressive psychosis. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 16:162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Baastrup, P. C. 1968. Supplementary information about lithium treatment of manic-depressive disorders. Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 203:149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Baastrup, P. C.; Poulson, J. C; Schou, M.; Thomsen, K.; and Amidsen, A. 1970. Prophylactic lithium: Double blind discontinuation in manic-depressive and recurrent-depressive disorders. Lancet 2(no. 7668):326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baillarger, J. 1853–1854. Note on the type of insanity with attacks characterized by two regular periods, one of depression and one of excitation. Bull. Acad. Nat. Med. (Paris) 19:340.Google Scholar
  23. Baker 1930. In Foundations of Child Psychiatry. E. Miller (ed.). 1st. Ed. New York: Pergamon Press (1968), p. 262.Google Scholar
  24. Baldessarini, R. J., and Stephens, J. H. 1970. Lithium carbonate for affective disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 22(no. 1):72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ban, T. A. 1969. The rauwolfias. In Psychopharmacology, ch. 11. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, p. 222.Google Scholar
  26. Ban, T. A. 1969. The buterophenones. In Psychopharmacology, ch-12. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, p. 238.Google Scholar
  27. Ban, T. A. 1969. The thioxanthenes. In Psychopharmacology, ch. 13., Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, p. 256.Google Scholar
  28. Ban, T. A.; Papathomopulos, E.; and Schwartz, L. 1962. Clinical studies with thioproperazine (Majeptil). Compr. Psychiat. 3:284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Barsa, J. A., and Kline, N. S. 1955. Treatment of 200 disturbed psychotics with reserpine. J.A.M.A. vol. 158.Google Scholar
  30. Barsa, J. A., and Saunders, J. C. 1962. Tranylcypromine in the treatment of chronic schizophrenics. Amer. J. Psychiat. 118:933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bauer, A. 1962. Clinical experiences with thioridazine (Mellaril) on mental syndromes. Comparison with chlorpromazine and promazine. Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 81:549.Google Scholar
  32. Bennett, I. F. 1962. The constellations of depression: Its treatment with nortriptyline. II. Clinical evaluation of nortriptyline. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 135:59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bennie, R. H., and Fell, G. S. 1969. Relapses during lithium therapy. Lancet 2:1252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bercel, N. A. 1961. Clinical trial of thioridazine in private practice. Amer. Pract. Digest Treat. 12:44.Google Scholar
  35. Berens, S. C.; Bernstein, R. S.; Robbins, J.; and Wolff, J. 1969. The antithyroid effects of lithium. Paper presented at American Thyroid Association, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
  36. Berens, S. C.; Wolff, J.; and Murphy, D. L. 1970. Lithium concentration by the thyroid. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  37. Berthiaume, M. 1959. Alteration of the clinical picture during Tofranil therapy. Canad. Psychiat. Assoc. J. Suppl. 4:187.Google Scholar
  38. Bratfos, O., and Haug, J. O. 1968. The course of manic depressive psychosis. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 44:89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Brune, G. G., and Himwich, H. E. 1963. Biogenic amines and behavior in schizophrenic patients. In Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry. J. Wortis (ed.). vol. 5. New York: Plenum Press, p. 144.Google Scholar
  40. Bunney, W. E.; Brodie, H. K. H.; Murphy, D. L.; Goodwin, F. K. 1970. Studies of amine precursors and synthesis inhibitors in depression and mania. Presented to 123rd annual meeting of American Psychiatric Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  41. Burdock, E. I., and Hardesty, A. S. 1968. A psychological test for psychopathology. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 73:62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cade, J. F. J. 1949. Lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement. Med. J. Aust. 36:349.Google Scholar
  43. Cadoret, R. J.; Winokur, G.; and Clayton, P. J. 1970. Family history studies: VII. Manic depressive disease versus depressive disease. Brit. J. Psychiat. 116(no. 535):625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Chaffin, D. S. 1964. Phenothiazine-induced acute psychotic reaction: The “psychotoxicity” of a drug. Amer. J. Psychiat. 121:26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Chess, S. 1970. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  46. Chu, J., and Fogel, E. J. 1962. Clinical evaluation of the thymol-eptic effect of tranylcypromine. J. Indiana Med. Assoc. 56:40.Google Scholar
  47. Clark, W. G., and del Giudice, J. (eds.) 1970. Principles of Psychopharmacology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  48. Clarke, J. 1960. Side-effects of phenelzine. Brit. Med. J. 1:1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cole, J. O. 1960. Behavioral toxicity. In Drugs and Behavior. L. Uhr and J. G. Miller (eds.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, p. 375.Google Scholar
  50. Cole, L.; Griffith, C.; and Kaye, H. 1965. Anginal pain and depression. A preliminary investigation. Bis. Chest 48:584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cole, R. A., and Weiner, M. F. 1960. Clinical and theoretical observations on phenelzine (Nardil), an anti-depressant agent. Amer. J. Psychiat. 117:361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Colombi, D., and Ferrio, L. 1965. Results with thioridazine administered to a group of patients with chronic psychoses. Riv. Sper. Freniat. 89:717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Coppen, A. 1967. The biochemistry of affective disorders. Brit. J. Psychiat. 113:1237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Coppen, A.; Prange, A. J., Jr.; Whybrow, P. C.; Noguera, R.; and Paez, J. M. 1969. Methysergide in mania, a controlled trial. Lancet 2:338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Couleon, M.; Couleon, H.; Anne, L.; Blohorn, R.; Clerc, G.; and Guiraldo Trengualye, J. P. 1964. Treatment of states of psy-chomotor excitement, especially of acute mania by combination of thioridazine, Nembutal, and ECT. Ann. Med. Psychol. 122(II):752.Google Scholar
  56. Creak, E. M. 1952. A letter. Nervous Child 9:317.Google Scholar
  57. Davenport, V. D. 1950. Distribution of parenterally administered lithium in plasma, brain and muscle of rats. Amer. J. Physiol. 163:633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. D’Elia, G., and Rocco, P. G. 1963. Use of questionnaires in a clinico-pharmacological trial of Mellaril, Ann. Freniatria 76:358.Google Scholar
  59. Dewhurst, W. G. 1968. Methysergide in mania. Nature 219(no. 5153): 506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. DiMascio, A.; Meuer, R. E.; and Stifler, L. 1968. Effects of imipramine on individuals varying in level of depression. Amer. J. Psychiat. 124(suppl.):55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. DiMascio, A., and Shader, R. I. 1968. Behavioral toxicity. In Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress — 1957–1967. D.H. Efron (ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 551.Google Scholar
  62. Dixon and Greeves 1885. In Foundations of Child Psychiatry. E. Miller (ed.). 1st Ed. New York: Pergamon Press (1968), p. 262.Google Scholar
  63. Domino, E. F. 1968. Substituted phenothiazine antipsychotics. In Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress — 1957–1967. D.H. Efron (ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 1045.Google Scholar
  64. Dousa, T., and Hechter, O. 1970. The effect of NaCl and LiCl on vasopressin-sensitive adenyl cyclase. Life Sci. 9(part I):765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Drill, V. A. 1958. Pharmacology in Medicine. 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  66. Entwistle, C.; Taylor, R. M.; and MacDonald, I. A. 1962. The treatment of mania with haloperidol (Serenace). Journal of Mental Science 108:373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Esplin, D. W., and Zablocka, B. 1965. Central nervous system stimulants. Ch. 18. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. S. L. Goodman and A. Gilman (eds.). 3rd Ed. New York: MacMillan, p. 352.Google Scholar
  68. Falret, J. P. 1853–1854. Clinical Lectures on Mental Medicine. General Symptomatology. Paris: Bailliere, p. 188.Google Scholar
  69. Falret, J. P. 1864. On Mental Diseases. Paris; Bailliere, p. 188.Google Scholar
  70. Fenichel, O. 1945. The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York: W. W. Norton, p. 413.Google Scholar
  71. Fieve, R. 1970. Lithium studies and manic-depressive illness. Presented to 60th annual meeting of American Psychopathological Assn., New York City.Google Scholar
  72. Fieve, R. R.; Platman, S. R.; and Plutchik, R.R. 1968a. The use of lithium in affective disorders. I. Acute endogenous depression. Amer. J. Psychiat. 125:487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Fieve, R. R.; Platman, S. R.; and Plutchik, R. R. 1968b. The use of lithium in affective disorders. II. Prophylaxis of depression in chronic recurrent affective disorders. Amer. J. Psychiat. 125:492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Filotto, J. et al. 1967. Thiothixene in the treatment of affective psychoses: A pilot study. Presented at Q.P.R.A. symposium on thioxanthenes, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  75. Fink, M.; Kahn, R. L.; Karp, E.; Pollack, M.; Green, M. A.; Alan, B.; and Lefkowitz, H. J. 1961. Inhalant-induced convulsions. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 4:259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fish, B. 1968. Methodology in child psychopharmacology. In Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress — 1957–1967. D. H. Efron (ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 989.Google Scholar
  77. Fish, B., and Shapiro, T. 1965. A typology of children’s psychiatric disorders. I. Its application to a controlled evaluation of treatment. J. Amer. Acad. Child Psychiat. 4(no. 1):32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fotel-Andersen, K., and Geert-Jorgensen, E. 1959. Treatment of endogenous depression with Tofranil. Ugeskr. Laeg. 121:1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Fries, H. 1969. Experience with lithium carbonate treatment at a psychiatric department in the period 1964-1967. Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl. 207:41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Frommer, F. A. 1968. Depressive illness in childhood. In Recent Developments in Affective Disorders. A. Coppen and A. Walk (eds.). Brit. J. Psychiat. Spec. Pub. No. 2, p. 117.Google Scholar
  81. Fursham, P. H. 1965. The suprarenal glands (adrenal glands). In The Ciba Collection of Medical Illustrations, Endocrine System and Selected Metabolic Diseases. F. H. Netter (ed.). Vol. 4. Ciba Pharmaceutical Co., p. 84 and 105.Google Scholar
  82. Gattozzi, A. A. 1970. Lithium in the Treatment of Mood Disorders. Washington, D.C.: National Clearing House for Mental Health Information, Publication No. 5033.Google Scholar
  83. Gershon, S. 1968. Use of lithium salts in psychiatric disorders. Dis. Nerv. Syst. 29:51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gershon, S. 1970. Lithium in mania. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 11:168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gershon, S., and Trautner, E. M. 1956. Treatment of shock dependency by pharmacological agents. Med. J. Aust. 1:783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gershon, S., and Yuwiler, A. 1960. Lithium ion: A specific pharmacological approach to the treatment of mania. J. Neuropsychiat. 1:229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Glessinger, B. 1954. Evaluation of lithium in treatment of psychotic excitement. Med. J. Aust. 41:277.Google Scholar
  88. Goldberg, L. I. 1964. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. J.A.M.A. 190:456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Goldman, D. 1966. Drugs in treatment of psychosis. In Psychiatric Drugs. P. Solomon (ed.). New York: Grune and Stratton, p. 136.Google Scholar
  90. Goldstein, B. J.; Clyde, D. J.; and Caldwell, J. M. 1968. Clinical efficacy of the butyrophenones as anti-psychotic drugs. In Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress — 1957–1967. D.H. Efron (ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 1085.Google Scholar
  91. Gomez-Reino y Filgueira, J., and Fernandez-Vincente, L. 1962. Our experiences with Mellaril in endogenic manic and in chronic paranoid schizophrenia. Actas Luso Esp. Neurol. Psiquiat. p. 159.Google Scholar
  92. Goodman, L. S., and Gilman, A. Z. 1956. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 2nd Ed. New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  93. Goodwin, F. K.; Murphy, D. L.; and Bunney, W. E., Jr. 1968. Lithium in mania and depression: A double-blind behavioral and biochemical study. Presented to annual meeting, American Psychiat. Assoc, Boston.Google Scholar
  94. Gradwell, G. B. 1960. Psychotic reactions and phenelzine. Brit. Med. J. 2:1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Greenfield, I.; Zuger, M.; Bleak, R. M; and Bakal, S. F. 1950. Lithium chloride intoxication. New York J. Med. 50:459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Greenspan, I.; Green, R.; and Durrell, J. 1968. Retention and distribution patterns of lithium, a pharmacological tool in studying the pathophysiology of manic-depressive psychosis. Amer. J. Psychiat. 125:512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gross, H., and Kaltenback, E. 1961. Erfahrung mit dem Thioxanthenderivat Chlorprothixen in der klinischen Psychiatrie. Wien. Klin. Wschr. 73:64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Guistino, P. 1953. II citrato di litio mel trattamento degli stati di eccitazione psicotica. Note Psychiat. 79:307.Google Scholar
  99. Haefner, H.; Heyder, B.; and Kitscher, I. 1965. Undesirable side-effects and complications with the use of neuroleptic drugs. Int. J. Neuropsychiat. 1:46.Google Scholar
  100. Hamilton 1903. In Foundations of Child Psychiatry. E. Miller (ed.) 1st Ed. New York: Pergamon Press (1968).Google Scholar
  101. Harms, E. 1952. Differential pattern of manic-depressive disease in childhood. Nervous Child 9:326.Google Scholar
  102. Hartigan, G. P. 1963. The use of lithium salts in affective disorders. Brit. J. Psychiat. 109:810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Haskovec, L., and Rysanek, I. 1967. The action of reserpine in imipramine resistant depressed. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 11:18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Haskovec, L., and Soucek, I. 1968. Trial of methysergide in mania. Nature 219(no. 5153):507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hekimian, L. J., and Gershon, S. 1967. Thioxanthenes: Some clinical and physiologic effects of a thioxanthene derivative, thio-thixene, in twenty newly hospitalized male schizophrenics. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 7:52.Google Scholar
  106. Hekimian, L. J.; Gershon, S.; Hardesty, A. S.; and Burdock, E. I. 1969. Drug efficacy and diagnostic specificity in manic-depressive illness and schizophrenia. Bis. Nerv. Syst. 30:747.Google Scholar
  107. Heninger, G. R., and Mueller, P. S. 1970. Carbohydrate metabolism in mania. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 23:310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Herrera, J. J., and Vilaprino, J. J. 1964. Thioridazine in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis. Acta Psiquiat. Psicol. Amer. Lat. 10:214.Google Scholar
  109. Ho, A. K. S.; Loh, H.; Craves, F.; Hitzeman, R.; and Gershon, S. 1970. The effect of prolonged lithium treatment on the synthesis rate and turnover of monoamines in brain regions of rats. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 10:72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hohn, R.; Gross, G. M.; Gross, M; and Lasagna, L. 1961. A double-blind comparison of placebo and imipramine in the treatment of depressed patients in a state hospital. J. Psychiat. Res. 1:76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hollister, L. E. 1957. Complications from the use of tranquilizer drugs. New Eng. J. Med. 257:170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hospital Tribune. Sept. 21, 1970, p. 3.Google Scholar
  113. Hudgens, R. W.; Tanna, V. L.; Harley, J. D.; and Leary, D. J., Jr. 1966. Visual hallucinations with iminodibenzyl antidepressants. J.A.M.A. 198:81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Imlah, N. W. 1960. Overshooting action of phenelzine. Lancet 1:826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Innes, I. R., and Nickerson, M. 1965. Anti-muscarinic or atropinic drugs. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. S. L. Goodman and A. Gilman (eds.). 3rd Ed. New York: MacMillan, p. 521.Google Scholar
  116. Itil, T. 1968. Early clinical and EEG drug evaluation studies. Psychiatric Research Foundation of Missouri (St. Louis) Publication No. 19. Presented at Early Clinical Drug Evaluation Units meeting, Miami, Fla.Google Scholar
  117. Jacobsen, J. E. 1965. The hypomanic alert: A program designed for greater therapeutic control. Amer. J. Psychiat. 122:295.Google Scholar
  118. Jarvik, M. E. 1965. Drugs used in treatment of psychiatric disorders. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. S. L. Goodman and A. Gilman (eds.). 3rd Ed. New York: MacMillan, p. 178.Google Scholar
  119. Johnson, G.; Gershon, S.; and Hekimian, L. J. 1968. Controlled evaluation of lithium and chlorpromazine in the treatment of manic states: An interim report. Compr. Psychiat. 9:563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Johnson, G.; Hekimian, L.; and Gershon, S. 1970. Differential drug responsiveness in psychiatric subjects. Presented to 8th annual ACNP meeting, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  121. Johnson, G.; Maccarrio, M.; Gershon, S.; and Korein, J. 1970. The effects of lithium on EEG, behavior, and serum electrolytes. J. Nerv. Ment. Bis. 151:273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Johnson, J., and Eilenberg, M. D. 1960. Psychotic reactions and phenelzine (Nardil). Brit. Med. J. 2:857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kassanin 1931. In Foundations of Child Psychiatry. E. Miller (ed.). 1st Ed. New York: Pergamon Press (1968), p. 262.Google Scholar
  124. Klein, D. F. 1965. Behavioral effects of imipramine and pheno-thiazines: Implications for a psychiatric pathogenetic theory and theory of drug action. In Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry. J. Wortis (ed.). New York: Plenum Press, vol. 7, p. 273.Google Scholar
  125. Klein, D. F., and Davis, J. M. 1969. Diagnosis and Drug Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, p. 222 and p. 313.Google Scholar
  126. Kline, N. S. 1954. Use of rauwolfia serpentina benth. In Neuro-psychiatric Conditions. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 59:107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kline, N. S. 1968. Lithium comes into its own (editorial). Amer. J. Psychiat. 125:150.Google Scholar
  128. Kloos, H. H. 1967. Experiences with neuroleptic drugs — mainly thioridazine (Mellaril R) in clinical psychiatry. Praxis 56:1434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kolb, L. C. (ed.). 1968. Noyes’ Modern Clinical Psychiatry. 7th Ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, p. 335.Google Scholar
  130. Kraepelin, E. 1909-1913. Thieme. 8th Ed. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  131. Kraepelin, E. 1913. Psychiatrie. Ein Lehrbuchfür Studierende und Ärzte. Leipzig.Google Scholar
  132. Kristjansen, P. 1962. In B. Gerle (ed.): Clinical observations of the side effects of haloperidol. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 40:65 (1964).Google Scholar
  133. Kruse, W., and Hoermann, M. G. 1960. Clinical evaluation of four anti-depressant drugs. Curr. Ther. Res. 2:111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kurland, A. A.; Cuervo, R.; and Krantz, J. C., Jr. 1960. The intravenous use of hexafluorodiethyl ether as a convulsant in psychiatric treatment. J. Neuropsychiat. 1:260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lang, A. E., and Moore, R. A. 1961. Acute toxic psychosis concurrent with phenothiazine therapy. Amer. J. Psychiat. 117:939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Lasky, J. J.; Klett, J. C.; Caffey, E. M.; Bennet, L. J.; Rosenblum, M. P.; and Hollister, L. E. 1962. Drug treatment of schizophrenic patients. Dis. Nerv. Syst. 23:698.Google Scholar
  137. Laurell, B., and Ottosson, L. J. D. 1968. Prophylactic lithium? Letter to the editor. Lancet 2:1245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lehmann, H. E., and Ban, T. A. 1970. Clinical use of other anti-psychotic agents. In Principles of Psychopharmacology. W. G. Clark and J. del Giudice (eds.). New York: Academic Press, p. 621.Google Scholar
  139. Lehmann, H. E., and Hanrahan, G. E. 1954. Chlorpromazine, a new inhibiting agent for psychomotor excitement and manic states. Arch. Neurol. 71:227.Google Scholar
  140. Leonhard, K. 1957. Aufteilung der Endogenen Psychosen. 1st Ed. Berlin.Google Scholar
  141. Leonhard, K. 1966. Aufteilung der Endogenen Psychosen. 3rd Ed. Berlin.Google Scholar
  142. Lipkin, K. M.; Dyrud, J.; and Meyer, G. G. 1970. The many faces of mania. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. (Chicago)22:262.Google Scholar
  143. Luby, E. 1968. Reserpine-like drugs — clinical efficacy. In Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress1957-1967. D. H. Efron (ed.). Washington, D. C: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 1077.Google Scholar
  144. Maggs, R. 1963. Treatment of manic illness with lithium carbonate. Brit. J. Psychiat. 109:56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Malitz, S.; Hough, P. H.; and Lesse, S. 1956. Two year evaluation of chlorpromazine in clinical research and practice. Amer. J. Psychiat. 113:540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Massaut, C.; Chantraine, J.; Meunce, E.; Pairoux, R.; Paguay, J.; Arnould, F.; Burton, P.; Tinant, M.; and Piersotte, J. 1962. Clinical study of 162 patients treated with a new neuroleptic: clopenthixol (Sordinol R), Acta Neurol. Belg. 62:651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Mayer-Gross, W.; Slater, E.; and Roth, M. 1969. Clinical Psychiatry. 3rd Ed. London: Bailliere, Tindall & Cassell, p. 232.Google Scholar
  148. Mayfield, D., and Brown, R. G. 1966. The clinical laboratory and elec-troencephalographic effects of lithium. J. Psychiat. Res. 4:207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. McCabe, M. S.; Reich, T.; and Winokur, G. 1970. Methysergide as a treatment for mania. Amer. J. Psychiat. 127:354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. McNeil Laboratories 1970. Personal communication, V. Slotnick.Google Scholar
  151. Melia, P. I. 1967. A pilot trial of lithium carbonate in recurrent affective disorders. J. Irish Med. Assoc. 60:160.Google Scholar
  152. Melia, P. I. 1970. Prophylactic lithium: A double-blind trial in recurrent affective disorders. Brit. J. Psychiat. 116:621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Meyler, L. 1966. Side effects of drugs: Adverse reactions as reported by the medical literature of the world 1963-1965. Vol. 5. New York: Excerpta Medica Foundation, p. 16.Google Scholar
  154. Miller, E. 1968. The problem of classification in child psychiatry. In Foundations of Child Psychiatry. 1st Ed. E. Miller (ed.). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  155. Mills 1888. In Foundations of Child Psychiatry. E. Miller (ed.). 1st Ed. New York: Pergamon Press, p. 262.Google Scholar
  156. Moracci, E. 1931. Azione di alcuni sali applicati direttamente sui centri corticali sensitivo — motori del cane. Arch. Fisiol. 29:487.Google Scholar
  157. Murphy, D. L.; Goodwin, F. K.; and Bunney, W. E. 1969. Aldosterone and sodium response to lithium administration in man. Lancet 2:458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Noack, C. H., and Trautner, E. M. 1951. Lithium treatment of manic psychosis. Med. J. Aust. 2:219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Noyes, A. P. 1954. Modern Clinical Psychiatry. 4th Ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  160. O’Connell, R. A. 1970. Leucocytosis during lithium carbonate treatment. Int. Pharmacopsychiat. 4:30.Google Scholar
  161. Penrose, L. 1945. Survey of cases of familial mental illness. Unpubl. manuscript, Ontario Dept. of Health.Google Scholar
  162. Perris, C. 1966. A study of bipolar (manic-depressive) and unipolar recurrent depressive psychoses. Acta Psychiat. Scand. Suppl., p. 189.Google Scholar
  163. Pfeiffer, C. Z.; Singh, M.; and Goldstein, L. 1969. Single dose-effect relationship of lithium on the electrical activity of cerebral cortex and of the heart. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 9:298.Google Scholar
  164. Pilkington, T. L. 1962. A report on Tofranil. Mental Deficiency 66:729.Google Scholar
  165. Platman, S. R. 1970. A comparison of lithium carbonate and chlor-promazine in mania. Amer. J. Psychiat. 127:351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Platman, S. R., and Fieve, R. R. 1968. Lithium carbonate and plasma cortisol response in the affective disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 18:591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Plenge, P.; Mellerup, E. T.; and Rafaelsen, O. J. 1969. Effects of lithium on carbohydrate metabolism. Lancet 1:1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Poldinger, W. 1963. Combined administration of desipramine and reserpine or tetrabenazine in depressed patients. Psychophar-macologia (Berlin) 4:308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Radomski, J. L.; Fuyat, H. N.; Nelson, A. A.; and Smith, P. K. 1950. The toxic effects, excretion and distribution of lithium chloride. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 100:429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Ramsden, E. N. 1970. Cyclic A.M.P. in depression and mania. Lancet 2:108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rapp, M. S. 1970. Prophylactic haloperidol in incipient hypomania. Canad. Psychiat. Assoc. J. 15:73.Google Scholar
  172. Redlich, F. C., and Freedman, D. X. 1966. The Theory and Practice of Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  173. Rees, L., and Davies, B. 1965. A study of the value of haloperidol in the management and treatment of schizophrenic and manic patients. Int. J. Neuropsychiat. 1:263.Google Scholar
  174. Rikovsky, S. 1964. Incidence of imipramine-induced psychoses. Acta Nervosa Superior. 6:181.Google Scholar
  175. Rissetto, G., and Gazzano, G. 1952. Variazioni del sangue periferi-co nella intossicazione sperimentale da sali di litio. Riv. Patol. Clin. 7:202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Rochford, J. M.; Detre, T.; Tucker, G. J.; and Harrow, M. 1970. Neuropsychological impairments in functional psychiatric disease. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 22:114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Samuels, A. J. 1951. Primary and secondary leucocyte changes following the intramuscular injection of epinephrine hydrochloride. J. Clin. Invest. 30:941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sandoz Pharmaceuticals 1970. Computer search — personal communication, K. Tashiro.Google Scholar
  179. Saran, B. M. 1969. Lithium. Letter to the editor. Lancet 1:1208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Sargent, W., and Slater, E. 1963. An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry. London: Livingstone.Google Scholar
  181. Sarwer-Foner, G. J.; Grauer, H.; MacKay, J.; and Koranyi, E. K. 1959. Depressive states and drugs. A study of the use of imipra-mine “Tofranil” in open psychiatric settings. Med. Serv. J. Canada 15:359.Google Scholar
  182. Sarwer-Foner, G. J.; Koranyi, E. K.; Meszaros, A.; and Grauer, H. 1959. Depressive states and drugs. II. The study of phenelzine dihydrogen sulfate (Nardil) in open psychiatric settings. Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 81:9.Google Scholar
  183. Schiele, B. C. 1967. Studies with clopenthixol and thiothixene. Presented to Symposium of the Thioxanthines, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  184. Schou, M. 1957. Biology and pharmacology of the lithium ion. Pharmacological Reviews 9:17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Schou, M. 1958. Lithium studies. 1. Toxicity. Acta Pharmacol. 15:70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Schou, M. 1958. Lithium studies. 3. Distribution between serum and tissues. Acta Pharmacol. 15:115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Schou, M. 1959. Lithium in psychiatric therapy. Psychopharmaco-logia (Berlin) 1:65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Schou, M. 1962. Electrocardiographic changes during treatment with lithium and with drugs of the imipramine-type. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 38:331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Schou, M. 1968. Lithium in psychiatry — A review. Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress — 1957–1967. D. H. Efron (ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 701.Google Scholar
  190. Schou, M. 1970. Personal communication in Lithium in the Treatment of Mood Disorders by A. Gattozzi. Washington, D.C.: National Clearing House for Mental Health Information, Publ. No. 5033, p. 81.Google Scholar
  191. Schou, M. 1970. Use of lithium. In Principles of Psychopharmacology. N. G. Clark and J. del Giudice (eds.). New York: Academic Press, p. 653.Google Scholar
  192. Schou, M.; Amidsen, A.; Jensen, S. E.; and Olsen, T. 1968. Occurrence of goitre during lithium treatment. Brit. Med. J. 3:710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Schou, M.; Juel-Nielson, N.; Stromgren, E.; and Voldby, H. 1954. The treatment of manic psychoses by the administration of lithium salts. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 17:250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Sedvall, G.; Jonsson, B.; Pettersson, U.; and Levin, K. 1968. Effects of lithium salts on plasma protein bound iodine and uptake of I-131 in thyroid gland of man and rat. Life Sci. 7:1257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Serry, M. 1969. Lithium retention and response. Lancet 1:1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Sharpless, S. K. 1965. Hypnotics and sedatives. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. S. L. Goodman and A. Gilman (eds.). 3rd Ed. New York: MacMillan, p. 132.Google Scholar
  197. Sher, N. 1962. Hallucinations after chlorpromazine in an otosclero-tic. Amer. J. Psychiat. 118:746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Sherman, S. 1961. A clinical evaluation of Mellaril. Amer. J. Psychiat. 118:452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Shopsin, B. 1970. Effects of lithium on thyroid function. Dis. Nerv. Syst. 31:237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Shopsin, B.; Blum, M.; and Gershon, S. 1969. Lithium-induced thyroid disturbance: Case report and review. Compr. Psychiat. 10:215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Shopsin, B.; Friedman, R.; and Gershon, S. 1970. The lithium ion related and blood dyscrasias. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  202. Shopsin, B., and Gershon, S. 1970. Cortisol response to dexametha-sone suppression in hospitalized depressives and control patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. In press.Google Scholar
  203. Shopsin, B.; Gershon, S.; and Pinckney, L. 1969. The secretion of lithium in human mixed saliva: Effects of ingested lithium on electrolyte distribution in saliva and serum. Int. Pharmacopsychiat. 2:148.Google Scholar
  204. Shopsin, B.; Johnson, G.; and Gershon, S. 1970. Neurotoxicity with lithium; differential drug responsiveness. Int. Pharmacopsychiat. In press.Google Scholar
  205. Shopsin, B.; Kim, S. S.; and Gershon, S. 1970. A controlled study of lithium vs. chlorpromazine in acute schizophrenics. Presented at 15th Annual Conference — V.A. Cooperative Studies in Psychiatry, Houston, Texas. Accepted for publication, Brit. J. Psychiat..Google Scholar
  206. Shopsin, B.; Stern, S.; and Gershon, S. 1970. Altered carbohydrate metabolism during lithium treatment in hospitalized psychiatric patients: Absence of diagnostic specificity. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  207. Simon, W.; Wirt, A. L.; Wirt, R. D.; and Halloran, A. V. 1965. Long term follow-up study of schizophrenic patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 12:510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Sivadon, P., and Chanoit, P. 1955. Clinical experience with lithium treatment of psychomotor excitation. Ann. Medicopsychol. 113:790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Sletten, I. W., and Gershon, S. 1966. The premenstrual syndrome: A discussion of its pathophysiology and treatment with the lithium ion. Compr. Psychiat. 7(no. 3):198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Spitzer, R. L.; Endicott, J.; and Fleiss, J. L. 1967. Instruments and recording forms for evaluating psychiatric status and history: rationale, method of development and description. Compr. Psychiat. 8:321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Spring, G. K.; Schweid, D.; Gray, C.; Steinberg, J.; and Harwitz, M. 1970. A double blind comparison of lithium and chlorpromazine in the treatment of manic states. Amer. J. Psychiat. 126:1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Spring, G. K.; Schweid, D.; Steinberg, J.; and Bond, D. 1969. Prophylactic use of lithium carbonate? J.A.M.A. 208:1901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Stromgren, L. S., and Stromgren, E. 1962. In Normothymics “mood normalizers” by M. Schou Brit. J. Psychiat. 109:803.Google Scholar
  214. Talso, P. J., and Clarke, R. W. 1951. Excretion and distribution of lithium in the dog. Amer. J. Physiol. 166:202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Trautner, E. M.; Morris, R.; Noack, C. H.; and Gershon, S. 1955. The excretion and retention of ingested lithium and its effect on the ionic balance of man. Med. J. Aust. 2:280.Google Scholar
  216. Van der Velde, C. D., and Gordon, M. W. 1969. Manic-depressive illness, diabetes mellitus and lithium carbonate. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 21:478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Van der Velde, C. D. 1970. Effectiveness of lithium carbonate in the treatment of manic-depressive illness. Amer. J. Psychiat. 127:345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Von Trostorff, S. 1968. Über die hereditäre Belastung bei den bipolaren und monopolaren phasisehen Psychosen. Schweiz. Arch. Neurochir. Psychiat. 102:235.Google Scholar
  219. Wiggers, S. 1968. Lithiumpavirkning af glandula thyreoidea. Ugeskr. Laeg. 130/37:1523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Wingard, C. 1961. Questions and answers. J.A.M.A. 175:340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Winokur, G., and Clayton, P. 1967. Family history studies: II. Sex differences and alcoholism in primary affective illness. Brit. J. Psychiat. 113:973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Wirt, R. D., and Simon, W. 1959. Differential Treatment and Prognosis in Schizophrenia. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  223. Wolpert, E. A., and Mueller, P. 1969. Lithium carbonate in the treatment of manic-depressive disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 21:155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Zall, H.; Therman, P. O. G.; and Myers, J. M. 1968. Lithium carbonate: A clinical study. Amer. J. Psychiat. 125:549.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baron Shopsin
    • 1
  • Samuel Gershon
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuropsychopharmacology Research UnitNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations