Immunogenicity and MuMTV-like Antigenicity of Human Breast Cancer Tissues

  • Maurice M. Black
Part of the Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology book series (CTI, volume 6)


In 1936 Bittner reported that a transmissible factor in murine milk was related to the development of mammary tumors. Since that time, Bittner’s milk factor has been shown to be a specific type of RNA virus, and the relationship between this RNA virus and murine mammary carcinogenesis has been extensively documented by biological, ultrastructural, immunological, and biochemical techniques (Moore and Charney, 1975). Despite such compelling observations regarding the viral etiology of murine mammary tumors, parallel studies of human mammary cancers have, until recently, yielded essentially negative data. Viral particles are rarely demonstrable in human mammary tissues, benign or malignant. Nor do temporal or geographic variations in incidence rates of human breast cancer correlate with nursing habits (MacMahon et al., 1970). Nevertheless, within the past several years there have been a number of reports indicating that some human breast tissues may harbor particles and/or RNA components which resemble murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) (Spiegelman et al., 1972; Schlom et al., 1972, 1973; Seman and Dmochowski, 1973; Müller and Grossmann, 1972; Müller et al., 1972, 1973; Moore, 1974). While such findings are of interest, it remains to be shown that they are specifically related to the development and/or behavior of human breast cancers.


Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Patient Mammary Tumor Breast Cancer Tissue Mammary Carcinogenesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anastassiades, O. T., and Pryce, D. M., 1966, Immunological significance of morphologic changes in lymph nodes draining breast cancer, Br. J. Cancer 20: 239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, V., Bjerrum, O., Bendixen, G., Schitfdt, T., and Dissing, I., 1970, Effect of autologous mammary tumour extracts on human leukocyte migration in vitro, Int. J. Cancer 5: 357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, R. J., McBride, C. M., and Hersh, E. M., 1972, In vitro lymphocyte responses to malignant, benign neoplastic and normal tissue extracts, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140: 465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bittner, J. J., 1936, Some possible effects of nursing on the mammary gland tumor incidence in mice (preliminary report), Science 84: 162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Black, M. M., 1965, Reactivity of the lymphoreticuloendothelial system in human cancer, in: Progress in Clinical Cancer ( I. Ariel, ed.), pp. 26–49, Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Black, M. M., 1910a, Lymphoreticuloendothelial reactivity as a component of the tumor-host relationship, in: Immunity and Tolerance in Oncogenesis ( L. Severi, ed.), pp. 863–876, Division of Cancer Research, Perugia, Italy.Google Scholar
  7. Black, M. M., 1970b, Human breast carcinoma. I. Clinical considerations; II. Research potential, N. Y. State J. Med. 70: 863; 962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Black, M. M., 1972, Cellular and biological manifestations of immunogenicity to precancerous mastopathy, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 35: 73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Black, M. M., 1973, Human breast cancer: A model for cancer immunology, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 9: 284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Black, M. M., 1975, Cell mediated response in human mammary cancer, in: Host Defence in Breast Cancer ( B. A. Stoll, ed.), pp. 48–77, William Heinemann Medical Books, London.Google Scholar
  11. Black, M. M., and Chabon, A. B., 1969, In situ carcinoma of the breast, in: Pathology Annual ( S. C. Sommers, ed.), pp. 185–210, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Black, M. M., and Chabon, A. B., 1970. Incipient carcinoma of the breast: structural characteristics and host reactivity, in: Immunity and Tolerance in Oncogenesis ( L. Severi, ed.), pp. 923–936, Division of Cancer Research, Perugia, Italy.Google Scholar
  13. Black, M. M., and Leis, H. P., Jr., 1971, Cellular responses to autologous breast cancer tissue: Correlation with stage and lymphoreticuloendothelial reactivity, Cancer 28: 263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Black, M. M., and Leis, H. P., Jr., 1973, Cellular responses to autologous breast cancer tissue: sequential observations, Cancer 32: 384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Black, M. M., and Speer, F. D., 1957, Nuclear structure in cancer tissues, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 105: 97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Black, M. M., and Speer, F. D., 1958, Sinus histiocytosis of lymph nodes in cancer, Surg. Gynecol Obstet. 106: 163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Black, M. M., and Speer, F. D., 1959a, Lymph node structure and metallophilia in tumor-bearing mice, Arch. Pathol 67: 58.Google Scholar
  18. Black, M. M., and Speer, F. D., 1959b, Immunology of cancer, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 109: 105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Black, M. M., and Speer, F. D., 1960, Lymph node reactivity in cancer patients, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 110: 477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Black, M. M., Kerpe, S., and Speer, F. D., 1953, Lymph node structure in patients with cancer of the breast, Am. J. Pathol 29: 505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Black, M. M., Cutler, S. J., and Barclay, T. H. C., 1972a, Post biopsy breast carcinoma: A natural experiment in cancer immunology, Cancer 29: 61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Black, M. M., Barclay, T. H. C., Cutler, S. J., Hankey, B. F., and Asire, A. J., 1972, The association of atypical characteristics of benign breast lesions with subsequent risk of breast cancer, Cancer 29: 338.Google Scholar
  23. Black, M. M., Leis, H. P., Jr., Shore, B., and Azchrau, R. E., 1914a, Cellular hypersensitivity to breast cancer: Assessment by a leukocyte migration procedure, Cancer 33: 952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Black, M. M., Moore, D. H., Shore, B., Zachrau, R. E., and Leis, H. P., Jr., 1974b, Effect of murine milk samples and human breast tissues on human leukocyte migration indices, Cancer Res. 34: 1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Black, M. M., Zachrau, R. E., Shore, B., Moore, D. H., and Leis, H. P., Jr., 1975a, Prognostically favorable immunogens of human breast cancer tissue: Antigenic similarity to murine mammary tumor virus, Cancer 35: 121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Black, M. M., Barclay, T. H. C., and Hankey, B. F., 1975, Prognosis in breast cancer utilizing histological characteristics of the primary tumor, Cancer 36: 2048.Google Scholar
  27. Black, M. M., Dion, A., Zachrau, R. E., and Shore, B., 1975c, Distinctive protein components of human breast cancer tissues: MuMTV-like properties, Cancer Res., in press.Google Scholar
  28. Black, M. M., Zachrau, R. E., Shore, B., and Leis, H. P., Jr., 1976, Biological considerations of tumor-specific and virus-associated antigens of human breast cancers, Cancer Res. 36: 769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Blasecki, J. W., and Tevethia, S. S., 1973, In vitro assay of cellular immunity to tumor-specific antigen(s) of virus-induced tumors by macrophage migration inhibition, J. Immunol 110: 590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bloom, H. T. G., 1950, Prognosis in carcinoma of the breast, Br. J. Cancer 4: 259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Charney, J., and Moore, D. H., 1972, Immunization studies with mammary tumor virus, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48: 1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Charney, J., Moore, D. H., Holben, J. A., and Cody, C., 1973, Prevention of multiple tumor development in mice by immunization with inactivated mammary tumor virus, in: Multiple Primary Malignant Tumors ( L. Severi, ed.), pp. 1125–1133, Division of Cancer Research, Perugia, Italy.Google Scholar
  33. Cutler, S. J., Black, M. M., Mork, T., Harvei, S., and Freeman, C., 1969, Further observations on prognostic factors in cancer of the female breast, Cancer 24: 653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fossati, G., Canevari, S., Delia Porta, G., Balzarini, G. P., and Veronesi, M., 1972, Cellular immunity to human breast carcinoma, Int. J. Cancer 10: 391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedell, G. H., Soto, E. A., Kumaoka, S., Abe, O., Hayward, J. L., and Bullbrook, R. D., 1974, Sinus histiocytosis in British and Japanese patients with breast cancer, Lancet 2: 1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamlin, I. M. E., 1968, Possible host resistance in carcinoma of the breast: A histological study, Br. J. Cancer 22: 383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Heppner, G. H., and Pierce, G., 1969, In vitro demonstration of tumor-specific antigens in spontaneous mammary tumors of mice, Int. J. Cancer 4: 212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Herberman, R. B., 1973a, In vivo and in vitro assays of cellular immunity to human tumor antigens, Fed Proc. 32: 160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Herberman, R. B., 1913b, Cellular immunity to human tumor-associated antigens, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 9: 300.Google Scholar
  40. Hollinshead, A. C., Jaffurs, W. T., Alpert, L. K., Harris, J. E., and Herberman, R. B., 1974, Isolation and identification of soluble skin-reactive membrane antigens of malignant and normal human breast cells, Cancer Res. 34: 2961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoshino, M., and Dmochowski, L., 1973, Electron microscopic study of antigens in cells of mouse mammary tumor cell lines by peroxidase labeled antibodies in sera of mammary tumor-bearing mice and of patients with breast cancer, Cancer Res. 33: 2551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. MacMahon, B., Cole, P., Lin, T. M., Lowe, C. R., Mirra, A. P., Ravnihar, B., Salber, E. J., Valaoras, V. G., and Yuasa, S., 1970, Age at first birth and breast cancer risk, Bull WHO 43: 209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. McCoy, J. L., Jerome, L. F., Dean, J. H., Cannon, G. B., Alford, T. C., Doering, T., and Herberman, R. B., 1974, Inhibition of leukocyte migration by tumor-associated antigens in soluble extracts of human breast carcinoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53: 11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Moore, D. H., 1974, Evidence in favor of the existence of human breast cancer virus, Cancer Res. 34: 2322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Moore, D. H., and Charney, J., 1975, Breast cancer: Etiology and possible prevention, Am. Scientist 63: 160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Morrison, A. S., Black, M. M., Lowe, C. R., MacMahon, B., and Yuasa, S., 1973, Some international differences in histology and survival in breast cancer, Int. J. Cancer 11: 261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morton, D. L., Miller, G. F., and Wood, D. A., 1969, Demonstration of tumor-specific immunity against antigens unrelated to the mammary tumor virus in spontaneous mammary adenocarcinomas, J. Natl Cancer Inst. 42: 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Müller, M., and Grossmann, H., 1972, An antigen in human breast cancer sera related to the murine mammary tumor virus, Nature London New Biol 231: 116.Google Scholar
  49. Müller, M., Zotter, S., Grossmann, H., and Kemmer, C., 1972, Immunological cross reaction between human breast cancer, mastopathy and virus-producing mammary carcinoma of mice, Arch. Geschwulstforsch. 40: 285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Müller, M., Kemmer, C., Zotter, S., Grossmann, H., and Micheel, B., 1973, Cross reaction between human breast cancer, mastopathy and murine mammary carcinoma: localization of the antigen in type A particle virus, Arch. Geschwulstforsch. 41: 100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Rebuck, J. W., 1955, A method of studying leukocytic functions in vivo, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 59: 757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schlom, J., and Spiegelman, S., 1973, Evidence for viral involvement in murine and human mammary adenocarcinoma, Am. J. Clin. Pathol 60: 44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Schlom, J., Spiegelman, S., and Moore, D. H., 1972, Reverse transcriptase and high molecular weight RNA in particles from mouse and human milk, J. Natl Cancer Inst. 48: 1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Schlom, J., Michalides, R., Kufe, D., Hehlmann, R., Spiegelman, S., Bentvelzen, P., and Hageman, P., 1973, A comparative study of the biologic and molecular basis of murine mammary carcinoma: A model for human breast cancer, J. Natl Cancer Inst. 51: 541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Seman, G., and Dmochowski, L., 1973, Electron microscope observation of virus-like particles in comedocarcinoma of the human breast, Cancer 32: 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Silverberg, S. G., Chitale, A. R., Hind, A. D., Frazier, A. B., and Levitt, S. H., 1970, Sinus histiocytosis and mammary carcinoma: Study of 366 radical mastectomies and a historical review, Cancer 26: 1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Spiegelman, S., Axel, R., and Schlom, J., 1972, Virus-related RNA in human and mouse mammary tumors, J. Natl Cancer Inst. 48: 1205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Vaidya, A. B., Black, M. M., Dion, A. S., and Moore, D. H., 1974, Homology between human breast tumor RNA and mouse mammary tumor virus genome, Nature (London) 249: 565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Varmus, H. E., Quintrell, N., Medeiros, E., Bishop, J. M., Nowinski, R. C., and Sarkar, N. H., 1973, Transcription of mouse mammary tumor virus genes in tissues from high and low tumor incidence mouse strains, J. Mol. Biol 79: 663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurice M. Black
    • 1
  1. 1.Flower & Fifth Avenue HospitalsNew York Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations