An Approach to Studying Evolution of Cellular Immunity

  • C. A. Lemmi
  • E. L. Cooper
  • T. C. Moore


Transplantation of integument between earthworms is an important model for studying the evolution of immune mechanisms involved in tissue rejection. The lamprey and hagfish are the most primitive vertebrates in which immunoglobulins are found (Thoenes and Hideman, 1969; Linthicum and Hildeman, 1970). In invertebrates immunoglobulins are not yet demonstrable in the blood, hemolymph, or coelomic fluids. Nevertheless, invertebrate agglutinins are involved in complex reactions to foreign materials. Still, cellular immunity is a reality as evidenced by the destruction of allograft and xenografts in one group, the annelids, best represented by the earthworms.


Injection Site Cellular Immunity Passive Transfer Coelomic Fluid Coelomic Cavity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bailey, S., Miller, B., and Cooper, E. L., 1970, Transplantation immunity in earthworms. II. Adoptive transfer of the xenograft reaction, Immunology 21: 81–86.Google Scholar
  2. Bang, F. B., 1962, Serological aspects of immunity in invertebrates, Nature (London) 196: 88–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bang, F. B., 1967, Serological responses among invertebrates other than insects, Federation Proc. 26: 1680–1684.Google Scholar
  4. Bloom, B. R. and Chase, M. W., 1967, Transfer of delayed-type hypersensitivity, Prog. Allergy 10: 151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bloom, B. R., 1971, In vitro approaches to the mechanisms of cell mediated immune reactions, Adv. Immunol 13: 101.Google Scholar
  6. Bunting, W. L., Kiely, J. M., and Owen, C. A., 1963, Radiochromium labeled lymphocytes in the rat, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 113: 370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameron, G. R., 1932, Inflamation in earthworms, J. Pathol Bacteriol. 35: 933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, J. R. and Feldman, M., 1970, The lysis of fibroblasts by lymphocytes sensitized in vitro: specific antigen activates a nonspecific affect, Cell Immunol 1: 521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cooper, E. L., 1965b, Method of tissue grafting in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, Am. Zool 5: 254.Google Scholar
  10. Cooper, E. L., 1968, Transplantation immunity in annelids. I. Rejection of xenografts exchanged between Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia foetida, Transplantation 3: 332.Google Scholar
  11. Cooper, E. L. 1969b, Specific tissue graft rejection in earthworms, Science 166: 1414.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, E. L., 1970, Transplantation immunity in helminths and annelids, Transplant. Proc. 2: 216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper, E. L., 1971, Phytogeny of transplantation immunity: graft rejection in earthworms, Transplant. Proce. 3: 214.Google Scholar
  14. Cooper, E. L., Lemmi, C. A., and More, T. C., 1 974, Agglutinins and cellular immunity in annelids, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Gesner, B. M. and Woodruff, J. J., 1969, Cellular Recognition, pp. 79–90, Appleton-Century-Crofts (Meredith Corporation), New York.Google Scholar
  16. Good, R. A., 1972, Structure function relations in the lymphoid system, Clin. Immunobiol. 1: 13–15.Google Scholar
  17. Gowans, J. L., 1965, The role of lymphocytes in the destruction of homografts, Brit. Med. Bull. 21: 106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hostetter, R. K. and Cooper, LI. L., 1912a, Coelomocytes as effector cells in earthworm immunity, Immunological Communications 1: 155.Google Scholar
  19. Hostetter, R. K. and Cooper, E. L., 1972b, Earthworm cellular immunity, (this symposium).Google Scholar
  20. Houch, J. C., Barnes, S. G., and Chang, C., 1971, Immunopathology of Inflammation, pp. 39–51, Llxcerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  21. Linthicum, D. S. and Hildeman, W. II., 1970, Immunological responses of Pacific hagfish. III. Serum antibodies to cellular antigens, J. Immunol. 105: 912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McClusky, R. T., Bennacerraf, B., and McClusky, J. W., 1963, Studies on the specificity of the cellular infiltrate in delayed hypersensitivity reactions, J. Immunol. 90: 466.Google Scholar
  23. Najarian, J. S. and Feldman, J. D., 1961, Passive transfer of tuberculin sensitivity by tritiated thymidine labeled lymphoid cell, J. Exp. Med. 114: 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Najarian, J. S. and Feldman, J. D., 1962, Passive transfer of transplantation immunity. I. Tritiated lymphoid cells. II. Lymphoid cells in millipore chambers, J. Exp. Med. 115: 1083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Najarian, J. S. and Leldman, J. D., 1963, Passive transfer of transplantation immunity. III. Inbred guinea pigs, J. Exp. Med. 117: 440.Google Scholar
  26. Perlman, P. and Holm, G., 1969, Cytotoxic effects of lymphoid cells in vitro, Adv. Immunol. 11: 124.Google Scholar
  27. Prendergast, R. A., 1964, Cellular specificity in the homograft reaction, J. Exp. Med. 119: 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Thoenes, G. H. and Hildeman, W. H., 1969, Developmental Aspects of Antibody Formation and Structure, pp. 711–726, Czechoslavakian Academy of Science, Praque.Google Scholar
  29. Tripp, M. R. and Kent, V. E., 1967, Studies on oyster cellular immunity, In Vitro 3: 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Turk, J. L. and Oort, J. A., 1963, A histological study of the early stages of the development of the tuberculin reaction after passive transfer of cells labeled with 3H-thymidine, Immunology 6: 140–147.Google Scholar
  31. Weiss, L., 1972, Cells and Tissues of the Immune System, pp. 88–89, Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  32. Weiss, L., 1972, Cells and Tissues of the Immune System, pp. 88–89, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.Google Scholar
  33. Wilson, D. B., 1970, Biology of the Immune Response, pp. 444–466, McGraw-Hill Company, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Lemmi
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. L. Cooper
    • 1
  • T. C. Moore
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Transplantation Laboratory Department of SurgeryHarbor General HospitalTorranceUSA

Personalised recommendations