• Harold H. Smith


The genus Nicotiana has been a favored material for studies on inheritance and evolution in higher plants since the days of the pre-Mendelian hybridizers (Olby, 1966). Two features of the genus have had a profound influence on the type of investigations undertaken: (1) The species have evolved into a broad spectrum of different degrees of divergence in cytogenetic and morphological systems and therefore provide rich material for studying general problems on the origins and interrelationships among plant species. (2) The genus contains the cultivated species N. tabacum which because of its commercial value has been the object of extensive studies of cytogenetic relationships with progenitor species, introgressive hybridization to incorporate disease resistance, and studies on the inheritance of alkaloids, quantitative traits, and cytoplasmic effects. More recently, the genus has been prominent in providing model systems for studying somatic cell Genetics (Smith, 1974a,b). Reviews on the Cytogenetics of the genus Nicotiana have been published by East (1928), Kostoff (1943), Goodspeed (1954), and Smith (1968).


Male Sterility Interspecific Hybrid Nicotiana Tabacum Mesophyll Protoplast Haploid Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Abraham, A., 1947 A cytogenetical study of trisomic types in Nicotiana langsdorffii. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.Google Scholar
  2. Ahuja, M. R., 1962 A cytogenetic study of heritable tumors in Nicotiana species hybrids. Genetics 47: 865–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahuja, M. R., 1965 Genetic control of tumor formation in higher plants. Q. Rev. Biol. 40: 329–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahuja, M. R., 1968 An hypothesis and evidence concerning the genetic components controlling tumor formation in Nicotiana. Mol. Gen. Genet. 103: 176–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahuja, M. R., and D. R. Cameron, 1963 The effects of x-irradiation on seedling tumor production in Nicotiana species and hybrids. Radiat. Bot. 3: 55–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahjua, M. R. and G. L. Hagen, 1966 Morphogenesis in Nicotiana debneyi-tabacum, N. longiflora and their tumor-forming hybrid derivatives in vitro. Dev. Biol. 13: 408–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ames, I. H. and H. H. Smith, 1969 Effects of mercaptoethanol on tumor induction in a Nicotiana amphiploid. Can. J. Bot. 47: 921–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Appa Rao, K. and K. V. Krishnamurty, 1963 Studies on multiple polyploids in Nicotiana. Genetica (The Hague) 34: 66–78.Google Scholar
  9. Ar-Rushdi, A. H., 1956 Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum. XXVI. Sterility genes from Tomentosae species. J. Genet. 54: 9–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ar-Rushdi, A. H., 1957 The Cytogenetics of variegation in a species hybrid in Nicotiana. Genetics 42: 312–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bayer, M. H., 1965 Paper chromatography of auxins and their inhibitors in two Nicotiana species and their hybrid. Am. J. Bot. 52: 883–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bayer, M. H., 1967 Thin-layer chromatography of auxin and inhibitors in Nicotiana glauca, N. langsdorffii and three of their tumor-forming hybrids. Planta (Berl.) 72: 329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bayer, M. H. and M. R. Ahuja, 1968 Tumor formation in Nicotiana: auxin levels and auxin inhibitors in normal and tumor-prone genotypes. Planta (Berl.) 79: 292–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bergman, L., 1960 Growth and division of single cells of higher plants in vitro. J. Gen. Physiol. 43: 841–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhatia, C. R., M. Buiatti and H. H. Smith, 1967 Electrophoretic variation in proteins and enzymes of the tumor-forming hybrid Nicotiana glauca X N. langsdorffii and its parent species. Am. J. Bot. 54: 1237–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bourgin, J. P., and J. P. Nitsch, 1967 Obtention de Nicotiana haploides à partir d’étamines cultivées in vitro. Ann. Physiol. Veg. (Paris), 9: 377–382.Google Scholar
  17. Braun, A. C., 1959 A demonstration of the recovery of the crown-gall tumor cell with the use of complex tumors of single cell origin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45: 932–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Braun, A. C., 1965 The reversal of tumor growth. Sci. Am. 213: 75–83.Google Scholar
  19. Braun, A. C., 1969 The Cancer Problem. A Critical Analysis and Modern Synthesis, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Burk, L. G., 1960 Male-sterile flower anomalies in interspecific tobacco hybrids. J. Hered. 51: 27–31.Google Scholar
  21. Burk, L. G., 1962 Haploids in genetically marked progenies of tobacco. J. Hered. 53: 222–226.Google Scholar
  22. Burk, L. G., 1965 Inter-histogenic cell migration measured by a plastid defect of tobacco. Am. J. Bot. 52: 616–617.Google Scholar
  23. Burk, L. G. and J. J. Grosso, 1963 Plasmagenes in variegated tobacco. J. Hered. 54: 23–25.Google Scholar
  24. Burk, L. G. and H. E. Heggestad, 1966 The genus Nicotiana: a source of resistance to diseases of cultivated tobacco. Econ. Bot. 20: 76–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Burk, L. G. and R. N.Jeffrey, 1958 A study of the inheritance of alkaloid quality in tobacco. Tob. Sci. 2: 139–141.Google Scholar
  26. Burk, L. G., R. N. Stewart, and H. Dermen, 1964 Histogenesis and Genetics of a plastid-controlled chlorophyll variegation in tobacco. Am. J. Bot. 51: 713–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burns, J. A., 1966 The heterochromatin of two species of Nicotiana: cytological observations. J. Hered. 57: 43–47.Google Scholar
  28. Burns, J. A. and D. U. Gerstel, 1971 Inhibition of chromosome breakage and of me- gachromosomes by intact genomes in Nicotiana. Genetics 69: 211–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Burns, J. A., and D. H., Gerstel, 1973 Formation of megachromosomes from heterochromatic blocks of Nicotiana tomentosiformis. Genetics 75: 497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cameron, D. R., 1959 The monosomies of Nicotiana tabacum. Tob. Sci. 3: 164–166.Google Scholar
  31. Cameron, D. R., 1965 Cytoplasmic effects in Nicotiana. Proc. 11th Int. Congr. Genet. (The Hague, 1963) 1: 203–204.Google Scholar
  32. Cameron, D. R. and R. Moav, 1957 Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum. XXVII. Pollen killer, an alien genetic locus inducing abortion of microspores not carrying it. Genetics 42: 326–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Carlson, P. S., 1970 Induction and isolation of auxotrophic mutants in somatic cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum. Science (Wash., D.C.) 168: 487–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Carlson, P. S., H. H. Smith, and R. D. Dearing, 1972 Parasexual interspecific plant hybridization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA 69: 2292–2294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chaplin, J. F. and T. J. Mann, 1961 Interspecific hybridization, gene transfer and chromosome substitution in Nicotiana. N. C. Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 145: 1–31.Google Scholar
  36. Cheng, T.-Y., 1972 Induction of indoleacetic acid synthetases in tobacco pith expiants. Plant Physiol. 50: 723–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Clausen, R. E. and D. R. Cameron, 1944 Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum XVIII. Monosomic analysis. Genetics 29: 447–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Clausen, R. E. and T. H. Goodspeed, 1926a Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum. VII. The monosomic character “fluted.” Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 11: 61–82.Google Scholar
  39. Clausen, R. E. and T. H. Goodspeed, 19266 Interspecific hybridization in Nicotiana. III. The monosomic Tabacum derivative, “corrugated,” from the sylvestris-tabacum hybrid. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 11: 83–101.Google Scholar
  40. Clausen, R. E. and M. C. Mann, 1924 Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum. V. The occur-rence of haploid plants in interspecific progenies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 10: 121–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Clayton, E. E., 1950 Male-sterile tobacco. J. Heredity 41: 171–175.Google Scholar
  42. Clayton, E. E., 1958 The Genetics and breeding progress in tobacco during the last 50 years. Agron. J. 50: 352–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Clayton, E. E., H. E. Heggestad, J. J. Grosso, and L. G. Burk, 1967 The transfer of blue-mold resistance to tobacco from Nicotiana debneyi. I and II. Tob. Sci. 165: 91–106.Google Scholar
  44. Collins, G. B. and R. S. Sadasivaiah, 1972 Meiotic analysis of haploid and doubled haploid forms of Nicotiana otophora and N. tabacum. Chromosoma 38: 387–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Collins, G. B., P. D. Legg, and M. J. Kasperbauer, 1972 Chromosome numbers in anther-derived haploids of two Nicotiana species. J. Hered. 63: 113–118.Google Scholar
  46. Conklin, M. E. and H. H. Smith, 1968 Endogenous beta irradiation and tumor produc-tion in an amphiploid Nicotiana hybrid. Am. J. Bot. 55 A12 - A16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Conklin, M. E. and H. H. Smith, 1969 Effects of fast neutron versus x-irradiation on development, differentiation and peroxidase isozymes in a genetically tumorous Nicotiana amphiploid and its parents. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 16: 311–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Daly, K. and D. S. Robson, 1969 Estimates of genetic parameters from a hybrid derivative in Nicotiana. Genetics 62: 201–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dawson, R. F. and M. L. Solt, 1959 Estimated contributions of root and shoot to the nicotine content of the tobacco plant. Plant Physiol. 34: 656–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. de Nettancourt, D. and G. W. Stokes, 1960 Haploidy in tobacco. J. Hered. 51: 102–104.Google Scholar
  51. Dermen, H., 1960 Nature of plant sports. Am. Hortic. Mag. 39: 123–173.Google Scholar
  52. Dulieu, H., 1964 Detection of haploid plants among the progeny Nicotiana tabacum L. X N. sanderae Hort. after pollen irradiation. C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. Ser. D Sci. Nat. 259: 4126–4129.Google Scholar
  53. East, E. M., 1913 Inheritance of flower size in crosses between species of Nicotiana. Bot. Gaz. 55: 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. East, E. M., 1928 The Genetics of the genus Nicotiana. Bibliogr. Genet. 4: 243–318.Google Scholar
  55. East, E. M., 1932 Studies on self-sterility. IX. The behavior of crosses between self-sterile and self-fertile plants. Genetics 17: 175–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. East, E. M., 1935 Genetic reactions in Nicotiana. II. Phenotypic reaction patterns. Genetics 20: 414–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Edwardson, J. R., 1965 Gene control of non-Mendelian variegation in Nicotiana tabacum. Genetics 52: 365–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gerstel, D. U., 1943 Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum. XVII. Cytogenetical analysis of glutinosa-type resistance to mosaic disease. Genetics 28: 533–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gerstel, D. U., 1945 Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum. XX. The addition of Nicotiana glutinosa chromosomes to tobacco. J. Hered. 36: 197–206.Google Scholar
  60. Gerstel, D. U., 1948 Transfer of the mosaic-resistance factor between H chromosomes of Nicotiana glutinosa and N. tabacum. J. Agric. Res. 76: 219–223.Google Scholar
  61. Gerstel, D. U., 1960 Segregation in new allopolyploids of Nicotiana. I. Comparison of 6 X (N. tabacum X tomentosiformis) and 6 X (N. tabacum X otophora). Genetics 45: 1723–1734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gerstel, D. U. and J. A. Burns, 1966a Chromosomes of unusual length in hybrids between two species of Nicotiana. In Chromosomes Today, Vol. 1, edited by C. D. Darlington and K. R. Lewis, pp. 41–56, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Gerstel, D. U. and J. A. Burns, 1966b Flower variegation in hybrids between Nicotiana tabacum and N. otophora. Genetics 53: 551–567.Google Scholar
  64. Gerstel, D. U. and J. A. Burns, 1970 The effect of the Nicotiana otophora genome on chromosome breakage and megachromosomes in N. tabacum X N. otophora derivatives. Genetics 66: 331–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gerstel, D. U. and T. J. Mann, 1964 Segregation in new allopolyploids in Nicotiana. III. Nicotine-converter genes in allopolyploids from N. tomentosiformis, N. sylvestris and N. tabacum. Crop. Sci. 4: 387–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gibbs, J. L. and D. K. Dougall, 1965 The growth of single cells from Nicotiana tabacum callus tissue in nutrient medium containing agar. Exptl. Cell. Res. 40: 85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Goodspeed, T. H., 1954 The Genus Nicotiana, Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Mass.Google Scholar
  68. Goodspeed, T. H. and P. Avery, 1929 The occurrence of a Nicotiana glutinosa haploid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 16: 502–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Goodspeed, T. H. and P. Avery, 1939 Trisomic and other types in Nicotiana sylvestris. J. Genet. 38: 381–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Goodspeed, T. H. and P. Avery, 1941 The twelfth primary trisomic type in Nicotiana sylvestris. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 27: 13–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Goodspeed, T. H. and R. E. Clausen, 1928 Interspecific hybridization in Nicotiana. VIII. The sylvestris-tomentosa-tabacum hybrid triangle and its bearing on the origin of tabacum. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 11: 245–256.Google Scholar
  72. Goodspeed, T. H. and M. C. Thompson, 1959 Cytotaxonomy of Nicotiana. II. Bot. Rev. 25: 385–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Guha, S. and S. C. Maheshwari, 1966 Cell division and differentiation of embryos in pollen grains of Datura in vitro. Nature (Lond.) 212: 97–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gupta, S. B., and P. Gupta, 1973 Selective somatic elimination of Nicotiana glutinosa chromosomes in the Fj hybrids of N. suaveolens and N. glutinosa. Genetics 73: 605–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hagen, G. L., 1969 Tumor growth in hybrid tobacco: the parental contributions. Abst. 11th Int. Bot. Congr. ( Seattle ) pg. 82.Google Scholar
  76. Hagen, G. L., J. E. Gunckel, and A. H. Sparrow, 1961 Morphology and histology of tumor types induced by X, gamma, and beta irradiation of a tobacco hybrid. Am. J. Bot. 48: 691–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hart, G. E., 1965 Studies on extrachromosomal male sterility in Nicotiana. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.Google Scholar
  78. Hayman, B. I., 1960 Separation of epistatic from additive and dominance variation in generation means. II. Genetica (The Hague) 31: 133–146.Google Scholar
  79. Henry, T. A., 1949 The Plant Alkaloids, fourth edition, Blakiston, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  80. Hildebrandt, A. C., A. J. Riker and B. M. Duggar, 1946 The influence of the composition of the medium on growth in vitro of excised tobacco and sunflower tissue cultures. Am. J. Bot. 33: 591–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Holmes, F. O., 1938 Inheritance of resistance to tobacco mosaic disease in tobacco. Phytopathology 28: 553–561.Google Scholar
  82. Imai, S., 1959 Alkaloids in Nicotiana. Hatano Tob. Exp. Stn. Bull. 44: 129–136 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  83. Ivanov, M. A., 1938 Experimental production of haploids of Nicotiana rustica L. (and a discussion of haploidity in flowering plants). Genetica (The Hague) 20: 295–381.Google Scholar
  84. Izard, C., 1957 Obtention et fixation de lignées tumorales et nontumorales a partir de mutations expérimentales de l’hybride N. glauca X N. langsdorffii. C. R. Seances Acad. Agric. Fr. 43: 325–327.Google Scholar
  85. Jeffrey, R. N., 1959 Alkaloid composition of species of Nicotiana. Tob. Sci. 3: 89–93.Google Scholar
  86. Kasperbauer, M. J. and G. B. Collins, 1971 Reconstitution of diploids from anther-derived haploids in tobacco. Crop. Sci. 12: 98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kehr, A. E., 1951 Genetic tumors in Nicotiana. Am. Nat. 85: 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kehr, A. E., 1965 The growth and development of spontaneous plant tumors. Encycl. Plant Physiol. XV /2: 184–196.Google Scholar
  89. Kehr, A. E. and H. H. Smith, 1952 Multiple genome relationships in Nicotiana. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 311: 1–19.Google Scholar
  90. Kehr, A. E. and H. H. Smith, 1954 Genetic tumors in Nicotiana hybrids. Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 6: 55–78.Google Scholar
  91. Kimber, G. and R. Riley, 1963 Haploid angiosperms. Bot. Rev. 29: 490–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kostoff, D., 1930 Tumors and other malformations on certain Nicotiana hybrids. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. 2 81: 244–260.Google Scholar
  93. Kostoff, D., 1935 On the increase of mutation frequency following interspecific hybridization. Curr. Sci. (Bangalore) 3: 302–304.Google Scholar
  94. Kostoff, D., 1943 Cytogenetics of the Genus Nicotiana, State Printing House, Sofia, Bulgaria.Google Scholar
  95. Kovacs, E. I., 1967 Organ formation and protein synthesis in instable tissue cultures of the interspecific tumour-forming hybrid of Nicotiana. Acta Agron. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 41–48.Google Scholar
  96. Krishnamurty, K. V., G. S. Murty and K. Appa Rao, 1960 Cytogenetics of the trispecific hybrid Nicotiana tabacum X (N. glutinosa X N. trigonophylla) and its reciprocal. Euphytica 9: 111–121.Google Scholar
  97. Lee, R. E., 1950 A cytogenetic study of extra chromosomes in Nicotiana langsdorffii and in crosses with N. sanderae. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.Google Scholar
  98. Legg, P. D. and G. B. Collins, 1971 Inheritance of percent total alkaloids in Nicotiana tabacum L. II. Genetic effects of two loci in Burley 21 X LA Burley 21 populations. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 13: 287–291.Google Scholar
  99. Legg, P. D., J. F. Chaplin and G. B. Collins, 1969 Inheritance of percent total alkaloids in Nicotiana tabacum L. Hered. 60: 213–217.Google Scholar
  100. Linsmaier, E. M. and F. Skoog, 1965 Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 18: 100–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Luthra, J. K., 1964 Inheritance of quantitative characters in Nicotiana tabacum. Indian J. Genet. Plant Breed. 24: 275–279.Google Scholar
  102. McCray, F. A., 1932 Compatibility of certain Nicotiana species. Genetics 17: 621–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Magoon, M. L. and K. R. Khanna, 1963 Haploids. Caryologia 16: 191–234.Google Scholar
  104. Mann, T. J. and J. A. Weybrew, 1958 Inheritance of alkaloids in hybrids between flue-cured tobacco and related amphidiploids. Tob. Sci. 2: 29–34.Google Scholar
  105. Mann, T. J., D. U. Gerstel and J. L. Apple, 1963 The role of interspecific hybridization in tobacco disease control. In Proceedings of the third World Tobacco Science, Congress Salisbury, S. Africa, 1963, pp. 201–205, Mardon Printers, Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia.Google Scholar
  106. Mann, T. J., J. A. Weybrew, D. F. Matzinger and J. L. Hall, 1964 Inheritance of the conversion of nicotine to nornicotine in varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L. and related amphiploids. Crop Sci. 4: 349–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mann, T. J., D. F. Matzinger and E. A. Wernsman, 1972 Genetic control of tobacco constitutents. In Coresta/TCRC Symposium, pp. 77–85, Williamsburg, Virginia.Google Scholar
  108. Marion, L., 1950 The pyridine alkaloids. In The Alkaloids, Vol. 1, edited by R. H. F. Manske and H. L. Holmes, pp. 228–253, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Marion, L., 1960 The pyridine alkaloids. In The Alkaloids, Vol. 6, edited by R. H. F. Manske, pp. 128–132, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Mather, K., 1949 The genetical theory of continuous variation. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Genetics, Stockholm, 1949, Hereditas Suppl., pp. 376–401, Mendelian Society, Lund, Sweden.Google Scholar
  111. Mather, K. and A. Vines, 1952 The inheritance of height and flowering time in a cross of Nicotiana rustica. In Quantiative Inheritance (Agricultural Research Council Colloquim), pp. 49–79, H. M. Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  112. Matzinger, D. F., T. J. Mann and H. F. Robinson, 1960 Genetic variability in flue- cured varieties of Nicotiana tabacum. I. Hicks Broadleaf X Coker 139. Agron J. 52: 8–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Matzinger, D. F., T. J. Mann and C. C. Cockerham, 1962 Diallel crosses in Nicotiana tabacum. Crop. Sci. 2: 383–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Matzinger, D. F., E. A. Wernsman and H. F. Ross, 1971 Diallel crosses among burley varieties of Nicotiana tabacum L. in the Ft and F2 generations. Crop. Sci. 11: 275–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Matzinger, D. F., E. A. Wernsman and C. C. Cockerham, 1972 Recurrent family selection and correlated response in Nicotiana tabacum L. I. ‘Dixie Bright 244’ X ‘Coker 139’. Crop Sci. 12: 40–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Melchers, G., 1972 Haploid higher plants for plant breeding. Z. Pflanzenzucht. 67: 19–32.Google Scholar
  117. Moav, R., 1961 Genetic instability in Nicotiana hybrids. II. Studies of the Ws (pbg) locus of N. plumbaginifolia in N. tabacum nuclei. Genetics 46: 1069–1087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Moav, R. and D. R. Cameron, 1960 Genetic instability in Nicotiana hybrids. I. The expression of instability in N. tabacum X N. plumbaginifolia. Am. J. Bot. 47: 87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mothes, K., 1955 Physiology of alkaloids. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 6: 393–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Naf, U., 1958 Studies on tumor formation in Nicotiana hybrids. I. The classification of the parents into two etiologically significant groups. Growth 22: 167–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Nagata, T. and I. Takebe, 1970 Cell wall regeneration and cell division in isolated tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. Planta (Berl.) 92: 301–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nagata, T. and I. Takebe, 1971 Plating of isolated tobacco mesophyll protoplasts on agar medium. Planta (Berl.) 99: 12–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Nitsch, J. P., 1969 Experimental androgenesis in Nicotiana. Phytomorphology 19: 389–404.Google Scholar
  124. Oka, M., 1959 The analysis of inheritance of quantitative characters with flue-cured tobacco varieties in diallel cross. Jap. J. Breed. 9: 87–92 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  125. Olby, R. C., 1966 Origins of Mendelism, Schocken Books, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Power, J. B., S. E. Cummings and E. C. Cocking, 1970 Fusion of isolated plant protoplasts. Nature (.Lond.) 225: 1016–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Reddy, M. M. and E. D. Garber, 1971 Genetic studies of variant enzymes. III. Comparative electrophoretic studies of esterases and peroxidases for species, hybrids and amphiploids in the genus Nicotiana. Bot. Gaz. 132: 158–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Robinson, H. F., T. J. Mann and R. E. Comstock, 1954 An analysis of quantitative variability in Nicotiana tabacum. Heredity 8: 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sacristan, M. D. and G. Melchers, 1969 The caryological analysis of plants regenerated from tumorous and other callus cultures of tobacco. Mol Gen. Genet. 105: 317–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sand, S. A., 1957 Phenotypic variability and the influence of temperature on somatic instability in cultures derived from hybrids between Nicotiana langsdorffii and N. sanderae. Genetics 42: 685–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sand, S. A. and G. T. Christoff, 1973 Cytoplasmic-chromosomal interactions and altered differentiation in tobacco. J. Heredity 64: 24–30.Google Scholar
  132. Sand, S. A. and H. H. Smith, 1973 Somatic mutational transients. III. Response by two genes in a clone of Nicotiana to 24-roentgens of gamma radiation applied at various intensities. Genetics 75: 93–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sand, S. A., A. H. Sparrow and H. H. Smith, 1960 Chronic gamma irradiation effects on the mutable V and stable R loci in a clone of Nicotiana. Genetics 45: 289–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Schaeffer, G. W., 1962 Tumour induction by an indolyl–3-acetic acid-kinetin interaction in a Nicotiana hybrid. Nature (.Lond.) 196: 1326–1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Schaeffer, G. W. and H. H. Smith, 1963 Auxin-kinetin interaction in tissue cultures of Nicotiana species and tumor-conditioned hybrids. Plant Physiol. 38: 291–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schaeffer, G. W., H. H. Smith and M. P. Perkus, 1963 Growth-factor interactions in the tissue culture of tumorous and nontumorous Nicotiana glaucalangsdorffii. Am. J. Bot. 50: 766–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Schaeffer, G. W., L. G. Burk, and T. C. Tso, 1966 Tumors of interspecific Nicotiana hybrids. I. Effect of temperature and photoperiod upon flowering and tumor formation. Am. J. Bot. 53: 928–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sheen, S. J., 1970 Perioxidases in the genus Nicotiana. Theor. Appl. Genet. 40: 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sheen, S. J., 1972 Isozymic evidence bearing on the origin of Nicotiana tabacum L. Evolution 26: 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Skoog, F., 1944 Growth and organ formation in tobacco tissue cultures. Am. J. Bot. 31: 19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Skoog, F. and C. O. Miller, 1957 Chemical regulation of growth and organ formation in plant tissues cultured in vitro. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 11: 118–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Smith, H. H., 1943a Effects of genome balance, polyploidy, and single extra chromosomes on size in Nicotiana. Genetics 28: 227–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Smith, H. H., 1943b Studies on induced heteroploids of Nicotiana. Am. J. Bot. 30: 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Smith, H. H., 1952 Fixing transgressive vigor in Nicotiana rustica. In Heterosis, edited by J. Gowen, pp. 161–174, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.Google Scholar
  145. Smith, H. H., 1958 Genetic plant tumors in Nicotiana. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 71: 1163–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Smith, H. H., 1962a Genetic control of Nicotiana plant tumors. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. Ser. 7 /24: 741–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Smith, H. H., 1962b Studies on the origin, inheritance and mutation of genicytoplasmic male sterility in Nicotiana. Genetics 47: 985–986.Google Scholar
  148. Smith, H. H., 1965a Inheritance of alkaloids in introgressive hybrids of Nicotiana. Am. Nat. 99: 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Smith, H. H., 1965b Genetic tobacco tumors and the problem of differentiation. Brookhaven Led. Series (BNL 967 T–405) 52: 1–8.Google Scholar
  150. Smith, H. H., 1968 Recent cytogenetic studies in the genus Nicotiana. Adv. Genet. 14: 1–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Smith, H. H., 1971 Broadening the base of genetic variability in plants. J. Hered. 62: 265–276.Google Scholar
  152. Smith, H. H., 1972 Plant genetic tumors. Progr. Exp. Tumor Res. 16: 138–164.Google Scholar
  153. Smith, H. H. 1974a Model genetic systems for studying mutation, differentiation, and somatic cell hybridization in plants. In Polyploidy and Induced Mutations in Plant Breeding, I AC A, Vienna.Google Scholar
  154. Smith, H. H. 1974b Model systems for somatic cell plant Genetics. Bio Science 24: 269–276.Google Scholar
  155. Smith, H. H. 1974c Interspecific plant hybridization and the Genetics of morphogenesis. Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 25: 309–328.Google Scholar
  156. Smith, H. H. and D. V. Abashian, 1963 Chromoatographic investigations on the alkaloid content of Nicotiana species and interspecific combinations. Am. J. Bot. 50: 435–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Smith, H. H. and K. Daly, 1959 Discrete populations derived by interspecific hybridization and selection in Nicotiana. Evolution 13: 476–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Smith, H. H. and D. S. Robson, 1959 A quantitative inheritance study of dimensions of flower parts in tobacco. Biometrics 16: 147.Google Scholar
  159. Smith, H. H. and S. A. Sand, 1957 Genetic studies on somatic instability in cultures derived from hybrids between Nicotiana langsdorffii and N. sanderae. Genetics 42: 560–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Smith, H. H. and C. R. Smith, 1942 Alkaloids in certain species and interspecific hybrids of Nicotiana. J. Agric. Res. 65: 347–359.Google Scholar
  161. Smith, H. and H. and H. Q., Stevenson, 1961 Genetic control and radiation effects in Nicotiana tumors. Z. Vererbungsl. 92: 100–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Smith, H. H., H. Q. Stevenson and A. E. Kehr, 1958 Limits and consequences of multiple allopolyploidy in Nicotiana. Nucleus (Calcutta) 1: 205–222.Google Scholar
  163. Smith, H. H., D. E. Hamill, E. A. Weaver, and K. H. Thompson, 1970 Multiple molecular forms of peroxidases and esterases among species and amphiploids in the genus Nicotiana. J. Hered. 61: 203–212.Google Scholar
  164. Sparrow, A. H., J. E. Gunckel, L. A., Schairer and G. L. Hagen, 1956 Tumor formation and other morphogenetic responses in an amphiploid tobacco hybrid exposed to chronic gamma irradiation. Am. J. Bot. 43: 377–388.Google Scholar
  165. Steitz, E., 1963 Untersuchungen liber die Tumorbildung bei Bastarden von Nicotiana glauca und N. langsdorffii. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Saarland, Saarbruken, Germany.Google Scholar
  166. Steward, F. C., J. F. Thompson and J. K. Pollard, 1958 Contrasts in the nitrogenous composition of rapidly growing and nongrowing plant tissues. J. Exp. Bot. 9: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sunderland, N., 1971 Anther culture: a progress report. Sci. Progr. 59: 527–549.Google Scholar
  168. Takebe, I., G. Labib and G. Melchers, 1971 Regeneration of whole plants from isolated mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco. Naturwissensehaften 6: 318–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Takenaka, Y. and Y. Yoneda, 1962 Tumorous hybrids in Nicotiana. Natl. Inst. Genet. Mishima. Annu. Rep. 13: 63–64.Google Scholar
  170. Tanaka, M. and K. Nakata, 1969 Tobacco plants obtained by anther culture and the experiment to get diploid seeds from haploids. Jap. J. Genet.Google Scholar
  171. Tso, T. C., 1972 Physiology and Biochemistry of Tobacco Plants, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa.Google Scholar
  172. Tso, T. C. and L. G., Burk, 1962 Effects of certain anti-tumor chemicals on a tumorous Nicotiana hybrid. Nature (.Lond.) 193: 1204–1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tso, T. C., L. G. Burk, L.J. Dieterman and S. H. Wender, 1964 Scopoletin, scopolin and chlorogenic acid in tumours of interspecific Nicotiana hybrids. Nature (Lond.) 204: 779–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Vasil, V. and A. G. Hildebrandt, 1965 Differentiation of tobacco plants from single, isolated cells in microcultures. Science (Wash., D.C.) 150: 889–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Vester, F. and F. Anders, 1960 Der Gehalt an freien Aminosäuren des spontan tumorbildenden Artbastards von Nicotiana glauca und N. langsdorffii. Biochem. Z. 332: 396–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Wernsman, E. A. and D. F. Matzinger, 1970 Relative stability of alleles at the nicotine conversion locus of tobacco. Tob. Sci. 14: 34–36.Google Scholar
  177. White, P. R., 1939a Potentially unlimited growth of excised plant callus in an artifical nutrient. Am. J. Bot. 26: 59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. White, P. R., 1939b Controlled differentiation in a plant tissue culture. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 66: 507–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Wittmer, G. and R. E. Scossiroli, 1961 Estimation of genetic variability for several quantitative traits in two tobacco varieties. Genet. Agrar. 14: 223–233.Google Scholar
  180. Wolf, F. A., 1959 Cytoplasmic inheritance of albinism in tobacco. Tob. Sci. 3: 39–43.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold H. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyBrookhaven National LaboratoryUptonUSA

Personalised recommendations