Advertisement

The Hippocampus and Hormonal Cyclicity

  • Brenda K. McGowan-Sass
  • Paola S. Timiras

Abstract

In recent years, considerable importance has been attributed to the role of the hormonal environment in modulating the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and, conversely, the role of the CNS in regulating endocrine and associated physiological functions. It has become evident that any final analysis of behavior attempting to deal with CNS alterations induced by lesion, stimulation, drugs, etc., must take into account the resultant effects on endogenous levels of hormones. In addition, not only do normal cyclical alterations in the hormonal environment have widespread effects on the CNS, but these effects vary over time. The endocrine-CNS interaction could be an important factor in the complex behavioral changes observed as a result of interruption of either of these systems. This chapter deals specifically with the relationship of the limbic system, especially the hippocampus and amygdala, to alterations in the hormonal environment, with primary emphasis on cyclical changes in gonadal and adrenal steroids.

Keywords

Luteinizing Hormone Estrous Cycle Limbic System Arcuate Nucleus Dorsal Hippocampus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adey, W. R., And Walter, D. O. Application Of Phase Detection And Averaging Techniques In Computer Analysis Of Eeg Records In The Cat. Experimental Neurology, 1963, 7, 186–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asano, Y. The Maturation Of The Circadian Rhythm Of And Serotonin In The Rat. Life Sciences, 1971, 10, 1, 883–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aschoff, J. Circadian Activity Rhythms In Chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) under constant conditions. Japanese Journal of Physiology, 1966, 16, 363–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beach, F. A. Hormones And Behavior. New York: Hoeber, 1948.Google Scholar
  5. Beyer, C., Yaschine, T., And Mena, F. Alterations In Sexual Behavior Induced By Temporal Lobe Lesions In Female Rabbits. Boletin Del Instituto De Estudios y Biologicos, 1964, 22 (3), 379–386.Google Scholar
  6. Bunn, J. P., And Everett, J. W. Ovulation In Persistent-Estrus Rats After Electrical Stimulation Of The Brain. Proceedings Of The Society For Experimental Biology, 1957, 96, 369–371.Google Scholar
  7. Cheifetz, P., Gaffud, N., And Dingman, J. F. Effects Of Bilateral Adrenalectomy And Continuous Light On The Circadian Rhythm Of Corticotrophin In Female Rats. Endocrinology, 1968, 82, 1117–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conrey, K., And De Goot, J. Limbic System Involvement In The Regulation Of Luteinizing Hormone Release. Federation Proceedings, 1964, 23, 109.Google Scholar
  9. Critchlow, B. V. Ovulation Induced By Hypothalamic Stimulation In The Rat. Anatomical Record, 1957, 127, 283, Abst. 233.Google Scholar
  10. Critchlow, V. Ovulation Induced By Hypothalamic Stimulation In Anesthetized Rat. American Journal Of Physiology, 1958, 195, 171–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Curry, J. J., And Timiras, P. S. Development Of. Evoked Potentials In Specific Brain Systems After Neonatal Administration Of Estradiol. Experimental Neurology, 1972, 34 (1), 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Donovan, B. T. Hormones And Brain Function. In Mammalian Neuroendocrinology. New York: Mcgraw-Hill, 1968, Pp. 166–176.Google Scholar
  13. Elul, R. Regional Differences In The Hippocampus Of The Cat. Electroencephalography And Clinical Neurophysiology, 1964, 16, 470–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elwers, M., And Critchlow, V. Precocious Ovarian Stimulation Following Hypothalamic And Amygdaloid Lesions In Rats. American Journal Of Physiology, 1960, 198, 381–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Elwers, M., And Critchlow, V. Precocious Ovarian Stimulation Following Interruption Of Stria Termi-Nalis. American Journal Of Physiology, 1961, 201, 281–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Endroczi, E., And Lissak, K. Effects Of Hypothalamic And Brain Stem Structure Stimulation On Pituitary Adrenocortical Function. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarrum Hungaricae, 1963, 24, 67–78.Google Scholar
  17. Everett, J. W. The Mammalian Female Reproductive Cycle And Its Controlling Mechanisms. In W. C. Young (Ed.), Sex and internal secretions. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1961, pp. 497–555.Google Scholar
  18. Farris, E. J. The Prediction Of The Day Of Human Ovulation By The Rat Test As Confirmed By Fifty Conceptions. American Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynecology, 1948, 56, 347–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Feldman, S. Electrophysiological Alterations In Adrenalectomy. Archives Of Neurology, 1962, 7, 460–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feldman, S., And Dafny, N. Effect Of Hydrocortisone On Single Cell Activity In The Anterior Hypothalamus. Israel Journal Of Medical Science, 1966, 2 (5), 621–23.Google Scholar
  21. Ferin, M., Tempone, A., Zimmering, P. E., And Van De Wiele, R. L. Effect Of Antibodies To 17/3-Estra-Diol And Progesterone On The Estrous Cycle Of The Rat. Endocrinology, 1969, 85, 1070.Google Scholar
  22. Freeman, M. E., And Neill, J. D. The Pattern Of Prolactin Secretion During Pseudopregnancy In The Rat: A Daily Nocturnal Surge. Endocrinology, 1972, 90 (5), 1292–1294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gallagher, T. F., Yoshida, K., Roffwarg, H. D., Fukushima, D. K., Weitzman, E., And Hellman, L. Acth And Cortisol Secretory Patterns In Man. Journal Of Clinical Endocrinology And Metabolism, 1973, 36, 1061–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gallo, R. V., Johnson, J. H., Goldman, B. D., Whitmoyer, D. I., And Sawyer, C. H. Effects Of Electrochemical Stimulation Of The Ventral Hippocampus On Hypothalamic Electrical Activity And Pituitary Gonadotropin Secretion In Female Rats. Endocrinology, 1971, 89, 704–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ganong, W. F. Review Of Medical Physiology, 5Th Ed. Los Altos, Calif.: Lange Medical Publications, 1971, P. 176.Google Scholar
  26. Golden, G. H., And Lubar, J. F. Effect Of Septal And Fimbrial Stimulation On Auditory And Visual Cortical Evoked Potentials In The Rat. Experimental Neurology, 1971, 30 (3), 389–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goodfellow, E. F., And Niemer, W. T. The Spread Of After-Discharge From Stimulation Of Rhinenceph-Alon In Cat. Electrophysiology And Clinical Neurophysiology, 1961, 13, 710–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gorbman, A., And Bern, H. A. A Textbook Of Comparative Endocrinology. New York: Wiley, 1962, P. 254.Google Scholar
  29. Green, J. D. The Hippocampus. Physiological Review, 1964, 44 (4), 561–608.Google Scholar
  30. Groves, P. M., Lee, D., And Thompson, R. F. Effects Of Stimulus Frequency And Intensity On Habituation And Sensitization In Acute Spinal Cat. Physiology And Behavior, 1969, 4, 383–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heim, L. M. Effect Of Estradiol On Brain Maturation: Dose And Response Relationships. Endocrinology, 1966, 78, 1130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heim, L. M., And Timiras, P. S. Gonad-Brain Relationship: Precocious Brain Maturation. Endocrinology, 1963, 72, 598–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Helasz, B., And Pupp, L. Hormone Secretion Of The Anterior Pituitary Gland After Physical Interruption Of All Nervous Pathways To The Hypophysiotrophic Area. Endocrinology, 1965, 77, 553–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Henkin, R. I. The Effects Of Corticosteroids And Acth On Sensory Systems. In D. De Wied And J. A. W. M. Weijnen (Eds.), Pituitary adrenal and the brain. Vol. 32 of Progress in brain research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1970, pp. 270–294.Google Scholar
  35. Hitchcock, F. A. The Comparative Activity Of Male And Female Albino Rats. American Journal Of Physiology, 1925/1926, 75, 205–210.Google Scholar
  36. Hoagland, H. Hormones, Brain Function And Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  37. Hudson, D. B., Vernadakis, A., And Timiras, P. S. Regional Changes In Amino Acid Concentration In The Developing Brain And The Effects Of Neonatal Administration Of Estradiol. Brain Research, 1970, 23, 213–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kawakami, M., And Kubo, K. Neuro-Correlate Of Limbic-Hypothalamo-Pituitary Gonadal Axis In The Rat: Changes In Limbic-Hypothalamic Unit Activity Induced By Vaginal And Electrical Stimulation. Neuroendocrinology, 1971, 7, 65–89.Google Scholar
  39. Kawakami, M., And Sawyer, C. H. Neuroendocrine Correlates Of Changes In Brain Activity Thresholds By Sex Steroids And Pituitary Hormones. Endocrinology, 1959, 65, 652–668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kawakami, M., And Terasawa, E. Studies On Brain Activity And Conduction Of Synapsis In Estrous Cats And Rabbits. Journal Of Physiological Society Of Japan, 1965, 27, 86.Google Scholar
  41. Kawakami, M., And Terasawa, E. Effect Of Electrical Stimulation Of The Brain On Ovulation During Estrous Cycle In The Rats. Endocrinologia Japonica, 1970, 17, 7–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kawakami, M., Koshino, T., And Hattori, Y. Changes In The Eeg Of The Hypothalamic And Limbic System After Administration Of Acth, Su4885 And Ach In Rabbits With Special Reference To Neurohumoral Feedback Regulation Of Pituitary Adrenal System. Japanese Journal Of Physiology, 1966A, 16, 551–569.Google Scholar
  43. Kawakami, M., Seto, K., And Yoshida, K. Influence Of The Limbic System On Ovulation And On Progesterone And Estrogen Formation In Rabbit’s Ovary. Japanese Journal Of Physiology, 19666, 6, 254–273.Google Scholar
  44. Kawakami, M., Terasawa, E., Tsuchihashi, S., And Yamanaka, K. Differential Control By Sex Hormones Of Brain Activity In The Rabbit And Its Physiological Significance. In J. Pincus, K. Nakao, And J. L. Tait (Eds.), Steroid dynamics. New York: Academic Press, 1966c, pp. 237–302.Google Scholar
  45. Kawakami, M., Seto, K., Terasawa, E., And Yoshida, K. Mechanisms In The Limbic System Controlling Reproductive Function Of The Ovary With Special Reference To The Positive Feedback. Progress In Brain Research, 1967, 27, 69–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kawakami, M., Seto, K., Terasawa, E., Yoshida, K., Iyamoto, T., Sekiguchi, M., And Hattori, Y. Influence Of Electrical Stimulation And Lesion In Limbic Structure Upon Biosynthesis Of Adrenocorticoid In The Rabbit. Neuroendocrinology, 1968, 3, 337–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kawakami, M., Terasawa, E., And Ibuki, T. Changes In Multiple Unit Activity Of The Brain During The Estrous Cycle. Neuroendocrinology, 1970, 6, 30–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kluver, H., And Bucy, P. Preliminary Analysis Of Functions Of The Temporal Lobes In Monkeys. Archives Of Neurology And Psychiatry, 1939, 42, 979–1000.Google Scholar
  49. Koikegami, H., Yamada, T., And Usei, K. Stimulation Of Amygdaloid Nuclei And Periamygdaloid Cortex With Special Reference To Its Effects On Uterine Movements And Ovulation. Folia Psychiatrica Neu-Rologica Japonica, 1954, 8, 7–31.Google Scholar
  50. Koranyi, L., And Endrgczi, E. Influence Of Pituitary-Adreno-Cortical Hormones On Thalamo-Cortical And Brainstem Limbic Circuits. In D. De Wied And J. A. W. M. Weijnen (Eds.), Progress in brain research. Vol. 32. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1970, pp. 120–130.Google Scholar
  51. Koranyi, L., Beyer, C., And Guzman-Flores, C. Effect Of Acth And Hydrocortisone On Multiple Unit Activity In The Forebrain And Thalamus In Response To Reticular Stimulation. Physiology And Behavior, 1971, 7, 331–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Krieger, D. T., And Rizzo, F. Serotonin Mediation Of Circadian Periodicity Of Plasma 17-Hydroxycorti-Costeroids. American Journal Of Physiology, 1969, 217 (6), 1703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Krieger, D. T., Ossowski, R., Fogel, M., And Allen, W. Lack Of Circadian Periodicity Of Human Serum Fsh And Lh Levels. Journal Of Clinical Endocrinology And Metabolism, 1972, 34 (4), 619–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lawton, I. E., And Schwartz, N. B. Pituitary-Ovarian Function In Rats Exposed To Constant Light: A Chronological Study. Endocrinology, 1967, 81, 497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leyendecker, G., And Saxena, B. B. Taggesschwankungen Der Konzentrationen Von Follikelstimulierendem (FSH) und luteinisierendem (LH) Hormon im menschlichen Plasma. Klinische Wochenschrift, 1970, 48, 236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Long, J. A., And Evans, H. M. The Oestrus Cycle In The Rat And Its Associated Phenomena. Memoirs University Of California, 6, 1922.Google Scholar
  57. Mandelbrod, I., And Feldman, S. Effects On Sensory And Hippocampal Stimulation On Unit Activity In The Median Eminence Of The Rat Hypothalamus. Physiology And Behavior, 1972, 9, 565–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mason, J. W. The Cns Regulation Of Acth Secretion. In Reticular Formation Of The Brain. Boston: Little, Brown, 1958, Pp. 645–670.Google Scholar
  59. Mcclintock, J. A., And Schwartz, N. B. Changes In Pituitary And Plasma Follicle Stimulating Hormone Concentrations During The Rat Estrous Cycle. Endocrinology, 1968, 83, 433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mcgowan-Sass, B. K. Differentiation Of Electrical Rhythms And Functional Specificity Of The Hippocampus Of The Rat. Physiology And Behavior, 1973, 11 (2), 187–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mcgowan-Sass, B. K., And Eidelberg, E. Habituation Of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials In The Lemniscal System Of The Cat. Electroencephalography And Clinical Neurophysiology, 1972, 32, 373–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mena, F., And Beyer, C. Induction Of Milk Secretion In The Rabbit By Lesions In The Temporal Lobe. Endocrinology, 1968, 83 (3), 618–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moberg, G. P., Scapagnini, U., De Groot, J., And Ganong, W. F. Effect Of Sectioning The Fornix On Diurnal Fluctuations In Plasma Corticosterone Levels In The Rat. Neuroendocrinology, 1971, 7, 11–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nakadate, G., And De Groot, J. Fornix Section And Adrenocortical Function In Rats. Anatomical Record, 1963, 45, 338.Google Scholar
  65. Nankin, H. R., And Troen, P. Overnight Patterns Of Serum Luteinizing Hormone In Normal Men. Journal Of Clinical Endocrinology And Metabolism, 1972, 35 (5), 705–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ojeman, G. A., And Henkin, R. I. Steroid Dependent Changes In Human Visual Evoked Potentials. Life Sciences, 1967, 6 (2), 327–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Okada, F. The Maturation Of The Circadian Rhythm Of Brain Serotonin In The Rat. Life Sciences, 1971, 10, 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pagano, R. R., And Loveley, R. H. Diurnal Cycle And Acth Facilitation Of Shuttlebox Avoidance. Physiology And Behavior, 1972, 8, 721–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pawel, M. A., Sassin, J. F., And Weitzman, E. D. The Temporal Relation Between Hgh Release And Sleep Stage Changes At Nocturnal Sleep Onset In Man. Life Sciences, 1972, 2(1), 587–591..Google Scholar
  70. Quay, W. B. Differences In Circadian Rhythms In 5-Hydroxytryptamine According To Brain Region. American Journal Of Physiology, 1968, 215, 1448–1453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Retienne, K., And Schulz, F. Circadian Rhythmicity Of Hypothalamic Crf And Its Central Nervous Regulation. Hormones And Metabolic Research, 1070, 2 (4), 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Riss, W., Burstein, S., And Johnson, R. W. Hippocampal Or Pyriform Lobe Damage In Infancy And Endocrine Development Of Rats. American Journal Of Physiology, 1963, 204, 861–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ronnekleiv, O. K., Krulich, L., And Mccann, S. M. An Early Morning Surge Of Prolactin In The Male Rat And Its Abolition By Pinealectomy. Endocrinology, 1973, 92 (5), 1339–1342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sassin, J. F., Frantz, A. G., Weitzman, E. D., And Kapen, S. Human Prolactin: 24-Hour Pattern With Increased Release During Sleep, Science, 1972, 177, 1205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Saul, G. D., And Feld, M. The Limbic System And Est Seizures. Inj. Wortis (Ed.), Recent advances in biological psychiatry. Vol. 3. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1961.Google Scholar
  76. Scapagnini, U., Moberg, G. P., Vanloon, G. R., De Groot, J., And Ganong, W. F. Relations Of Brain 5-Hydroxytryptamine Content To The Diurnal Variation In Plasma Corticosterone In The Rat. Neuroendocrinology, 1971, 7 (2), 90–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schreiner, L., And Kling, A. Behavioral Changes Following Rhinencephalic Injury In The Cat. Journal Of Neurophysiology, 1953, 16, 643–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Shealy, C. N., And Peele, T. L. Studies On Amygdaloid Nucleus Of The Cat. Journal Of Neurophysiology, 1957, 20, 125–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Shirley, B., Wolinsky, J., And Schwartz, N. B. Effects Of A Single Injection Of An Estrogen Antagonist On The Estrous Cycle Of The Rat. Endocrinology, 1968, 82, 959–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Slusher, M. A. Effect Of Chronic Hypothalamic Lesions On Diurnal And Stress Corticosteroid Levels. American Journal Of Physiology, 1964, 206 (5), 1161–1164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Slusher, M. A. Effects Of Cortisol Implants In The Brainstem And Ventral Hippocampus On Diurnal Corticosteroid Levels. Experimental Brain Research, 1966, 1, 184–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Snyder, S. H., Axelrod, J., And Zweig, M. Circadian Rhythm In The Serotonin Content Of Rat Pineal Gland: Regulating Factors. Journal Of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics, 1967, 158, 206–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Takebe, K., Kunita, H., Sawano, S., Horiuchi, Y., And Mashimo, K. Circadian Rhythms Of Plasma Growth Hormones And Cortisol After Insulin. Journal Of Clinical Endocrinology, 1969, 29, 1630–1633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taylor, A. N., Matheson, G. K., And Dafny, N. Modification Of The Responsiveness Of Components Of The Limbic Midbrain Circuit By Corticosteroids And ACTH. In C. H. Sawyer And R. A. Gorski (Eds.), Steroid hormones and brain function. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  85. Terasawa, E., And Kawakami, M. Effects Of Limbic Forebrain Ablation On Pituitary Gonadal Function In The Female Rat. Endocrinologica Japonica, 1973, 20 (3), 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Terasawa, E., And Timiras, P. S. Electrical Activity During The Estrous Cycle Of The Rat: Cyclic Changes In Limbic Structures. Endocrinology, 1968A, 83(2), 207–216.Google Scholar
  87. Terasawa, E., And Timiras, P. S. Electrophysiological Study Of The Limbic System In The Rat At The Onset Of Puberty. American Journal Of Physiology, 19686, 215(6), 1462–1467.Google Scholar
  88. Terasawa, E., And Timiras, P. S. Cyclic Changes In Electrical Activity Of The Rat Midbrain Reticular Formation During The Estrous Cycle. Brain Research, 1969, 14, 189–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Terasawa, E., Kawakami, M., And Sawyer, C. H. Induction Of Ovulation By Electrochemical Stimulation In Androgenized And Spontaneously Constant-Estrous Rats. Proceedings Of The Society For Experimental Biology And Medicine, 1969, 132, 497–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Timiras, P. S., Woodbury, D. M., And Baker, D. H. Effect Of Hydrocortisone Acetate, Desoxycorticos-Terone Acetate, Insulin, Glucagon And Dextrose, Alone Or In Combination, On Experimental Convulsions And Carbohydrate Metabolism. Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamic Et De Therapie, 1956, 105, 450–467.Google Scholar
  91. Timiras, P. S., Vernadakis, A., And Sherwood, N. Development And Plasticity Of The Nervous System. In N. S. Assali (Ed.), Biology of gestation. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press, 1968, pp. 261–319.Google Scholar
  92. Velasco, M. E., And Taleisnik, S. Release Of Gonadotropins Induced By Amygdaloid Stimulation In The Rat. Endocrinology, 1969A, 84, 132–139.Google Scholar
  93. Velasco, M. E., And Taleisnik, S. Effect Of Hippocampal Stimulation On The Release Of Gonadotropin. Endocrinology, 19696, 85(6), 1154–1159.Google Scholar
  94. Vernadakis, A., and Woodbury, D. M. Effects of Cortisol on electroshock seizure thresholds in developing rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1963, 139, 110–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Vernadakis, A., and Woodbury, D. M. Effects of Cortisol on maturation of the central nervous system. In Influence of hormones on the nervous system. Proceedings of the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology, Brooklyn, 1970, Basel: Karger, 1971, pp. 85–97.Google Scholar
  96. Wang, G. H. Relation between “spontaneous” activity and estrous cycle in the white rat. Comparative Psychology Monographs, 1923, 1, 1–27.Google Scholar
  97. Woodbury, D. M. Effect of hormones on brain excitability and electrolytes. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 1954, 10, 65–107.Google Scholar
  98. Woolley, D., and Timiras, P. S. The gonad-brain relationship: Effects of female sex hormones on electroshock convulsions in the rat. Endocrinology, 1962a, 70, 196–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Woolley, D., and Timiras, P. S. Gonad-brain relationship: Effects of castration and testosterone on electroshock convulsions in male rats, Endocrinology, 1962b, 71, 609–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brenda K. McGowan-Sass
    • 1
  • Paola S. Timiras
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology-AnatomyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations