Advertisement

The Hippocampus and the Pituitary-Adrenal System Hormones

  • Béla Bohus

Abstract

The pituitary-adrenal system is one of the most prominent systems of bodily adaptation. Noxious stimuli specified as “stressors” by Selye (1936) activate the pituitary-adrenal system. The concept of a “general adaptation syndrome” was introduced by Selye (1950) based on the “nonspecificity” of the pituitary-adrenal cortical responses to a variety of stimuli, mainly physical. Although Selye (1950) himself observed that “even mere emotional stress” such as immobilization activates the pituitary-adrenal axis, it was only later recognized that psychological stimuli are among the most potent of all stimuli affecting the pituitary-adrenal system (Mason, 1968). This recognition led Mason (1971) to suggest that the “primary mediator” underlying the pituitary-adrenal response to a variety of stimuli “may simply be the psychological apparatus involved in emotional or arousal reactions to threatening or unpleasant factors in the life situation as a whole.” It is also recognized that not only anxiety, fear, and rage are effective to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal axis but also stimuli signaling hope or disappointment (Coover et al., 1971a; Levine et al., 1972). As suggested by Levine et al. (1972), changes in expectancies during well-established behavior such as during reinforcement shifts or withdrawal of reinforcement in rewarded behavioral situations result in the activation of the pituitary-adrenal system. If we consider that all these stimuli which activate the pituitary-adrenal axis elicit rather specific behavioral changes, the specificity of the “stress” concept as suggested by Mason (1971) seems to be obvious. However, this notion considers only a one-way relationship between the central nervous system and the pituitary-adrenal system: the pituitary ACTH release is controlled by the central nervous activity.

Keywords

Passive Avoidance Plasma Corticosterone Level ACTH Release Cortisone Acetate Shuttlebox Avoidance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adey, W. R. Eeg Studies Of Hippocampal System In The Learning Process. INJ. Cadilhac (Ed.), Physiologie de Vhippocampe. Coll. Int. CNRS No. 107. Paris: Editions CNRS, 1962, pp. 203–224.Google Scholar
  2. Agranoff, B. W., Davis, R. E., Casola, L., And Lim, R. Actinomycin D Blocks Formation Of Memory Of Shock Avoidance In Goldfish. Science, 1967, 158, 1600–1601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altman, J., Brunner, R. L., And Bayer, S. A. The Hippocampus And Behavioral Maturation. Behavioral Biology, 1973, 8, 557–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Antelman, S. M., And Brown, T. S. Hippocampal Lesions And Shuttlebox Avoidance Behavior: A Fear Hypothesis. Physiology And Behavior, 1972, 9, 15–20.Google Scholar
  5. Applezweig, M. H., And Moeller, G. Anxiety, The Pituitary-Adrenocortical System And Avoidance Learning. Acta Psychologica, 1959, 15, 602.Google Scholar
  6. Azmitia, E. C., And McEwen, B. S. Corticosterone Regulation Of Tryptophan Hydroxylase In Midbrain Of The Rat. Science, 1969, 166, 1274–1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barcik, J. D. Hippocampal Afterdischarges And Conditioned Emotional Response. Psychonomic Science, 1970, 20, 297–299.Google Scholar
  8. Beatty, P. A., Beatty, W. W., Bowman, R. E., And Gilchrist, J. C. The Effects Of Acth, Adrenalectomy And Dexamethasone On The Acquisition Of An Avoidance Response In Rats. Physiology And Behavior, 1970, 5, 939–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett, T. L. Hippocampal Theta Activity And Behavior: A Review. Communications In Behavioral Biology, 1971, 6, 37–48.Google Scholar
  10. Blackstad, T. W. Commissural Connections Of The Hippocampal Region In The Rat, With Special Reference To Their Mode Of Termination. Journal Of Comparative Neurology, 1956, 105, 417–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bohus, B. The Effect Of Central Nervous Lesions On Pituitary-Adrenocortical Function In The Rat. Acta Physio-Logica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1961, 20, 373–377.Google Scholar
  12. Bohus, B. Pituitary Acth Release And Avoidance Behavior Of Rats With Cortisol Implants In Mesencephalic Reticular Formation And Median Eminence. Neuro Endocrinology, 1968, 3, 355–365.Google Scholar
  13. Bohus, B. Central Nervous Structures And The Effect Of Acth And Corticosteroids On Avoidance Behaviour: A Study With Intracerebral Implantation Of Corticosteroids In The Rat. In D. De Wied And J. A. W. M. Weijnen (Eds.), Pituitary, adrenal and the brain. Vol. 32 of Progress in brain research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1970, pp. 171–184.Google Scholar
  14. Bohus, B. Adrenocortical Hormones And Central Nervous Function: The Site And Mode Of Their Behavioural Action In The Rat. In V. H. T. James And L. Martini (Eds.), Hormonal steroids: Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Hormonal Steroids. Excerpta Medica International Congress Series No. 219. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1971, pp. 752–758.Google Scholar
  15. Bohus, B. Pituitary-Adrenal Influences On Avoidance And Approach Behavior Of The Rat. In E. Zimmermann, W. H. Gispen, B. H. Marks, And D. De Wied (Eds.), Drug effects on neuroendocrine regulation. Vol. 39 of Progress in brain research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1973, pp. 407–420.Google Scholar
  16. Bohus, B., And De Wied, D. Facilitatory And Inhibitory Influences On The Pituitary-Adrenal System: A Study With Chlorpromazine. In A. Lunedei And M. Cagnoni (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Biorhythms in Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology. Rassegna di Neurologia Vegetativa, 1967a, 21, 71–81.Google Scholar
  17. Bohus, B., And De Wied, D. Failure Of A-Msh To Delay Extinction Of Conditioned Avoidance Behavior In Rats With Lesions In The Parafascicular Nuclei Of The Thalamus. Physiology And Behavior, 19676, 2, 221–223.Google Scholar
  18. Bohus, B., And Endroczi, E. Effect Of Intracerebral Implantation Of Hydrocortisone On Adrenocortical Secretion And Adrenal Weight After Unilateral Adrenalectomy. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1964, 25, 11–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bohus, B., And Endroczi, E. The Influence Of Pituitary-Adrenocortical Function On The Avoiding Conditioned Reflex Activity In Rats. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1965, 26, 183–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bohus, B., And Lissak, K. The Sites Of Feedback Action Of Corticosteroids At Extrahypothalamic Level. General And Comparative Endocrinology, 1967, 9, 434–435.Google Scholar
  21. Bohus, B., And Lissak, K. Adrenocortical Hormones And Avoidance Behaviour Of Rats. International Journal Of Neuropharmacology, 1968, 7, 301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bohus, B., Nyakas, C., And Endroczi, E. Effects Of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone On Avoidance Behaviour Of Intact And Adrenalectomized Rats. International Journal Of Neuropharmacology, 1968A, 7, 307–314.Google Scholar
  23. Bohus, B., Nyakas, C., And Lissak, K. Involvement Of Suprahypothalamic Structures In The Hormonal Feedback Action Of Corticosteroids. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1968B, 34,1–8.Google Scholar
  24. Bohus, B., Grubits, J., Kovacs, G., And Lissak, K. Effect Of Corticosteroids On Passive Avoidance Behaviour Of The Rat. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1970, 38, 381–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bohus, B., Hendrickx, H. H. L., Van Kolfschoten, A. A., And Krediet, T. G. The Effect Of Acth 4–10 On Copulatory And Sexually Motivated Approach Behavior In The Male Rat. In M. Sandler And G. L. Gessa (Eds.), Sexual behavior: Pharmacology and biochemistry. New York: Raven Press, 1975, pp. 269–275.Google Scholar
  26. Bouille, C., And Bayle, J. D. Effects Of Limbic Stimulations Or Lesions On Basal And Stress-Induced Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Activity In The Pigeon. Neuro Endocrinology, 1973/1974, 13, 264–277.Google Scholar
  27. Brady, J. W., And Nauta, W. J. H. Subcortical Mechanisms In Emotional Behavior: Affective Changes Following Septal Forebrain Lesions In The Albino Rats. Journal Of Comparative And Physiological Psychology, 1953, 46, 333–346.Google Scholar
  28. Brunner, R. L., Rossi, R. R., Stutz, R. M., And Roth, T. G. Memory Loss Following Posttrial Electrical Stimulation Of The Hippocampus. Psychonomic Science, 1970, 18, 159–160.Google Scholar
  29. Bush, D. F., Lovely, R. H., And Pagano, R. R. Injection Of Acth Induces Recovery From Shuttle-Box Avoidance Deficits In Rats With Amygdaloid Lesions. Journal Of Comparative And Physiological Psychology, 1973, 83, 168–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Casaday, R. L., Branch, B. J., And Taylor, A. N. Effect Of Hippocampal Stimulation Upon Stress Responses In Freely Behaving Rats. Abstracts Lvth International Congress Of Endocrinology. Excerpta Medica International Congress Series No. 256, 1972, P. 204.Google Scholar
  31. Cleghorn, R. A. Steroid Hormones In Relation To Neuropsychiatric Disorders. In H. Hoagland (Ed.), Hormones, brain function, and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1957, pp. 3–25.Google Scholar
  32. Coover, G. D., Goldman, L., And Levine, S. Plasma Corticosterone Increases Produced By Extinction Of Operant Behavior In Rats. Physiology And Behavior, 1971A, 6,261–263.Google Scholar
  33. Coover, G. D., Goldman, L., And Levine, S. Plasma Corticosterone Levels During Extinction Of A Lever-Press Response In Hippocampectomized Rats. Physiology And Behavior, 1971 B, 7, 727–732.Google Scholar
  34. Corbin, A., Mangili, G., Motta, M., And Martini, L. Effect Of Hypothalamic And Mesencephalic Steroid Implantations On Acth Feedback Mechanisms. Endocrinology, 1965, 76, 811–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dallman, M. F., And Yates, F. E. Anatomical And Functional Mapping Of Central Neural Input And Feedback Pathways Of The Adrenocortical System. Memoirs Of The Society For Endocrinology, 1968, 17, 39–71.Google Scholar
  36. Davidson, J. M., And Feldman, S. Effects Of Extrahypothalamic Dexamethasone Implants On The Pituitary-Adrenal System. Acta Endocrinologica, 1967, 55, 240–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. De Wied, D. Influence Of Anterior Pituitary On Avoidance Learning And Escape Behavior. American Journal Of Physiology, 1964, 207, 255–259.Google Scholar
  38. De Wied, D. Inhibitory Effect Of Acth And Related Peptides On Extinction Of Conditioned Avoidance Behavior. Proceedings Of The Society For Experimental Biology And Medicine, 1966, 122, 28–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. De Wied, D. Opposite Effects Of Acth And Glucocorticosteroids On Extinction Of Conditioned Avoidance Behavior. Proceedings Of The Second International Congress On Hormonal Steroids. Excerpta Medica International Congress Series No. 132, 1967, Pp. 945–951.Google Scholar
  40. De Wied, D. Effects Of Peptide Hormones On Behavior. In W. F. Ganong And L. Martini (Eds.), Frontiers in neuroendocrinology, 1969. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969, pp. 97–140.Google Scholar
  41. De Wied, D., Bohus, B., And Greven, H. M. Influence Of Pituitary And Adrenocortical Hormones On Conditioned Avoidance Behavior In Rats. In R. P. Michael (Ed.), Endocrinology and human behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968, pp. 188–199.Google Scholar
  42. De Wied, D., Van Delft, A. M. L., Gispen, W. H., Weijnen, J. A. W. M., And Van Wimersma Grei-Danus, T. B. The Role Of Pituitary-Adrenal System Hormones In Active Avoidance Conditioning. In S. Levine (Ed.), Hormones and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 135–171.Google Scholar
  43. Douglas, R. J. The Hippocampus And Behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 1967, 67, 416–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dupont, A., Bastarache, E., Endroczi, E., And Fortier, C. Effect Of Hippocampal Stimulation On The Plasma Thyrotropin (TSH) and corticosterone responses to acute cold exposure in the rat. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 1972, 50, 364–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Elazar, Z., And Adey, W. R. Spectral Analysis Of Low Frequency Components In The Electrical Activity Of The Hippocampus During Learning. Electroencephalography And Clinical Neurophysiology, 1967, 23, 225–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Endroczi, E. Brain Stem And Hypothalamic Substrate Of Motivated Behaviour. In K. Lissak (Ed.), Results in neurophysiology, neuroendocrinology, neuropharmacology and behaviour. Vol. 2 of Recent developments of neurobiology in hungary. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1969, pp. 27–46.Google Scholar
  47. Endroczi, E. Limbic System, Learning And Pituitary-Adrenal Function. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1972, P. 154.Google Scholar
  48. Endroczi, E., And Lissak, K. The Role Of The Mesencephalon, Diencephalon And Archicortex In The Activation And Inhibition Of The Pituitary-Adrenocortical System. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1960, 17, 39–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Endroczi, E., And Lissak, K. Interrelations Between Paleocortical Activity And Pituitary-Adrenocortical Function. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1962, 21, 257–263.Google Scholar
  50. Endroczi, E., And Nyakas, C. Effect Of Septal Lesion On Exploratory Activity, Passive Avoidance Learning And Pituitaryadrenal Function In The Rat. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1971, 39, 351–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Endroczi, E., And Nyakas, C. Effect Of Corticosterone On Passive Avoidance Learning In The Rat. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1972, 41, 55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Endroczi, E., Lissak, K., Bohus, B., And Kovacs, S. The Inhibitory Influence Of Archicortical Structures On Pituitary-Adrenal Function. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1959, 16, 17–22.Google Scholar
  53. Endroczi, E., Lissak, K., And Tekeres, M. Hormonal “Feed-Back” Regulation Of Pituitary-Adrenocortical Activity. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1961, 18, 291–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Feldman, S. Convulsive Phenomena Produced By Intraventricular Administration Of Hydrocortisone In Cats. Epilepsia, 1966, 7, 271–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Feldman, S. Electrical Activity Of The Brain Following Cerebral Microinfusion Of Cortisol. Epilepsia, 1971, 12, 249–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Feldman, S. The Interaction Of Neural And Endocrine Factors Regulating Hypothalamic Activity. In A. Brodish And E. S. Redgate (Eds.), Brain-pituitary-adrenal interrelationships. Basel: Karger, 1973, pp. 224–238.Google Scholar
  57. Feldman, S., And Dafny, N. Effects Of Adrenocortical Hormones On The Electrical Activity Of The Brain. In D. De Wied And J. A. W. M. Weijnen (Eds.), Pituitary, adrenal and the brain. Vol. 32 of Progress in brain research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1970, pp. 90–100.Google Scholar
  58. Feldman, S., And Davidson, J. M. Effect Of Hydrocortisone On Electrical Activity, Arousal Thresholds And Evoked Potentials In The Brains Of Chronically Implanted Rabbits. Journal Of The Neurological Sciences, 1966, 3, 462–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fendler, K., Karmos, G., And Telegdy, G. The Effect Of Hippocampal Lesion On Pituitary-Adrenal Function. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1961, 20, 293–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Flexner, J. B., Flexner, L. B., And Stellar, E. Memory In Mice As Affected By Intracerebral Puromycin. Science, 1963, 141, 57–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fried, P. A. Septum And Behavior: A Review. Psychological Bulletin, 1972A, 78, 292–310.Google Scholar
  62. Fried, P. A. The Effect Of Differential Hippocampal Lesions And Pre-And Postoperative Training On Extinction. Canadian Journal Of Psychology, 19726, 26, 61–70.Google Scholar
  63. Fuxe, K., Hokfelt, T., Jonsson, G., Levine, S., Lidbrink, P., And Lofstrom, A. Brain And Pituitary-Adrenal Interactions: Studies On Central Monoamine Neurons. In A. Brodish And E. S. Redgate (Eds.), Brain-pituitary-adrenal interrelationships. Basel: Karger, 1973, pp. 239–269.Google Scholar
  64. Ganong, W. F. The Central Nervous System And The Synthesis And Release Of Acth. In A. V. Nalbandov (Ed.), Advances in neuroendocrinology. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1963, pp. 92–149.Google Scholar
  65. Garrud, P., Gray, J. A., And De Wied, D. Pituitary-Adrenal Hormones And Extinction Of Rewarded Behaviour In The Rat. Physiology And Behavior, 1974, 12, 109–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gerlach, J. L., And McEwen, B. S. Rat Brain Binds Adrenal Steroid Hormone: Radioautography Of Hippocampus With Corticosterone. Science, 1972, 175, 1133–1136.Google Scholar
  67. Glaser, G. H. On The Relationship Between Adrenal Cortical Activity And The Convulsive State. Epilepsia, 1953, 2, 7–14.Google Scholar
  68. Grant, L. D., And Jarrard, L. E. Functional Dissociation Within The Hippocampus. Brain Research, 1968, 10, 392–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Grastyan, E., Karmos, G., Vereczkey, L., And Kellenyi, L. The Hippocampal Electrical Correlates Of The Homeostatic Regulation Of Motivation. Electroencephalography And Clinical Neurophysiology, 1966, 21, 34–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gray, J. A. Effects Of Septal Driving Of The Hippocampal Theta Rhythm On Resistance To Extinction. Physiology And Behavior, 1972, 8, 481–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gray, J. A., And Ball, G. G. Frequency-Specific Relation Between Hippocampal Theta Rhythm, Behavior And Amobarbital Action. Science, 1970, 168, 1246–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gray, J. A., Mayes, A. R., And Wilson, M. A Barbiturate-Like Effect Of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone On The Partial Reinforcement Acquisition And Extinction Effects. Neuropharmacology, 1971, 10, 223–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Green, J. D. The Hippocampus. Physiological Reviews, 1964, 44, 561–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Green, J. D., And Arduini, A. Hippocampal Electrical Activity In Arousal. Journal Of Neurophysiology, 1954, 17, 533–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Guth, S., Levine, S., And Seward, J. P. Appetitive Acquisition And Extinction Effects With Exogenous Acth. Physiology And Behavior, 1971, 7, 195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Holdstock, T. L. Dissociation Of Function Within The Hippocampus. Physiology And Behavior, 1972, 8, 659–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hyden, H., And Lange, P. W. Protein Synthesis In Limbic Structures During Change In Behavior. Brain Research, 1970A, 22,423–425.Google Scholar
  78. Hyden, H., And Lange, P. W. S100 Brain Protein: Correlation With Behavior. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences U. S. A., 1970B, 67, 1959–1966.Google Scholar
  79. Hyden, H., And Lange, P. W. Protein Changes In Different Brain Areas As A Function Of Intermittent Training. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences U. S. A., 1972, 69, 1980–1984.Google Scholar
  80. Isaacson, R. L. Neural Systems Of The Limbic Brain And Behavioural Inhibition. In J. Halliday And R. Boakes (Eds.), Inhibition and learning. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 497–528.Google Scholar
  81. Isaacson, R. L. Memory Processes And The Hippocampus. In D. A. Deutsch And A. J. Deutsch (Eds.), Short-term memory. New York: Academic Press, 1975, in press.Google Scholar
  82. Isaacson, R. L., And Wickelgren, W. O. Hippocampal Ablation And Passive Avoidance. Science, 1962, 138, 1104–1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jarrard, L. E. The Hippocampus And Motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 79, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kastin, A. J., Miller, L. M., Nockton, R., Sandman, C. A., Schally, A. V., And Stratton, L. O. Behavioral Aspects Of Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH). In E. Zimmermann, W. H. Gispen, B. H. Marks, and D. de Wied (Eds.), Drug effects on neuroendocrine regulation. Vol. 39 of Progress in brain research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1973, pp. 461–470.Google Scholar
  85. Kawakami, M., Koshino, T., And Hattori, Y. Changes In The Eeg Of The Hypothalamus And Limbic System After Administration Of Acth, Su-4885 And Ach In Rabbits With Special Reference To Neurohumoral Feedback Regulation Of Pituitary-Adrenal System. Japanese Journal Of Physiology, 1966, 16, 551–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kawakami, M., Seto, K., Terasawa, E., Yoshida, K., Miyamoto, T., Sekiguchi, M., And Hattori, Y. Influence Of Electrical Stimulation And Lesion In Limbic Structure Upon Biosynthesis Of Adrenocorticoid In The Rabbit. Neuroendocrinology, 1968A, 3,337–348.Google Scholar
  87. Kawakami, M., Seto, K., And Yoshida, K. Influence Of Corticosterone Implantation In Limbic Structure Upon Biosynthesis Of Adrenocortical Steroid. Neuroendocrinology, 19686, 3,349–354.Google Scholar
  88. Kawakami, M., Seto, K., Yanase, M., And Mohri, M. A Role Of The Hippocampus In The Control Of Acth Secretion. Hormones, 1972, 3, 270–271.Google Scholar
  89. Kendall, J. W. Feedback Control Of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secretion. In L. Martini And W. F. Ga-Nong (Eds.), Frontiers in neuroendocrinology 1971. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971, pp. 177–207.Google Scholar
  90. Kimble, D. P. The Effects Of Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions In Rats. Journal Of Comparative And Physiological Psychology, 1963, 56, 273–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kimble, D. P. Hippocampus And Internal Inhibition. Psychological Bulletin, 1968, 70, 285–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kimura, D. Effects Of Selective Hippocampal Damage On Avoidance Behavior In The Rat. Canadian Journal Of Psychology, 1958, 12, 213–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Klemm, W. R. Effects Of Electrical Stimulation Of Brain Stem Reticular Formation On Hippocampal Theta Rhythm And Muscle Activity In Unanesthetized, Cervical-And Midbrain-Transected Rats. Brain Research, 1972, 41, 331–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Knigge, K. M. Adrenocortical Response To Immobilization In Rats With Lesion In Hippocampus And Amygdala. Federation Proceedings, 1961, 20, 185.Google Scholar
  95. Knigge, K. M. Feedback Mechanisms In Neural Control Of Adenohypophyseal Function: Effect Of Steroids Implanted In Amygdala And Hippocampus. Abstracts 2Nd International Congress On Hormonal Steroids. Excerpta Medica International Congress Series No. Ill, 1966, 208.Google Scholar
  96. Knigge, K. M., And Hays, M. Evidence Of Inhibitive Role Of Hippocampus In Neural Regulation Of Acth Release. Proceedings Of The Society For Experimented Biology And Medicine, 1964, 114, 67–69.Google Scholar
  97. Knizley, H., Jr. The Hippocampus And Septal Area As Primary Target Sites For Corticosterone. Journal Of Neurochemistry, 1972, 19, 2737–2745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Koranyi, L., And Endr6Czi, E. Influence Of Pituitary-Adrenocortical Hormones On Thalamocortical And Brain Stem Limbic Circuits. In D. De Wied And J. A. W. M. Weijnen (Eds.), Pituitary, adrenal and the brain. Vol. 32 of Progress in brain research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1970, pp. 120–130.Google Scholar
  99. Lanier, L. P., Van Hartesveldt, C., Weis, B. J., And Isaacson, R. L. Effects Of Differential Hippocampal Damage Upon Rhythmic And Stress-Induced Corticosterone Secretion In The Rat. Neuroendocri-Nology, 1975, In Press.Google Scholar
  100. Levine, S., Goldman, L., And Coover, G. D. Expectancy And The Pituitary-Adrenal System. In Physiology, Emotion And Psychosomatic Illness: Ciba Foundation Symposium 8 (new series). Amsterdam: Elsevier, Excerpta Medica, North Holland: Associated Scientific Publishers, 1972, pp. 281–296.Google Scholar
  101. Lissak, K., And Bohus, B. Pituitary Hormones And Avoidance Behavior Of The Rat. International Journal Of Psychobiology, 1972, 2, 103–115.Google Scholar
  102. Lissak, K., And Endroczi, E. Some Aspects Of The Effect Of Hippocampal Stimulation On The Endocrine System. In J. Cadilhac (Ed.), Physiologie de Vhippocampe. Coll. Int. CNRS, No. 107. Paris: Editions CNRS, 1962, pp. 463–473.Google Scholar
  103. Lissak, K., And Endroczi, E. Neuroendocrine Interrelationships And Behavioral Processes. In E. Bajusz And G. Jasmin (Eds.) Major problems in neuro endocrinology. Basel: Karger, 1964, pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  104. Maclean, P. D. Psychosomatic Disease And The “Visceral Brain”: Recent Developments Bearing On The Papez Theory Of Emotion. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1949, 11, 338–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Mangili, G., Motta, M., And Martini, L. Control Of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secretion. In L. Martini And W. F. Ganong (Eds.), Neuro endocrinology. New York: Academic Press, 1966, pp. 297–370.Google Scholar
  106. Mason, J. W. The Central Nervous Regulation Of Acth Secretion. In H. H. Jasper, L. D. Proctor, R. S. Knighton, W. C. Noshay, And R. T. Costello (Eds.), Reticular formation of the brain. Boston: Little, Brown, 1957, pp. 645–670.Google Scholar
  107. Mason, J. W. A Review Of Psychoendocrine Research On The Pituitary-Adrenal Cortical System. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1968, 30, 576–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mason, J. W. A Re-Evaluation Of The Concept Of “Non-Specificity” In Stress Theory. Journal Of Psychiatric Research, 1971, 8, 323–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. McEwen, B. S., And Wallach, G. Corticosterone Binding To Hippocampus: Nuclear And Cytosol Binding In Vitro. Brain Research, 1973, 57, 373–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. McEwen, B. S., And Weiss, J. M. The Uptake And Action Of Corticosterone: Regional And Subcellular Studies On Rat Brain. In D. De Wied And J. A. W. M. Weijnen (Eds.), Pituitary, adrenal and the brain. Vol. 32 of Progress in brain research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1970, pp. 200–212.Google Scholar
  111. McEwen, B. S., Weiss, J. M., And Schwartz, L. S. Uptake Of Corticosterone By Rat Brain And Its Concentration By Certain Limbic Structures. Brain Research, 1969, 16, 227–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. McEwen, B. S., Weiss, J. M., And Schwartz, L. S. Retention Of Corticosterone By Cell Nuclei From Brain Regions Of Adrenalectomized Rats. Brain Research, 1970, 17, 471–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. McEwen, B. S., Zigmond, R. E., And Gerlach, J. L. Sites Of Steroid Binding And Action In The Brain. In G. H. Bourne (Ed.), Structure and function of the nervous system. Vol. 5. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 205–291.Google Scholar
  114. McGowan, B. K., Hankins, W. G., And Garcia, J. Limbic Lesions And Control Of The Internal And External Environment. Behavioral Biology, 1972, 7, 841–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. McGowan-Sass, B. K. Differentiation Of Electrical Rhythms And Functional Specificity Of The Hippocampus Of The Rat. Physiology And Behavior, 1973, 11, 187–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Miller, R. E., And Ogawa, N. The Effect Of Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH) on avoidance conditioning in the adrenalectomized rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962, 55, 211–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Moberg, G. P., Scapagnini, U., De Groot, J., And Ganong, W. F. Effect Of Sectioning The Fornix On Diurnal Fluctuation In Plasma Corticosterone Levels In The Rat. Neuroendocrinology, 1971, 7, 11–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Nadel, L. Dorsal And Ventral Hippocampal Lesions And Behavior. Physiology And Behavior, 1968, 3, 891–900.Google Scholar
  119. Nakadate, G., And De Groot, J. Fornix Transsection And Adrenocortical Function In Rats. Anatomical Record, 1963, 145, 338.Google Scholar
  120. Newman-Taylor, A., Branch, B. J., Casady, R. L., And Turner, B. B. Septal Inhibition Of Pituitary-Adrenal Activity In Freely Behaving Rats. Endocrinology, 1973, 92, Suppl. A-81.Google Scholar
  121. Nyakas, C., And Endroczi, E. Effect Of Hippocampal Stimulation On The Establishment Of Conditioned Fear Response In Rat. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1970, 37, 281–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Olds, J. Learning And The Hippocampus. Revue Canadienne De Biologie, 1972, 31, Suppl. 215–238.Google Scholar
  123. Olton, D. S., And Isaacson, R. L. Hippocampal Lesions And Active Avoidance. Physiology And Behavior, 1968, 3, 719–724.Google Scholar
  124. Pagano, R. R., And Lovely, R. H. Diurnal Cycle And Acth Facilitation Of Shuttlebox Avoidance. Physiology And Behavior, 1972, 8, 721–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Papez, J. W. A Proposed Mechanism Of Emotion. Archives Of Neurology And Psychiatry, 1937, 38, 725–744.Google Scholar
  126. Pfaff, D. W., Silva, M. T. A., And Weiss, J. M. Telemetred Recording Of Hormone Effects On Hippocampal Neurons. Science, 1971, 172, 394–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Porter, R. W. The Central Nervous System And Stress-Induced Eosinopenia. Recent Progress In Hormone Research, 1954, 10, 1–27.Google Scholar
  128. Raisman, G. The Connections Of The Septum. Brain, 1966, 89, 317–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Raisman, G., Cowan, W. M., And Powell, T. P. S. The Extrinsic Afferent, Commissural And Association Fibers Of The Hippocampus. Brain, 1965, 88, 963–996.Google Scholar
  130. Raisman, G., Cowan, W. M., And Powell, T. P. S. An Experimental Analysis Of The Efferent Projection Of The Hippocampus. Brain, 1966, 89, 83–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Routtenberg, A. Hippocampal Correlates Of Consumatory And Observed Behavior. Physiology And Behavior, 1968, 3, 533–535.Google Scholar
  132. Rubin, R. T., Mandell, A. J., And Crandall, P. H. Corticosteroid Responses To Limbic Stimulation In Man: Localization Of Stimulus Sites. Science, 1966, 153, 767–768.Google Scholar
  133. Scapagnini, U., Moberg, G. P., Van Loon, G. R., De Groot, L., And Ganong, W. F. Relation Of Brain 5-Hydroxytryptamine Content To The Diurnal Variation In Plasma Corticosterone In The Rat. Neuroendocrinology, 1971, 7, 90–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Seggie, J., And Brown, G. M. Effect Of Dexamethasone On Affective Behavior And Adrenal Reactivity Following Septal Lesions In The Rat. Journal Of Comparative And Physiological Psychology, 1973, 83, 60–65.Google Scholar
  135. Seggie, J., Shaw, B., Uhlir, I., And Brown, G. M. Baseline, 24-Hour Plasma Corticosterone Rhythm In Normal, Sham-Operated And Septally-Lesioned Rats. Neuroendocrinology, 1974, 15, 51–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Selye, H. A Syndrome Produced By Diverse Nocuous Agents. Nature (London), 1936, 138, 32–33.Google Scholar
  137. Selye, H. Stress: The Physiology And Pathology Of Exposure To Stress. Montreal: Acta Medica Publication, 1950.Google Scholar
  138. Siegel, A., And Tassoni, J. P. Differential Efferent Projections From The Ventral And Dorsal Hippocampus Of The Cat. Brain, Behavior And Evolution, 1971A, 4, 185–200.Google Scholar
  139. Siegel, A., And Tassoni, J. P. Differential Efferent Projections Of The Lateral And Medial Septal Nuclei To The Hippocampus In The Cat. Brain, Behavior And Evolution, 19716, 4,201–219.Google Scholar
  140. Slusher, M. A. Effects Of Cortisol Implants In The Brainstem And Ventral Hippocampus On Diurnal Corticosteroid Levels. Experimental Brain Research, 1966, 1, 184–194.Google Scholar
  141. Stevens, W., Grosser, B. I., And Reed, D. J. Corticosterone-Binding Molecules In Rat Brain Cytosols: Regional Distribution. Brain Research, 1971, 35, 602–607.Google Scholar
  142. Stone, C. P., And King, F. A. Effects Of Hypophysectomy On Behavior In Rats. I. Preliminary Survey. Journal Of Comparative And Physiological Psychology, 1954, 47, 213–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Stone, C. P., And Obias, M. D. Effects Of Hypophysectomy On Behavior In Rats. Ii. Maze And Discrimination Learning. Journal Of Comparative And Physiological Psychology, 1955, 48, 404–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Streifler, M., And Feldman, S. On The Effect Of Cortisone On The Electroencephalogram, Confinia Neu-Rologica, 1953, 13, 16–27.Google Scholar
  145. Stumpf, C. Drug Action On The Electrical Activity Of The Hippocampus. International Review Of Neurobiology, 1965, 8, 77–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Stumpf, W. E. Autoradiographic Techniques And The Localization Of Estrogen, Androgen And Glucocorticoid In The Pituitary And Brain. American Zoologist, 1971, 11, 725–739.Google Scholar
  147. Taylor, A. N., Branch, B. J., Casady, R. L., And Turner, B. B. Septal Inhibition Of Pituitary-Adrenal Activity In Freely Behaving Rats. Endocrinology, 1973, 92, Suppl. A-81.Google Scholar
  148. Uhlir, I., Seggie, J., And Brown, G. M. The Effect Of Septal Lesions On The Threshold Of Adrenal Stress Responst. Neuroendocrinology, 1974, 14, 351–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Urban, I., And De Wied, D. Changes In Excitability In The Theta Activity Generating Substrate By Acth 4–10 In The Rat. Brain Research, 1975, Submitted.Google Scholar
  150. Urban, I., Lopes Da Silva, F. H., Storm Van Leeuwen, W., And De Wied, D. A Frequency Shift In The Hippocampal Theta Activity: An Electrical Correlate Of Central Action Of Acth Analogues In The Dog? Brain Research, 1974, 69, 361–365.Google Scholar
  151. Usher, D. R., And Lamble, R. W. Acth Synthesis And Release In Septal-Lesioned Rats Exposed To Air Shut-Tie-Avoidance. Physiology And Behavior, 1969, 4, 923–927.Google Scholar
  152. Usher, D. R., Kasper, P., And Birmingham, M. K. Comparison Of Pituitary-Adrenal Function In Rats Le-Sioned In Different Areas Of The Limbic System And Hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology, 1967, 2, 157–174.Google Scholar
  153. Usher, D. R., Lieblich, I., And Siegel, R. A. Pituitary-Adrenal Function After Small And Large Lesions In The Lateral Septal Area In Food-Deprived Rats. Neuroendocrinology, 1974, 16, 156–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Vanderwolf, C. H. Hippocampal Electrical Activity And Voluntary Movement In The Rat. Electroencephalography And Clinical Neurophysiology, 1969, 26, 407–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Vanderwolf, C. H. Limbic-Diencephalic Mechanisms Of Voluntary Movement. Psychological Reviews, 1971, 78, 83–113.Google Scholar
  156. Van Hoesen, G. W., Wilson, L. M., Macdougall, J. M., And Mitchell, J. C. Selective Hippocampal Complex Deafferentation And Deefferentation And Avoidance Behavior In Rats. Physiology And Behavior, 1972, 8, 873–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Van Wimersma Greidanus, T. B., And De Wied, D. Effects Of Intracerebral Implantation Of Corticosteroids On Extinction Of An Avoidance Response In Rats. Physiology And Behavior, 1969, 4, 365–370.Google Scholar
  158. Van Wimersma Greidanus, T. B., And De Wied, D. Effects Of Systemic And Intracerebral Administration Of Two Opposite Acting Acth-Related Peptides On Extinction Of Conditioned Avoidance Behavior. Neuroendocrinology, 1971, 7, 291–301.Google Scholar
  159. Van Wimersma Greidanus, T. B., Bohus, B., And De Wied, D. Differential Localization Of The Behavioral Effects Of Lysine Vasopressin And Of Acth 4–10: A Study In Rats Bearing Lesions In The Parafascicular Nuclei. Neuroendocrinology, 1974, 14, 280–288.Google Scholar
  160. Vardaris, R. M., And Schwartz, K. E. Retrograde Amnesia For Passive Avoidance Produced By Stimulation Of Dorsal Hippocampus. Physiology And Behavior, 1971, 6, 131–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Vernikos-Danellis, J., Berger, P., And Barchas, J. D. Brain Serotonin And Pituitary-Adrenal Function. In E. Zimmermann, W. H. Gispen, B. H. Marks, And D. De Wied (Eds.), Drug effects on neuroendocrine regulation. Vol. 39 of Progress in brain research. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1973, pp. 301–310.Google Scholar
  162. Weiss, J. M., McEwen, B. S., Silva, M. T., And Kalkut, M. Pituitary-Adrenal Alterations And Fear Responding. American Journal Of Physiology, 1970, 218, 864–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Wilson, M. And Critchlow, V. Effects Of Septal Lesions On Rhythmic Pituitary-Adrenal Function. Federation Proceedings, 1973, 32, 296.Google Scholar
  164. Wilson, M., And Critchlow, V. Effect Of Fornix Transection Or Hippocampectomy On Rhythmic Pituitary-Adrenal Function In The Rat. Neuroendocrinology, 1973/1974, 13,29–40.Google Scholar
  165. Wilson, M., And Critchlow, V. Effect Of Septal Ablation On Rhythmic Pituitary-Adrenal Function In The Rat. Neuroendocrinology, 1974, 14, 333–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Woodbury, D. M., Timiras, P. S., And Vernadakis, A. Influence Of Adrenocortical Steroids On Brain Function And Metabolism. In H. Hoagland (Ed.), Hormones, brain function, and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1957, pp. 27–54.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Béla Bohus
    • 1
  1. 1.Rudolf Magnus Institute for Pharmacology, Medical FacultyUniversity of UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations